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Hyperglycaemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442717/the-biomarker-and-causal-roles-of-homoarginine-in-the-development-of-cardiometabolic-diseases-an-observational-and-mendelian-randomization-analysis
#1
Ilkka Seppälä, Niku Oksala, Antti Jula, Antti J Kangas, Pasi Soininen, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Winfried März, Andreas Meinitzer, Markus Juonala, Mika Kähönen, Olli T Raitakari, Terho Lehtimäki
High L-homoarginine (hArg) levels are directly associated with several risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases whereas low levels predict increased mortality in prospective studies. The biomarker role of hArg in young adults remains unknown. To study the predictive value of hArg in the development of cardiometabolic risk factors and diseases, we utilized data on high-pressure liquid chromatography-measured hArg, cardiovascular risk factors, ultrasound markers of preclinical atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes from the population-based Young Finns Study involving 2,106 young adults (54...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442252/approaches-towards-the-development-of-chimeric-dpp4-ace-inhibitors-for-treating-metabolic-syndrome
#2
Jitendra A Sattigeri, Sachin Sethi, Joseph A Davis, Shahadat Ahmed, Geeta V Rayasam, Balasaheb G Jadhav, Satya M Chilla, Dhrubajyoti Datta, A Gadhave, Vamshi K Tulasi, Tarun Jain, Sreedhara Voleti, Biju Benjamin, Sunitha Udupa, Garima Jain, Yogender Singh, Kona Srinivas, Vinay S Bansal, Abhijit Ray, Pradip K Bhatnagar, Ian A Cliffe
Designing drug candidates exhibiting polypharmacology is one of the strategies adopted by medicinal chemists to address multifactorial diseases. Metabolic disease is one such multifactorial disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia, hypertension and dyslipidaemia among others. In this paper we report a new class of molecular framework combining the pharmacophoric features of DPP4 inhibitors with those of ACE inhibitors to afford potent dual inhibitors of DPP4 and ACE.
April 13, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438778/the-dual-amylin-and-calcitonin-receptor-agonist-kbp-042-works-as-adjunct-to-metformin-on-fasting-hyperglycaemia-and-hba1c-in-a-rat-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#3
Sara Toftegaard Hjuler, Sofie Gydesen, Kim Vietz Andreassen, Morten Asser Karsdal, Kim Henriksen
KBP-042 is a dual amylin and calcitonin receptor agonist which increases glucose tolerance and insulin action, and reduces body weight in rat models of obesity and pre-diabetes. The objective of the present study was to 1) Evaluate KBP-042 as a treatment of late stage type 2 diabetes in a rat model and 2) Assess the value of adding KBP-042 to the standard of care, metformin, in order to consider KBP-042 as a relevant drug for treating patients with type 2 diabetes. Two studies were included: an intervention and a prevention study...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438244/exploration-of-glycaemic-states-in-children-with-type-1-diabetes
#4
Genoveva Granados Gámez, Verónica V Márquez Hernández
BACKGROUND: The prevention of severe hypoglycaemia is based in art on accurately anticipating its occurrence. The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of a feedback procedure on the glycaemic state of children with type 1 diabetes, aswell as the associated symptoms and estimated BGL. METHOD: For 7 days, 17 participants performed both scheduled capillary blood tests, and an estimate and self-analysis whenever they thought that there were changes in their BGL...
May 2017: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437786/the-effect-of-retraining-on-treatment-success-life-quality-and-metabolic-parameters-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-using-insulin-pump
#5
Basak Ozgen Saydam, Fatma Yilmazmis, Nalan Aydin, Belgin Bektas, Simge Yilmaz, Umit Cavdar, Secil Ozisik, Baris Akinci
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of insulin pump user retraining on treatment success, quality of life, and metabolic parameters of patients with type 1 diabetes using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 35 subjects participated in this prospective study. All patients were given insulin pump user retraining. Their knowledge level and application skills, metabolic parameters, life qualities and satisfaction from treatment were evaluated at baseline and after 6 months...
