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Hyperglycaemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149816/maternal-dyslipidaemia-in-pregnancy-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-possible-impact-in-the-foetoplacental-vascular-function-and-the-lipoprotein-in-the-neonatal-circulation
#1
Susana Contreras-Duarte, Lorena Carvajal, Barbara Fuenzalida, Claudette Cantin, Luis Sobrevia, Andrea Leiva
Dyslipidaemia occurs in pregnancy to secure foetal development. The mother shows a physiological increase in plasma total cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) as pregnancy progresses (i.e. maternal physiological dyslipidaemia in pregnancy). However, in some women pregnancy-associated dyslipidaemia exceeds this physiological adaptation. The consequences of this condition on the developing foetus include endothelial dysfunction of the foetoplacental vasculature and development of foetal aortic atherosclerosis. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) associates with abnormal function of the foetoplacental vasculature due to foetal hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia, and associates with development of cardiovascular disease in adulthood...
November 16, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148563/evaluation-of-the-nz-guidelines-for-screening-for-persistent-postpartum-hyperglycaemia-following-gestational-diabetes
#2
Ruth C E Hughes, Chris Florkowski, Joanna E Gullam
BACKGROUND: Recent New Zealand guidelines recommend annual glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) measurements from three months postpartum, replacing the glucose tolerance test (GTT) at six weeks, to screen for persistent hyperglycaemia following gestational diabetes. Data suggest that this screening approach may miss cases of type 2 diabetes, but are they detected at subsequent screening and will screening rates improve? AIMS: Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of HbA1c monitoring in improving screening rates following gestational diabetes and in detecting postpartum hyperglycaemia...
November 17, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143549/negative-impact-of-hyperglycaemia-on-mouse-alveolar-development
#3
Mei-Yao He, Guang Wang, Sha-Sha Han, Ke Li, Ya Jin, Meng Liu, Zhen-Peng Si, Ju Wang, Guo-Sheng Liu, Xuesong Yang
Diabetes mellitus in pregnancy has been known to affect the embryonic development of various systems, including cardiovascular and nervous systems. However, whether this disease could have a negative impact on embryonic respiratory system remains controversial. In this study, we demonstrated that pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM)-induced defects in lung development in mice are mainly characterized by the changes in the morphological structure of the lung. Immunostaining and Western blotting showed that proliferation increased and apoptosis decreased in PGDM...
November 16, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142393/investigation-of-antihyperglycaemic-activity-of-banana-musa-sp-var-nanjangud-rasa-bale-flower-in-normal-and-diabetic-rats
#4
Ramith Ramu, Prithvi S Shirahatti, S P Dhanabal, Farhan Zameer, B L Dhananjaya, M N Nagendra Prasad
Background: The vital enzymes of starch digestion and absorption are intestinal α-glucosidases and their inhibition improves postprandial hyperglycaemia, constituting an effective mode of therapy in diabetes. Objectives: The present study was designed to assess the inhibitory potential of ethanol extract of banana flower (EF) on mammalian α-glucosidases and its pharmacological effects on postprandial hyperglycaemia in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: EF was evaluated for its inhibitory potential and mode of inhibition on mammalian α-glucosidases...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135535/blood-glucose-concentrations-in-prehospital-trauma-patients-with-traumatic-shock-a-retrospective-analysis
#5
Janett Kreutziger, Wolfgang Lederer, Stefan Schmid, Hanno Ulmer, Volker Wenzel, Maarten W Nijsten, Daniel Werner, Thomas Schlechtriemen
BACKGROUND: Deranged glucose metabolism after moderate to severe trauma with either high or low concentrations of blood glucose is associated with poorer outcome. Data on prehospital blood glucose concentrations and trauma are scarce. OBJECTIVES: The primary aim was to describe the relationship between traumatic shock and prehospital blood glucose concentrations. The secondary aim was to determine the additional predictive value of prehospital blood glucose concentration for traumatic shock when compared with vital parameters alone...
November 11, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134973/effect-of-cortisol-on-plasma-lactate-levels-following-cortisolinduced-hyperglycaemia-in-common-african-toad-bufo-regularis
#6
G O Isehunwa, O T Oladun, J E Akpan, A R A Alada
Previous studies in man have shown that cortisol induces hyperglycemia through gluconeogenesis. However,the metabolic substrates involved in cortisol-induced hyperglycemia and the role of adrenergic receptors in lactate productionin toads have not been well studied. This study investigated the effects of adrenergic receptor blockers in cortisol-inducedhyperglycemia and blood lactate levels in the common African toad (Bufo regularis). Each toad was fasted and anaesthetizedwith sodium thiopentone given intraperitoneally (50mg/kg/i...
