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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774557/diabetes-induced-microvascular-complications-at-the-level-of-the-spinal-cord-a-contributing-factor-in-diabetic-neuropathic-pain
#1
N Ved, M E Da Vitoria Lobo, S M Bestall, C L Vidueira, N Beazley-Long, K Ballmer-Hofer, M Hirashima, D O Bates, L F Donaldson, R P Hulse
Abnormalities of neurovascular interactions within the central nervous system of diabetic patients is associated with the onset of many neurological disease states. However, to date, the link between the neurovascular network within the spinal cord and regulation of nociception has not been investigated despite neuropathic pain being common in diabetes. We hypothesised that hyperglycaemia-induced endothelial degeneration in the spinal cord, due to suppression of VEGF-A/VEGFR2 signalling, induces diabetic neuropathic pain...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774532/the-fetus-at-the-tipping-point-modifying-the-outcome-of-fetal-asphyxia
#2
Simerdeep K Dhillon, Christopher A Lear, Robert Galinsky, Guido Wassink, Joanne O Davidson, Sandra Juul, Nicola J Robertson, Alistair J Gunn, Laura Bennet
Brain injury around birth is associated with nearly half of all cases of cerebral palsy. Although brain injury is multifactorial, particularly after preterm birth, acute hypoxia-ischaemia is a major contributor to injury. It is now well established that the severity of injury after HI is determined by a dynamic balance between injurious and protective processes. In addition, mothers who are at risk of premature delivery have high rates of diabetes and antepartum infection/inflammation and are almost universally given treatments such as antenatal glucocorticoids and magnesium sulphate to reduce the risk of death and complications after preterm birth...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755552/efficacy-of-alpha-glucosidase-inhibitor-from-marine-actinobacterium-in-the-control-of-postprandial-hyperglycaemia-in-streptozotocin-stz-induced-diabetic-male-albino-wister-rats
#3
S R Sathish Kumar, K V Bhaskara Rao
The current study was carried out to evaluate the in-vitro and in-vivo efficiency of alpha glucosidase inhibitor of marine actinobacteria in the control of postprandial hyperglycaemia. Soil samples were collected from salterns, coastal area in Kothapatnam, Ongole, Andhra Pradesh, India. Among the actinobacterial isolates tested for yeastα-glucosidase inhibitory activity, only three isolates showed prominent inhibition. The patient isolate was selected and identified as Streptomyces coelicoflavus SRBVIT13 using 16S r-RNA gene sequencing...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753624/a-critical-review-and-analysis-of-ethical-issues-associated-with-the-artificial-pancreas
#4
REVIEW
A Quintal, V Messier, R Rabasa-Lhoret, E Racine
The artificial pancreas combines a hormone infusion pump with a continuous glucose ontinuous glucose monitoring, supported by a dosing algorithm currently installed on the pump. It allows for dynamic infusions of insulin (and possibly other hormones such as glucagon) tailored to patient needs. For patients with type 1 diabetes the artificial pancreas has been shown to prevent more effectively hypoglycaemic events and hyperglycaemia than insulin pump therapy and has the potential to simplify care. However, the potential ethical issues associated with the upcoming integration of the artificial pancreas into clinical practice have not yet been discussed...
April 25, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749426/-corrigendum-protective-effect-of-angiotensin%C3%A2-1%C3%A2-7-against-hyperglycaemia%C3%A2-induced-injury-in-h9c2-cardiomyoblast-cells-via-the-pi3k%C3%AC-akt-signaling-pathway
#5
Yi-Ying Yang, Xiu-Ting Sun, Zheng-Xun Li, Wei-Yan Chen, Xiang Wang, Mei-Ling Liang, Hui Shi, Zhi-Sheng Yang, Wu-Tao Zeng
Subsequently to the publication of this article, the authors have realized that an address affiliation associated with certain of the authors had been omitted. The authors' affiliation information should have appeared as follows (the omitted address affiliation is featured in bold): Yi‑Ying Yang1,2*, Xiu‑Ting Sun1,2*, Zheng‑Xun Li1,2, Wei‑Yan Chen3, Xiang Wang4, Mei‑Ling Liang5, Hui Shi1,2, Zhi‑Sheng Yang1,2 and Wu‑Tao Zeng1,2 1Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat‑Sen University; 2Key Laboratory on Assisted Circulation, Ministry of Health, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080; 3Intensive Care Unit, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510260; 4Department of Cardiology, Laiwu City People's Hospital, Laiwu, Shandong 27110; 5Department of Cardiology, Sun Yat‑Sen Cardiovascular Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518020, P...
