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Hyperglycaemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093873/diagnostic-and-management-challenges-from-childhood-puberty-through-to-transition-in-severe-insulin-resistance-due-to-insulin-receptor-mutations
#1
Christina Wei, Christine P Burren
Two Caucasian girls, both of normal weight and body mass indices, were diagnosed with type A insulin resistance (IR) in childhood. Case 1 presented with premature adrenarche aged 7 years, then by age 12 years had hirsutism, acne, acanthosis nigricans, and asymptomatic diabetes. Subsequent investigation revealed raised adiponectin (15.3 mg/L) and heterozygous p.Pro1205Leu mutation in the INSR gene encoding the insulin receptor. She experienced postprandial hypoglycaemia on metformin; acarbose was trialled and discontinued aged 16 years, as she became normoglycaemic...
January 17, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086863/exercise-mediated-protection-of-diabetic-heart-through-modulation-of-microrna-mediated-molecular-pathways
#2
REVIEW
Jason Kar Sheng Lew, James T Pearson, Daryl O Schwenke, Rajesh Katare
Hyperglycaemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance collectively impact on the myocardium of people with diabetes, triggering molecular, structural and myocardial abnormalities. These have been suggested to aggravate oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, myocardial lipotoxicity and impaired myocardial substrate utilization. As a consequence, this leads to the development of a spectrum of cardiovascular diseases, which may include but not limited to coronary endothelial dysfunction, and left ventricular remodelling and dysfunction...
January 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074253/c-abl-inhibition-mitigates-diet-induced-obesity-through-improving-insulin-sensitivity-of-subcutaneous-fat-in-mice
#3
Rong Wu, Jian-Guang Sun, Ji-Qiu Wang, Binhua Li, Qingsong Liu, Guang Ning, Wanzhu Jin, Zengqiang Yuan
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: High-energy diets are among the main causes of the global epidemic of metabolic disorders, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms of high-energy-diet-induced metabolic disorders are complex and largely unknown. The non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl plays an important role in adipogenesis in vitro but its role in vivo in the regulation of metabolism is still elusive. Hence, we sought to address the role of c-Abl in diet-induced obesity and obesity-associated insulin resistance...
January 10, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072765/phase-ii-study-of-the-pi3k-inhibitor-bkm120-in-patients-with-advanced-or-recurrent-endometrial-carcinoma-a-stratified-type-i-type-ii-study-from-the-gineco-group
#4
P-E Heudel, M Fabbro, C Roemer-Becuwe, M C Kaminsky, A Arnaud, F Joly, S Roche-Forestier, J Meunier, C Foa, B You, F Priou, Y Tazi, A Floquet, F Selle, D Berton-Rigaud, A Lesoin, E Kalbacher, A Lortholary, L Favier, I Treilleux, I Ray-Coquard
: Backround:Patients with metastatic endometrial carcinoma have a poor prognosis and PIK3CA mutations and amplifications are common in these cancers. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of the pure PI3K inhibitor BKM120 in advanced or recurrent endometrial carcinoma. METHODS: This phase II, multicentre, single-arm, double strata (histological low grade (LG) or high grade (HG)) open-label study enrolled patients with histologically confirmed advanced or recurrent endometrial carcinoma who had received not more than one prior chemotherapy regimen...
January 10, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069546/g004-a-synthetic-sulfonylurea-compound-exerts-anti-atherosclerosis-effects-by-targeting-sirt1-in-apoe-mice
#5
Lifen Qian, Lingman Ma, Guanzhong Wu, Qian Yu, Huisheng Lin, Qidi Ying, Dan Wen, Cong Gao
Atherosclerosis attracts increasing global attention because of its morbidity and mortality. G004, as a synthetic sulfonylurea compound, has been confirmed to have anti-hyperglycaemia, anti-platelet and anti-thrombus effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether G004 suppress the onset and development of atherosclerosis and illuminate its probable mechanism of action. ApoE(-/-) mice that were fed a high-fat diet were randomly divided into five groups by weight; subsequently, they were treated with vehicle, G004, at different doses or atorvastatin once daily for 12weeks...
January 6, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067255/serelaxin-treatment-reverses-vascular-dysfunction-and-left-ventricular-hypertrophy-in-a-mouse-model-of-type-1-diabetes
#6
Hooi Hooi Ng, Chen Huei Leo, Darnel Prakoso, Chengxue Qin, Rebecca H Ritchie, Laura J Parry
Serelaxin prevents endothelial dysfunction in the mouse aorta ex vivo and inhibits apoptosis in cardiomyocytes under acute hyperglycaemia. Less is known about the effects of serelaxin in an in vivo mouse model of diabetes. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis in streptozotocin (STZ)-treated mice that serelaxin is able to reverse diabetes-induced vascular dysfunction and cardiac remodelling. Mice were divided into citrate buffer + placebo, STZ + placebo and STZ + serelaxin (0.5 mg/kg/d, 2 weeks) groups...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062881/characteristics-and-risk-factors-for-mortality-in-paediatric-in-hospital-cardiac-events-in-singapore-retrospective-single-centre-experience
#7
Yee Hui Mok, Amanda Pt Loke, Tsee Foong Loh, Jan Hau Lee
Introduction: There is limited data on paediatric resuscitation outcomes in Asia. We aimed to describe outcomes of paediatric in-hospital cardiac arrests (IHCA) and peri-resuscitation factors associated with mortality in our institution. Materials and Methods: Using data from our hospital's code registry from 2009 to 2014, we analysed all patients younger than 18 years of age with IHCA who required cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Exposure variables were obtained from clinical demographics, CPR and post-resuscitation data...