June 30, 2017: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134442/endothelial-tnf-%C3%AE-induction-by-hsp60-secreted-from-thp-1-monocytes-exposed-to-hyperglycaemic-conditions
#7
Ryan Dennis Martinus, Julie Goldsbury
A non-resolving inflammation of the endothelium is recognised to be an important process leading to atherosclerosis. In diabetes, this process is thought to account for a significant number of cardiovascular disease-associated death and disability. However, the molecular mechanisms by which diabetes contributes to endothelial inflammation remain to be established. Whilst there is some evidence linking hyperglycaemia-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation by the mitochondrial electron-transport chain to oxidative stress, cellular injury and apoptosis in the endothelium, a clear link to endothelium inflammation has not yet been established...
November 13, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133202/glycated-haemoglobin-is-increased-in-critically-ill-patients-with-stress-hyperglycaemia-implications-for-risk-of-diabetes-in-survivors-of-critical-illness
#8
Yang T Du, Palash Kar, Yasmine Ali Abdelhamid, Michael Horowitz, Adam M Deane
It remains uncertain if stress hyperglycaemia (SH) indicates a long-term predisposition to the development of type 2 diabetes. We conducted a retrospective observational study in critically ill patients and found SH to be associated with an increased HbA1c, which may indicate an increased risk of type 2 diabetes.
November 11, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132842/-a-comparison-of-post-surgical-plasma-glucose-levels-in-patients-on-fluids-with-different-glucose-concentrations
#9
Isabel Martínez Carapeto, José Domingo López Castilla, Reyes Fresneda Gutiérrez
OBJECTIVE: To compare plasma glucose levels and incidence of hyperglycaemia in the post-operative period after general surgery using fluids with different glucose. METHODOLOGY: A randomised, open-label, non-blind, clinical trial was conducted on patients admitted to Paediatric Intensive Care Unit after elective surgery. The inclusion criteria were from 6 months to 14 years of age, with a weight greater than 6kg, onset glucose level >60mg/dL, and a signed informed consent, with no oral intake and maintenance intravenous fluid therapy using fluids with 3...
November 11, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129636/inflammation-mediated-muscle-metabolic-dysregulation-local-and-remote-to-the-site-of-major-abdominal-surgery
#10
Krishna K Varadhan, Dumitru Constantin-Teodosiu, Despina Constantin, Paul L Greenhaff, Dileep N Lobo
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Postoperative hyperglycaemia is common in patients having major surgery and is associated with adverse outcomes. This study aimed to determine whether bacteraemia contributed to postoperative systemic inflammation, and whether increases in the expression of muscle mRNAs and proteins reflecting increased muscle inflammation, atrophy and impaired carbohydrate oxidation were evident at the time of surgery, and both local and distant to the site of trauma, and could be associated with impaired glucoregulation...
November 2, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110177/role-of-protein-carbonylation-in-diabetes
#11
Markus Hecker, Andreas H Wagner
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by, among others, elevated blood glucose levels. Hyperglycaemia as well as enhanced levels of glucose-derived reactive metabolites contribute to the development of diabetic complications partly via increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS are not only part of signaling pathways themselves but also lead to carbonylation of particular amino acid side chains by direct metal-catalyzed oxidation. In addition, carbonyl groups can be introduced into proteins indirectly by non-oxidative covalent adduction of reactive carbonyl species generated by the oxidation of lipids or carbohydrates...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109303/insulin-resistance-and-reduced-metabolic-flexibility-cause-or-consequence-of-nafld
#12
EDITORIAL
Amalia Gastaldelli
Whether non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) precedes insulin resistance (IR) or IR preludes/causes NAFLD has been long debated. Recent studies have shown that there are two phenotypes of NAFLD, 'genetic' vs 'metabolic' NAFLD. The former patients are more at risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and chronic liver disease the latter are more IR and at increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Even if they are not yet diabetics, from a metabolic point of view having NAFLD is equivalent to T2D with reduced peripheral glucose disposal and impaired suppression of hepatic glucose production, but without fasting hyperglycaemia...