May 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744905/insulin-resistance-and-sex-hormone-binding-globulin-are-independently-correlated-with-low-free-testosterone-levels-in-obese-males
#6
P Souteiro, S Belo, S C Oliveira, J S Neves, D Magalhães, J Pedro, R Bettencourt-Silva, M M Costa, A Varela, J Queirós, P Freitas, D Carvalho
Male obesity is associated with decreased testosterone levels but the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this association are not completely understood. This study aimed to investigate the impact of hyperglycaemia/insulin resistance and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels on testosterone levels in a population of obese men. We investigated the impact of several clinical, anthropometric and analytic measures on testosterone levels in 150 obese males. Testosterone deficiency was present in 52.0% of the enrolled patients...
May 9, 2018: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743321/identical-anthropometric-characteristics-of-impaired-fasting-glucose-combined-with-impaired-glucose-tolerance-and-newly-diagnosed-type-2-diabetes-anthropometric-indicators-to-predict-hyperglycaemia-in-a-community-based-prospective-cohort-study-in-southwest
#7
Fang Zhang, Qin Wan, Hongyi Cao, Lizhi Tang, Daigang Li, Qingguo Lü, Zhe Yan, Jing Li, Qiu Yang, Yuwei Zhang, Nanwei Tong
OBJECTIVES: To assess the anthropometric characteristics of normoglycaemic individuals who subsequently developed hyperglycaemia, and to evaluate the validity of these measures to predict prediabetes and diabetes. DESIGN: A community-based prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: In total, 1885 residents with euglycaemia at baseline from six communities were enrolled. SETTING: Sichuan, southwest China. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The incidences of prediabetes and diabetes were the primary outcomes...
May 9, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743097/changes-in-energy-metabolism-and-levels-of-stress-related-hormones-and-electrolytes-in-horses-after-intravenous-administration-of-romifidine-and-the-peripheral-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-antagonist-vatinoxan
#8
Soile Anja Eliisa Pakkanen, Annemarie de Vries, Marja Riitta Raekallio, Anna Kristina Mykkänen, Mari Johanna Palviainen, Satu Marja Sankari, Outi Maritta Vainio
BACKGROUND: Romifidine, an α-2 adrenoceptor agonist, is a widely-used sedative in equine medicine. Besides the desired sedative and analgesic actions, α-2 adrenoceptor agonists have side effects like alterations of plasma concentrations of glucose and certain stress-related hormones and metabolites in various species. Vatinoxan (previously known as MK-467), in turn, is an antagonist of α-2 adrenoceptors. Because vatinoxan does not cross the blood brain barrier in significant amounts, it has only minor effect on sedation induced by α-2 adrenoceptor agonists...
May 9, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735266/neuraminidase-1-activates-insulin-receptor-and-reverses-insulin-resistance-in-obese-mice
#9
Anne Fougerat, Xuefang Pan, Victoria Smutova, Nikolaus Heveker, Christopher W Cairo, Tarik Issad, Bruno Larrivée, Jeffrey A Medin, Alexey V Pshezhetsky
OBJECTIVES: Neuraminidase 1 (NEU1) cleaves terminal sialic acids of glycoconjugates during lysosomal catabolism. It also modulates the structure and activity of cellular surface receptors affecting diverse pathways. Previously we demonstrated that NEU1 activates the insulin receptor (IR) and that NEU1-deficient CathAS190A-Neo mice (hypomorph of the NEU1 activator protein, cathepsin A/CathA) on a high-fat diet (HFD) develop hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance faster than wild-type animals...