April 23, 2017: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437153/diabetic-ketoacidosis-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-recently-commenced-on-sglt-2-inhibitors-an-ongoing-concern
#6
Mohamed Ahmed, Malachi J McKenna, Rachel K Crowley
OBJECTIVE: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors are increasingly used as an adjunctive treatment for type 2 diabetes. We report the occurrence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in 3 patients with type 2 diabetes recently commenced on SGLT-2 inhibitors. METHODS: Clinical presentation, laboratory data, and treatment outcomes of all 3 cases are described. RESULTS: All 3 patients had documented history of longstanding type 2 diabetes...
April 2, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434033/the-gut-microbiome-as-a-target-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-hyperglycaemia-in-type-2-diabetes-from-current-human-evidence-to-future-possibilities
#7
REVIEW
Louise Brunkwall, Marju Orho-Melander
The totality of microbial genomes in the gut exceeds the size of the human genome, having around 500-fold more genes that importantly complement our coding potential. Microbial genes are essential for key metabolic processes, such as the breakdown of indigestible dietary fibres to short-chain fatty acids, biosynthesis of amino acids and vitamins, and production of neurotransmitters and hormones. During the last decade, evidence has accumulated to support a role for gut microbiota (analysed from faecal samples) in glycaemic control and type 2 diabetes...
April 22, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433618/evidence-based-recommendations-for-insulin-intensification-strategies-after-basal-insulin-in-type-2-diabetes
#8
Sujoy Ghosh, A G Unnikrishnan, Banshi Saboo, Jothydev Kesavadev, S R Aravind, Sarita Bajaj, Rajesh Rajput, Krishna Seshadri, Narsingh Verma, Arvind Gupta, Brij Mohan Makkar, Mihir Saikia, Shailaja Kale, Suresh Damodaran, Ashish Dengra, T K M Eashwar, Anuj Maheshwari, Sharad Pendsey, Sanjeev R Phatak, Surendra Kumar Sharma, Surya Kumar Singh, A Ramachandran, Abdul H Zargar, Shashank R Joshi, Shaukat M Sadikot
Over the time due to progressive nature of diabetes, proactive intensification of the existing insulin therapy becomes imminent as it minimizes patients' exposure to chronic hypo/hyperglycaemia and reduces weight gain while achieving individualized glycaemic targets. This review focuses on the strength of evidence behind various options for intensification, primarily the insulins as also the GLP-1 analogues. The recommendations presented here are meant to serve as a guide for the physician managing type 2 diabetes patients requiring insulin intensification upon failing of basal insulin therapy...
April 5, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432323/refractive-index-tomograms-and-dynamic-membrane-fluctuations-of-red-blood-cells-from-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#9
SangYun Lee, HyunJoo Park, Kyoohyun Kim, YongHak Sohn, Seongsoo Jang, YongKeun Park
In this paper, we present the optical characterisations of diabetic red blood cells (RBCs) in a non-invasive manner employing three-dimensional (3-D) quantitative phase imaging. By measuring 3-D refractive index tomograms and 2-D time-series phase images, the morphological (volume, surface area and sphericity), biochemical (haemoglobin concentration and content) and mechanical (membrane fluctuation) parameters were quantitatively retrieved at the individual cell level. With simultaneous measurements of individual cell properties, systematic correlative analyses on retrieved RBC parameters were also performed...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431669/after-the-leader-trial-and-sustain-6-how-do-we-explain-the-cardiovascular-benefits-of-some-glp-1-receptor-agonists
#10
B Vergès, B Charbonnel
Recent cardiovascular outcome trials - the LEADER with liragutide and SUSTAIN-6 with semaglutide - have shown significant reductions of major cardiovascular (CV) events with these glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor agonists. Progressive separation of the treatment and placebo curves, starting clearly between 12 and 18 months of the trial period, and significant reductions in the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke, indicate that the beneficial CV effects observed with GLP-1 receptor agonists could be due to an antiatherogenic effect...