December 2016: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056894/study-protocol-the-norfolk-diabetes-prevention-study-ndps-a-46%C3%A2-month-multi-centre-randomised-controlled-parallel-group-trial-of-a-lifestyle-intervention-with-or-without-additional-support-from-lay-lifestyle-mentors-with-type-2-diabetes-to-prevent-transition
#8
Melanie Pascale, Nikki Murray, Max Bachmann, Garry Barton, Allan Clark, Amanda Howe, Colin Greaves, Mike Sampson
BACKGROUND: This 7 year NIHR programme [2011-2018] tests the primary hypothesis that the NDPS diet and physical activity intervention will reduce the risk of transition to type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in groups at high risk of Type 2 diabetes. The NDPS programme recognizes the need to reduce intervention costs through group delivery and the use of lay mentors with T2DM, the realities of normal primary care, and the complexity of the current glycaemic categorisation of T2DM risk. METHODS: NDPS identifies people at highest risk of T2DM on the databases of 135 general practices in the East of England for further screening with ab fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin [HbA1c]...
January 6, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056755/common-therapeutic-modalities-against-diabetes-and-associated-cardiovascular-disease
#9
Nasimudeen R Jabir, Chelapram Kandy Firoz, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Syed Kashif Zaidi, Shazi Shakil, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Shams Tabrez
Despite recent advances in medical research, the incidence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-induced fatal events is increasing. The literature point towards several co-occurring pathways that could lead to terminal complications related with these diseases. Different pathophysiological alterations such as hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance, obesity, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress lead to the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic plaques. In view of the continuous rise in fatal events and overlapping pathological conditions associated with CVD and diabetes, there is a critical need to develop a common treatments against these diseases...
January 5, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056420/synergistic-effects-of-acarbose-and-an-oroxylum-indicum-seed-extract-in-streptozotocin-and-high-fat-diet-induced-prediabetic-mice
#10
Wenlong Sun, Yuanbin Sang, Bowei Zhang, Xiaoxia Yu, Qinmin Xu, Zhilong Xiu, Yuesheng Dong
Prediabetes is defined as blood glucose levels above normal but below diabetes thresholds, and up to 70% of individuals with prediabetes will eventually develop diabetes if left untreated. Acarbose, the first FDA approved anti-prediabetes agent, has some disadvantages, such as reducing the risk of diabetes by only 36%, side effects and limited effects on complications. The aim of this study is to develop a new agent to treat prediabetes and to investigate the anti-prediabetes effects and mechanisms of acarbose and an Oroxylum indicum seed extract (OISE) in prediabetic mice...
January 2, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050357/evaluation-of-biochemical-markers-serum-amylase-and-serum-lipase-for-the-assessment-of-pancreatic-exocrine-function-in-diabetes-mellitus
#11
Mahesh Basavaraj Madole, Chandrashekhar M Iyer, Mamatha Thimmanna Madivalar, Satish Kishanrao Wadde, Deepak Sadashiv Howale
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus (DM), a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia, associated with deficiency or resistance to insulin indicates endocrinal abnormality of the pancreas. Amylase and lipase are enzymes secreted by the exocrine portion of the pancreas. Endocrinal derangement observed in diabetes may interfere with the exocrine function of the pancreas. AIM: To estimate the levels of fasting blood sugar, serum lipase, serum amylase in patients of type 1 and type 2 DM...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049272/associations-between-depression-and-unhealthy-behaviours-related-to-metabolic-syndrome-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Yumi Ohmori, Hiroto Ito, Akemi Morita, Kijo Deura, Motohiko Miyachi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to determine whether depression was associated with metabolic syndrome and unhealthy behaviours in community residents. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Using the 2009-2010 baseline data of the Saku Cohort Study, 1,225 men and women who participated in a community health screening were included in the cross-sectional analyses. Depression was assessed using the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. Consistent with the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine's definition, we defined metabolic syndrome as abdominal obesity plus two or more of the following: high blood pressure, hyperglycaemia, and dyslipidaemia...
January 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045336/hyperglycaemia-in-comatose-survivors-of-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#13
Juan J Russo, Tyler E James, Benjamin Hibbert, F Daniel Ramirez, Trevor Simard, Christina Osborne, Jordan Bernick, George A Wells, Michel R Le May
BACKGROUND: The optimal blood glucose target during the early hospitalisation of comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has not been established. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study, we examined clinical outcomes in relation to mean blood glucose during the first 96 hours of hospital admission in comatose survivors of OHCA with an initial shockable rhythm. Mean blood glucose was assessed as a continuous (primary analysis) and categorical variable: <6 mmol/L, 6 to <8 mmol/L and ⩾8 mmol/L...