April 21, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732161/rapid-onset-diabetic-ketoacidosis-secondary-to-nivolumab-therapy
#10
Senhong Lee, Aparna Morgan, Sonali Shah, Peter R Ebeling
We report a case of a 67-year-old man with type 2 diabetes presented with diabetic ketoacidosis, two weeks after his first dose of nivolumab therapy for non-small-cell lung carcinoma. He was started on empagliflozin two days prior in the setting of hyperglycaemia after the initiation of nivolumab therapy. Laboratory evaluation revealed an undetectable C-peptide and a positive anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibody. He was treated with intravenous fluids and insulin infusion and was subsequently transitioned to subcutaneous insulin and discharged home...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731929/cigarette-smoking-and-hyperglycaemia-in-diabetic-patients
#11
Mutiara Indah Sari, Nisrina Sari, Dewi Masyithah Darlan, Raka Jati Prasetya
BACKGROUND: The incidence rate of diabetes mellitus has increased throughout the year. Various studies indicate that smoking may affect glucose metabolism and cause hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to compare the blood glucose and HbA1c level in diabetic smoking patients and non-smoking diabetic patients. METHODS: This study used the cross-sectional approach. The study population consisted of 30 diabetic smoking patients and 30 non-smoking diabetic patients...
April 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729427/the-osteoblast-linking-glucocorticoid-induced-osteoporosis-and-hyperglycaemia-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#12
Erik J M van Bommel, Renate T de Jongh, Myrte Brands, Annemieke C Heijboer, Martin den Heijer, Mireille J Serlie, Daniel H van Raalte
HYPOTHESIS: Glucocorticoids (GCs) induce osteoporosis predominantly by inhibiting osteoblast activity. We hypothesised that osteoblastic factors could also be linked to GC-induced adverse metabolic effects. METHODS: We performed a post-hoc analysis of a randomised, placebo-controlled, double blind, dose-response intervention study involving 32 healthy males (age: 22 ± 3 years; BMI 22.4 ± 1.7 kg/m2 ) who were allocated to prednisolone (PRED) 7.5 mg once daily (n = 12), PRED 30 mg once daily (n = 12), or placebo (n = 8) for two weeks using block randomisation...
May 3, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728598/glucagon-like-peptide-1-in-health-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
Andreas Andersen, Asger Lund, Filip K Knop, Tina Vilsbøll
In healthy individuals, the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) potentiates insulin release and suppresses glucagon secretion in response to the ingestion of nutrients. GLP1 also delays gastric emptying and increases satiety. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), supraphysiological doses of GLP1 normalize the endogenous insulin response during a hyperglycaemic clamp. Owing to the short plasma half-life of native GLP1, several GLP1 receptor agonists (GLP1RAs) with longer half-lives have been developed for the treatment of T2DM...
May 4, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723218/associations-between-retinal-arteriolar-and-venular-calibre-with-the-prevalence-of-impaired-fasting-glucose-and-diabetes-mellitus-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Kevin Phan, Paul Mitchell, Gerald Liew, Adam J Plant, Sarah B Wang, Aravinda Thiagalingam, George Burlutsky, Bamini Gopinath
BACKGROUND: This study aims to explore retinal vessel calibre in individuals at risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), diagnosed with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or diabetes mellitus (DM), and whether indices of CAD extent and severity modifies these associations with DM. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken of 1680 patients presenting to Westmead Hospital (Sydney, Australia) for evaluation of potential CAD. Baseline digital retinal photographs, cardiovascular risk factor measurements, fasting blood tests and self-reported diabetes by patient questionnaire was recorded...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720683/characterisation-of-lamp2-deficient-rats-for-potential-new-animal-model-of-danon-disease
#15
Shuoyi Ma, Miao Zhang, Shuai Zhang, Jing Wang, Xia Zhou, Guanya Guo, Lu Wang, Min Wang, Zhengwu Peng, Changcun Guo, Xiaohong Zheng, Xinmin Zhou, Jingbo Wang, Ying Han
Danon disease (DD) is caused by the absence or malfunction of lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2). Although Lamp2-deficient mice and DD patients have similar characteristics, these mice have clear limitations and are clinically inconsistent. The aim of our paper is to outline the characteristics of Lamp2-deficient rats and to contrast this model with currently available DD mouse models. The baseline levels of some serum enzymes were elevated in Lamp2y/- rats along with hypercholesterolemia and hyperglycaemia at 8 weeks...