April 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431381/zeaxanthin-ameliorates-high-glucose-induced-mesangial-cell-apoptosis-through-inhibiting-oxidative-stress-via-activating-akt-signalling-pathway
#11
Changjiang Ying, Lei Chen, Shanshan Wang, Yizhen Mao, Hongwei Ling, Wei Li, Xiaoyan Zhou
Oxidative stress is a critical factor in the pathophysiology of diabetic kidney disease. Previous study shows that hyperglycaemia aggravates renal injury through oxidative stress in diabetic model, and antioxidants have beneficial effect on diabetic kidney disease. However, the role of antioxidants in the progression of diabetic kidney disease is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to clarify whether zeaxanthin, an antioxidant, could ameliorate mesangial cell injury and if so, identify the related mechanism underlying this protective effect...
April 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422118/nutrient-regulation-of-%C3%AE-cell-function-what-do-islet-cell-animal-studies-tell-us
#12
REVIEW
R Carlessi, K N Keane, C Mamotte, P Newsholme
Diabetes mellitus is widely recognised as one of the most serious metabolic diseases worldwide, and its incidence in Asian countries is growing at an alarming rate. Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is closely associated with age, sedentary lifestyle and poor diet. In T2DM, β-cell dysfunction will occur before hyperglycaemia develops. Excessive levels of glucose, lipid and various inflammatory factors interact at the level of the pancreatic islet to promote β-cell dysfunction. Pancreatic β-cell lines have been widely utilised since the early 1980s and have contributed a large volume of important information regarding molecular, metabolic and genetic mechanisms that regulate insulin secretion...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421113/chronic-hyperinsulinaemic-hypoglycaemia-in-rats-is-accompanied-by-increased-body-weight-hyperleptinaemia-and-decreased-neuronal-glucose-transporter-levels-in-the-brain
#13
Vivi F H Jensen, Anne-Marie Mølck, Melissa Chapman, Lene Alifrangis, Lene Andersen, Jens Lykkesfeldt, Ingrid B Bøgh
The brain is vulnerable to hypoglycaemia due to a continuous need of energy substrates to meet its high metabolic demands. Studies have shown that severe acute insulin-induced hypoglycaemia results in oxidative stress in the rat brain, when neuroglycopenia cannot be evaded despite increased levels of cerebral glucose transporters. Compensatory measures in the brain during chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia are less well understood. The present study investigated how the brain of nondiabetic rats copes with chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia for up to eight weeks...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404095/type-3c-pancreatogenic-diabetes-mellitus-secondary-to-chronic-pancreatitis-and-pancreatic-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Phil A Hart, Melena D Bellin, Dana K Andersen, David Bradley, Zobeida Cruz-Monserrate, Christopher E Forsmark, Mark O Goodarzi, Aida Habtezion, Murray Korc, Yogish C Kudva, Stephen J Pandol, Dhiraj Yadav, Suresh T Chari
Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases defined by persistent hyperglycaemia. Type 2 diabetes, the most prevalent form, is characterised initially by impaired insulin sensitivity and subsequently by an inadequate compensatory insulin response. Diabetes can also develop as a direct consequence of other diseases, including diseases of the exocrine pancreas. Historically, diabetes due to diseases of the exocrine pancreas was described as pancreatogenic or pancreatogenous diabetes mellitus, but recent literature refers to it as type 3c diabetes...