December 1, 2016: European Heart Journal. Acute Cardiovascular Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042834/phlorotannins-towards-new-pharmacological-interventions-for-diabetes-mellitus-type-2
#14
REVIEW
Graciliana Lopes, Paula B Andrade, Patrícia Valentão
Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycaemia, and predicted by the World Health Organization as the expected 7th leading cause of death in 2030. Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) comprises the majority of diabetic individuals around the world (90%-95%). Pathophysiologically, this disorder results from a deregulation of glucose homeostasis, worsened by overweight and by a sedentary lifestyle, culminating in life-threatening cardiovascular events. The currently available anti-diabetic drugs are not devoid of undesirable side effects, sometimes responsible for poor therapeutic compliance...
December 30, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039605/pharmacokinetic-characteristics-and-clinical-efficacy-of-an-sglt2-inhibitor-plus-dpp-4-inhibitor-combination-therapy-in-type-2-diabetes
#15
REVIEW
André J Scheen
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) generally requires a combination of several pharmacological approaches to control hyperglycaemia. Combining a sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitor (SGLT2I, also known as gliflozin) and a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4I, also known as gliptin) appears to be an attractive strategy because of complementary modes of action. This narrative review analyzes the pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of different combined therapies with an SGLT2I (canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin, ertugliflozin, ipragliflozin, luseogliflozin, tofogliflozin) and DPP-4I (linagliptin, saxagliptin, sitagliptin, teneligliptin)...
December 30, 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034290/marine-algae-as-a-prospective-source-for-antidiabetic-compounds-a-brief-review
#16
S P Unnikrishnan, A M Jayasri
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia, which is attributed by several life threatening complications including atherosclerosis, nephropathy, and retinopathy. The current therapies available for the management of DM mainly include oral antidiabetic drugs and insulin injections. However, continuous use of synthetic drugs provides lower healing with many side effects. Therefore, there is an urge for safe and efficient antidiabetic drugs for the management of DM...
December 29, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032668/might-genetics-play-a-role-in-understanding-and-treating-diabetic-polyneuropathy
#17
Vincenza Spallone
Despite the high prevalence and impact on quality of life, costs and survival, there are still unresolved issues regarding diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN): the lack of definite knowledge of its pathogenesis; the limited preventive action of glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes; and the unavailability of effective evidence-based disease-modifying treatment. How can genetics provide the tools to address these gaps? Ziegler et al for the GDS Group explore the novel hypothesis that genetic variability in transketolase (TKT) might contribute to susceptibility to DPN in patients with newly diagnosed type 1 and type 2 diabetes (well characterised for DPN)...
December 29, 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032429/under-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-causes-and-outcomes-of-clinical-inertia
#18
REVIEW
Clifford J Bailey
AIMS: To assess the impact of clinical inertia on type 2 diabetes (T2D) care. METHODS: PubMed database search from January 2000 until December 2015. RESULTS: Clinical inertia, defined as resistance to initiate or intensify treatment in a patient not at the evidence-based glycated haemoglobin goal, is conservatively estimated to occur in at least 25% of patients with T2D. Consequently, many patients with diagnosed and treated T2D experience extended periods, in some cases years, of ineffectively controlled hyperglycaemia, potentially causing serious microvascular and macrovascular harm...
December 2016: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029731/reduced-blood-glucose-through-thyroid-hormone-degradation-product
#19
EDITORIAL
Lena Eliasson
Western lifestyle with increasing obesity together with genetic factors contribute to the rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the population. In practice the hyperglycaemia is due to insulin resistance and failure of the insulin secreting beta cells to adjust to the increased metabolic demand (Halban et al., 2014). Improvements in lifestyle with increased exercise and reduced energy consumption would be beneficial for human health (Hagberg et al., 2012). A more personalized regime has also been suggested due to the heterogeneity of the disease why new individual treatments needs to be discovered...
December 28, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027900/amorphous-aggregate-adducts-of-linker-histone-h1-turn-highly-immunologic-in-the-cancers-of-oesophagus-stomach-gall-bladder-and-ovary
#20
Abdul Rouf Mir, Moinuddin, Safia Habib
Hyperglycaemic influence on carcinogenesis and tumour progression is emerging as a link between diabetes and cancer. This work establishes the disturbed structural integrity of nucleosomal linker histone H1 by methyglyoxal (MG) and then correlates the role of modified H1 in the auto-immunopathogenesis of multiple cancers. MG modification caused a loss of free ε-amino groups in H1 and raised its β-sheet structural component with a consequence of non amyloid aggregation. It changed the folding-unfolding denaturation pattern of H1 and attached itself to the lysine residues of the protein eventually making up N(ε)-(carboxyethyl) lysine...
December 24, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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