May 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720341/-glucocorticoid-induced-diabetes-and-risk-factors-during-high-dose-therapy
#16
Dustin Andersen Patel, Peter Lommer Kristensen, Ulrik Pedersen-Bjergaard, Helga Holm Schultz
This review describes the cumulative incidence (CI) and risk factors of glucocorticoid (GC)-induced diabetes in patients commencing high-dose GC therapy: ≥ 30 mg prednisolone/day. Finally, methods of screening are discussed. In 13 studies, the CI of GC-induced diabetes ranges 12-65%, but with the current diagnostic criteria the CI is assessed to be 30-50%. Risk factors may include high age and high levels of BMI and glycated haemoglobin, respectively, before GC therapy. It is important to acknowledge, that hyperglycaemia in GC therapy is more prevalent postprandially, and screening should be planned accordingly...
April 30, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720336/hypothyroidism-affects-lipid-and-glycogen-content-and-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-expression-in-the-ovary-of-the-rabbit
#17
Julia Rodríguez-Castelán, Maribel Méndez-Tepepa, Jorge Rodríguez-Antolín, Francisco Castelán, Estela Cuevas-Romero
Dyslipidaemia and hyperglycaemia are associated with ovarian failure and both have been related to hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism promotes anovulation and ovarian cysts in women and reduces the size of follicles and the expression of aromatase in the ovary of rabbits. Considering that ovarian steroidogenesis and ovulation depend on lipid metabolism and signalling, the aim of the present study was to analyse the effect of hypothyroidism on the lipid content and expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) δ in the ovary...
May 3, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718371/metabolic-syndrome-and-its-components-in-southern-kazakhstan-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Assel Sadykova, Zhanar S Shalkharova, Zhanat N Shalkharova, Karlygash Sadykova, Kamshat Madenbay, Mira Zhunissova, Gulnaz Nuskabayeva, Saltanat Askarova, Andrej M Grjibovski
Background: The study aimed to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in southern Kazakhstan. Methods: A total of 965 adults, ages 20-74 y, participated in a cross-sectional study. MetS was defined using National Education Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP), American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Social variations in the prevalence of components of MetS were assessed using Poisson regression...
April 27, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717705/-handling-of-hypermetabolism-in-major-burn-injuries
#19
Kaveh Borhani-Khomani, Martin Risom Vestergaard, Rikke Holmgaard
Multitrauma, critical illness and major burn injuries give rise to a stress response with a consequential increase in resting energy expenditure. Especially for burn trauma patients, this stress response is severe and prolonged and may cause a reduced lean muscle mass, loss of peripheral fatty tissue, hyperglycaemia and stress-induced diabetes. This review provides an overview of current strategies to attenuate the hypermetabolic stress response in order to improve the clinical outcome for these patients.
April 23, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704611/functional-characterization-of-mody2-mutations-in-the-nuclear-export-signal-of-glucokinase
#20
Angel Gutierrez-Nogués, Carmen-María García-Herrero, Josep Oriola, Olivier Vincent, María-Angeles Navas
Glucokinase (GCK) plays a key role in glucose homeostasis. Heterozygous inactivating mutations in the GCK gene cause the familial, mild fasting hyperglycaemia named MODY2. Besides its particular kinetic characteristics, glucokinase is regulated by subcellular compartmentation in hepatocytes. Glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) binds to GCK, leading to enzyme inhibition and import into the nucleus at fasting. When glucose concentration increases, GCK-GKRP dissociates and GCK is exported to the cytosol due to a nuclear export signal (NES)...
July 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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