November 2016: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402338/insulin-deprivation-induces-pp2a-inhibition-and-tau-hyperphosphorylation-in-htau-mice-a-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-like-tau-pathology
#15
Maud Gratuze, Jacinthe Julien, Franck R Petry, Françoise Morin, Emmanuel Planel
Abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau aggregated as intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles is one of the two neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The majority of AD cases are sporadic with numerous environmental, biological and genetic risks factors. Interestingly, insulin dysfunction and hyperglycaemia are both risk factors for sporadic AD. However, how hyperglycaemia and insulin dysfunction affect tau pathology, is not well understood. In this study, we examined the effects of insulin deficiency on tau pathology in transgenic hTau mice by injecting different doses of streptozotocin (STZ), a toxin that destroys insulin-producing cells in the pancreas...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400316/glucose-ingestion-causes-cardiac-repolarization-disturbances-in-type-1-long-qt-syndrome-patients-and-healthy-subjects
#16
Louise Hyltén-Cavallius, Eva W Iepsen, Michael Christiansen, Claus Graff, Allan Linneberg, Oluf Pedersen, Jens J Holst, Torben Hansen, Signe S Torekov, Jørgen K Kanters
BACKGROUND: Both hypo- and severe hyperglycaemia constitute known risk factors for cardiac repolarization changes potentially leading to malignant arrhythmias. Patients with loss of function mutations in KCNQ1 are characterized by long QT-syndrome (LQTS) and may be at increased risk of glucose-induced repolarization disturbances. OBJECTIVE: We hypothezised that KCNQ1 LQTS patients are at particular risk of cardiac repolarization changes during the relative hyperglycaemia that occurs after an oral glucose load...
April 8, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395788/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-chronic-mesenteric-ischemia-an-update
#17
REVIEW
Jeroen J Kolkman, Robert H Geelkerken
Although the prevalence of mesenteric artery stenoses (MAS) is high, symptomatic chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI) is rare. The collateral network in the mesenteric circulation, a remnant of the extensive embryonal vascular network, serves to prevent most cases of ischemia. This explains the high incidence of MAS and relative rarity of cases of CMI. The number of affected vessels is the major determinant in CMI development. Most subjects with single vessel mesenteric stenosis do not develop ischemic complaints...
February 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392167/associations-between-a-fetal-imprinted-gene-allele-score-and-late-pregnancy-maternal-glucose-concentrations
#18
C J Petry, K Mooslehner, P Prentice, M G Hayes, M Nodzenski, D M Scholtens, I A Hughes, C L Acerini, K K Ong, W L Lowe, D B Dunger
AIM: We hypothesised that some of the genetic risk for gestational diabetes (GDM) is due to the fetal genome affecting maternal glucose concentrations. Previously, we found associations between fetal IGF2 gene variants and maternal glucose concentrations in late pregnancy. METHODS: In the present study, we tested associations between SNP alleles from 15 fetal imprinted genes and maternal glucose concentrations in late pregnancy in the Cambridge Baby Growth and Wellbeing cohorts (1160 DNA trios)...
April 6, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390473/differential-effects-of-high-and-low-glucose-concentrations-during-lipolysis-like-conditions-on-bovine-in-vitro-oocyte-quality-metabolism-and-subsequent-embryo-development
#19
J De Bie, W F A Marei, V Maillo, L Jordaens, A Gutierrez-Adan, P E J Bols, J L M R Leroy
Lipolytic metabolic conditions are traditionally associated with elevated non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations, but may also be accompanied by hyperglycaemia in obesity or by hypoglycaemia during a negative energy balance status. Elevated NEFA concentrations disrupt oocyte and embryo development and quality, but little is known about whether the effects of lipolytic conditions on oocyte developmental competence are modulated by glucose availability. To answer this, bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured under different conditions: physiological NEFA (72µM) and normal glucose (5...
April 10, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389705/metabolic-effects-of-insulin-in-a-human-model-of-ketoacidosis-combining-exposure-to-lipopolysaccharide-and-insulin-deficiency-a-randomised-controlled-crossover-study-in-individuals-with-type-1-diabetes
#20
Mads V Svart, Nikolaj Rittig, Ulla Kampmann, Thomas S Voss, Niels Møller, Niels Jessen
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is often caused by concomitant systemic inflammation and lack of insulin. Here we used an experimental human model to test whether and how metabolic responses to insulin are impaired in the early phases of DKA with a specific focus on skeletal muscle metabolism. METHODS: Nine individuals with type 1 diabetes from a previously published cohort were investigated twice at Aarhus University Hospital using a 120 min infusion of insulin (3...
April 7, 2017: Diabetologia
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