November 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106558/anthropometric-and-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-in-parents-and-child-obesity-in-segamat-malaysia
#13
Uttara Partap, Elizabeth H Young, Pascale Allotey, Manjinder S Sandhu, Daniel D Reidpath
Background: There is little evidence regarding risk factors for child obesity in Asian populations, including the role of parental anthropometric and cardiometabolic risk factors. We examined the relation between parental risk factors and child obesity in a Malaysian population. Methods: We used data from health and demographic surveillance conducted by the South East Asia Community Observatory in Segamat, Malaysia. Analyses included 9207 individuals (4806 children, 2570 mothers and 1831 fathers)...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106036/inhibition-of-mitochondrial-complex-i-improves-glucose-metabolism-independently-of-ampk-activation
#14
Wo-Lin Hou, Jun Yin, Miriayi Alimujiang, Xue-Ying Yu, Li-Gen Ai, Yu-Qian Bao, Fang Liu, Wei-Ping Jia
Accumulating evidences showed metformin and berberine, well-known glucose-lowering agents, were able to inhibit mitochondrial electron transport chain at complex I. In this study, we aimed to explore the antihyperglycaemic effect of complex I inhibition. Rotenone, amobarbital and gene silence of NDUFA13 were used to inhibit complex I. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test were performed in db/db mice. Lactate release and glucose consumption were measured to investigate glucose metabolism in HepG2 hepatocytes and C2C12 myotubes...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096965/stress-anger-and-mediterranean-diet-as-predictors-of-metabolic-syndrome
#15
Jaqueline Garcia-Silva, Nuria Navarrete Navarrete, Ana Ruano Rodríguez, María Isabel Peralta-Ramírez, Juan Diego Mediavilla García, Vicente E Caballo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic conditions that include abdominal obesity, reduction in cholesterol concentrations linked to high density lipoproteins (HLDc), elevated triglycerides, increased blood pressure and hyperglycaemia. Given that this is a multicausal disease, the aim of this study is to identify the psychological, emotional and lifestyle variables that can have an influence on the different MetS components. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study with 103 patients with diagnostic criteria for MetS (47 male and 56 female)...
October 30, 2017: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094753/antenatal-haemoglobin-a1c-centiles-does-one-size-fit-all
#16
Ruth C E Hughes, Jonathan A Williman, Joanna E Gullam
BACKGROUND: In New Zealand, haemoglobin A1c measurements are routinely offered at booking, preferably before 20 weeks gestation, to detect pre-existing hyperglycaemia. A haemoglobin A1c <5.9% (41 mmol/mol) is considered normal based on the reference range for the non-pregnant population. AIMS: To determine pregnancy-specific haemoglobin A1c centiles by gestation and ethnicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a population-based observational study of pregnancies uncomplicated by diabetes (pre-existing or gestational) with ≥1 haemoglobin A1c measurement...
November 2, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094528/care-of-older-people-with-diabetes
#17
Trisha Dunning
The global population is ageing, and increasingly developing long-term conditions and comorbidities associated with functional changes, reduced quality of life and reduced life expectancy. Diabetes mellitus is a common long-term condition in older people, with many individuals experiencing microvascular and/or macrovascular complications, alongside frailty and dementia. Symptoms of conditions such as hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia may change as a result of older age and long duration of, and complications associated with, diabetes; therefore, such symptoms can be challenging to recognise in older people...
September 13, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081883/diabetes-related-induction-of-the-heme-oxygenase-system-and-enhanced-colocalization-of-heme-oxygenase-1-and-2-with-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-myenteric-neurons-of-different-intestinal-segments
#18
Lalitha Chandrakumar, Mária Bagyánszki, Zita Szalai, Diána Mezei, Nikolett Bódi
Increase in hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress and decreased effectiveness of endogenous defense mechanisms plays an essential role in the initiation of diabetes-related neuropathy. We demonstrated that nitrergic myenteric neurons display different susceptibilities to diabetic damage in different gut segments. Therefore, we aim to reveal the gut segment-specific differences in the expression of heme oxygenase (HO) isoforms and the colocalization of these antioxidants with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in myenteric neurons...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077869/dolutegravir-induced-hyperglycaemia-in-a-patient-living-with-hiv
#19
Milena McLaughlin, Sylvia Walsh, Shannon Galvin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076435/andrographolide-reorganise-hyperglycaemia-and-distorted-antioxidant-profile-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#20
Ramavat Ravindhar Naik, Praveen Kumar Munipally, Turlapati Nagaraju
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a constant and illimitable metabolic disorder that can happen even at a young age due to the virtual absence of naturally acting insulin, which uptakes and accumulates glucose; thereby reduce the use of glucose. In the present study, we evaluated the neuroprotective efficacy of andrographolide on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic Sprague dawley rats. Diabetes was induced by intraperitonial injection of STZ (45 mg/kg B.W) in Sprague dawley rats. Andrographolide (2.5 mg/kg B.W) was administered orally to diabetic rats and Glibenclamide (25mg/kg B...
October 26, 2017: Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
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