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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778082/a-review-of-the-impacts-of-tobacco-heating-system-on-indoor-air-quality-versus-conventional-pollution-sources
#1
REVIEW
Violeta Kaunelienė, Marija Meišutovič-Akhtarieva, Dainius Martuzevičius
With the introduction of novel and potentially less polluting nicotine containing products to the market, the impacts of their usage to indoor air quality as opposed to conventional pollution sources must be reviewed and considered. This review study aimed to comparatively analyse changes in indoor air quality as the consequence of tobacco heating system (THS) generated pollution against general indoor air quality in various micro-environments, especially with combustion-based pollution sources present. Indoor concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, toluene, nicotine and PM2...
May 8, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777289/tobacco-smoking-may-delay-habituation-of-reinforcer-effectiveness-in-humans
#2
Joshua L Karelitz, Kenneth A Perkins
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of nonconsummatory reinforcers habituate, as their ability to maintain reinforced responding declines over repeated presentations. Preclinical research has shown that nicotine can delay habituation of reinforcer effectiveness, but this effect has not been directly demonstrated in humans. OBJECTIVE: In preliminary translational research, we assessed effects of nicotine from tobacco smoking (vs. a no smoking control) on within-session patterns of responding for a brief visual reinforcer...
May 18, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777039/time-dependent-effect-of-intensity-of-smoking-and-of-occupational-exposure-to-asbestos-on-the-risk-of-lung-cancer-results-from-the-icare-case-control-study
#3
Emilie Lévêque, Aude Lacourt, Danièle Luce, Marie-Pierre Sylvestre, Pascal Guénel, Isabelle Stücker, Karen Leffondré
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the impact of intensity of both smoking and occupational exposure to asbestos on the risk of lung cancer throughout the whole exposure history. METHODS: Data on 2026 male cases and 2610 male controls came from the French ICARE (Investigation of occupational and environmental causes of respiratory cancers) population-based, case-control study. Lifetime smoking history and occupational history were collected from standardised questionnaires and face-to-face interviews...
May 18, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775959/adolescent-smokers-response-to-reducing-the-nicotine-content-of-cigarettes-acute-effects-on-withdrawal-symptoms-and-subjective-evaluations
#4
Rachel N Cassidy, Suzanne M Colby, Jennifer W Tidey, Kristina M Jackson, Patricia A Cioe, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin, Dorothy Hatsukami
BACKGROUND: Mandating a reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes to a minimally addictive level could dramatically reduce smoking rates in the US. However, little is known about the effects of reduced nicotine content cigarettes in adolescents. METHODS: Following overnight abstinence, adolescent daily smokers (ages 15-19, n = 50) reported on their craving, withdrawal, and positive and negative affect pre- and post- ad lib smoking of one cigarette containing varying nicotine content (15...
May 15, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775887/gender-and-age-varying-associations-of-sensation-seeking-and-substance-use-across-young-adulthood
#5
Rebecca J Evans-Polce, Megan S Schuler, John E Schulenberg, Megan E Patrick
INTRODUCTION: Sensation seeking is associated with elevated risk for substance use among adolescents and young adults. However, whether these associations vary across age for young men and women is not well characterized. METHODS: Using data from the Monitoring the Future (MTF) panel study, we examine the age-varying associations of sensation seeking and three types of substance use behavior (binge drinking, cigarette use, and marijuana use) across ages 18 to 30 using time-varying effect modeling...
May 4, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775861/screening-methylation-of-dna-repair-genes-in-the-oral-mucosa-of-chronic-smokers
#6
Celina Faig Lima Carta, Mônica Ghislaine Oliveira Alves, Patrícia Pimentel de Barros, Márcia Sampaio Campos, Jaqueline Scholz, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge, Fábio Daumas Nunes, Janete Dias Almeida
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the epigenetic changes in the process of oral carcinogenesis by screening the methylation of repair genes in chronic smokers. DESIGN: Two groups were formed: Group 1: 16 smokers with consumption of 20 cigarettes/day for at least 10 years; and Group 2: 10 non-smoking. Exfoliative cytology of the tongue was performed, and the extracted DNA was treated by enzymes. The PCR Array System performed methylation screening to evaluate 22 DNA repair genes, and the results were validated by RT-qPCR for each gene with methylation levels ≥10%...
May 1, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775630/the-basolateral-amygdala-dopaminergic-system-contributes-to-the-improving-effect-of-nicotine-on-stress-induced-memory-impairment-in-rats
#7
Elnaz Keshavarzian, Zahra Ghasemzadeh, Ameneh Rezayof
Stress seems to be an important risk factor in the beginning and continuing stages of cigarette tobacco smoking in humans. Considering that both of nicotine administration and stress exposure affect cognitive functions including memory formation, the aim of the present study was 1) to evaluate the effect of subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of nicotine on memory formation under stress and 2) to assess the possible role of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the effect of nicotine on stress-induced memory retrieval impairment...
May 15, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775302/free-base-nicotine-determination-in-electronic-cigarette-liquids-by-1-h-nmr-spectroscopy
#8
Anna K Duell, James F Pankow, David H Peyton
E-liquids usually contain significant nicotine, which will exist primarily in two forms, monoprotonated and free-base the proportions are alterable through the effective pH of the medium. The fraction of nicotine in the free-base form is αfb , with 0 < αfb < 1. When dosed via aerosol, the two nicotine forms have different mechanisms and kinetics of delivery, as well as differing implications for harshness of the inhaled aerosol, so αfb is relevant regarding abuse liability. Previous attempts to determine αfb in electronic cigarette liquids and vapor have been flawed...
May 18, 2018: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774988/differences-in-primary-cardiovascular-disease-prevention-between-the-2013-and-2016-cholesterol-guidelines-and-impact-of-the-2017-hypertension-guideline-in-the-united-states
#9
Brent M Egan, Jiexiang Li, Robert A Davis, Kevin A Fiscella, Jonathan N Tobin, Daniel W Jones, Angelo Sinopoli
The US Preventive Services Task Force cholesterol guideline recommended statins for fewer adults than the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guideline by setting a higher 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease threshold (≥10.0% vs ≥7.5%) and requiring concomitant diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, or cigarette smoking. The 2017 ACC/AHA hypertension guideline lowered the hypertension threshold, increasing 2016 guideline statin-eligible adults. Cross-sectional data on US adults aged 40 to 75 years enabled estimated numbers for the 2013 guideline and 2016 guideline with hypertension thresholds of ≥140/≥90 mm Hg and ≥130/80 mm Hg, respectively, on: (1) untreated, statin-eligible adults for primary atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease prevention (25...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774451/different-kinds-of-lonely-dimensions-of-isolation-and-substance-use-in-adolescence
#10
Molly Copeland, Jacob C Fisher, James Moody, Mark E Feinberg
Social isolation is broadly associated with poor mental health and risky behaviors in adolescence, a time when peers are critical for healthy development. However, expectations for isolates' substance use remain unclear. Isolation in adolescence may signal deviant attitudes or spur self-medication, resulting in higher substance use. Conversely, isolates may lack access to substances, leading to lower use. Although treated as a homogeneous social condition for teens in much research, isolation represents a multifaceted experience with structurally distinct network components that present different risks for substance use...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774362/impact-of-a-pharmacy-led-smoking-cessation-clinic-in-a-dermatology-centre
#11
Hui Mei Cheng, Wen Chun Liu, Germaine Chua, Choon Fong Liew, Winnie Li, Winnie Choo, Hazel H Oon
INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, and has a deleterious effect on dermatological conditions, such as skin cancers, hidradenitis suppurativa and psoriasis. The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a pharmacist-led smoking cessation clinic in reducing cigarette smoking at a tertiary referral dermatology centre. We describe the impact of this clinic to provide guidance on how such a model could be further improved and implemented more widely...
May 18, 2018: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773707/comparison-of-toxicant-load-from-waterpipe-and-cigarette-tobacco-smoking-among-young-adults-in-the-usa
#12
Brian A Primack, Ariel Shensa, Jaime E Sidani, Megan C Tulikangas, Mark S Roberts, Jason B Colditz, Maria K Mor, A Everette James, Michael J Fine
OBJECTIVES: To form population-level comparisons of total smoke volume, tar, carbon monoxide and nicotine consumed from waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) and cigarette smoking using data from a nationally representative sample of smokers and non-smokers aged 18-30 years. METHODS: In March and April 2013, we surveyed a nationally representative sample of 3254 US young adults to assess the frequency and volume of WTS and cigarette smoking. We used Monte Carlo analyses with 5000 repetitions to estimate the proportions of toxicants originating from WTS and cigarette smoking...
May 16, 2018: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773665/hypersensitivity-pneumonitis-and-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-from-e-cigarette-use
#13
Casey G Sommerfeld, Daniel J Weiner, Andrew Nowalk, Allyson Larkin
Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use, or "vaping," is gaining widespread popularity as an alternative to conventional cigarettes among adolescents. Little is known of the health risks of e-cigarette use, especially in children and adolescents. We present a Case Report of a previously healthy 18-year-old woman who presented with dyspnea, cough, and pleuritic chest pain after e-cigarette use. She developed respiratory failure with hypoxia and was intubated, and ultimately met diagnostic criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome...
May 17, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773175/blood-lead-and-cadmium-in-age-related-macular-degeneration-in-a-turkish-urban-population
#14
Elif Damar Güngör, Fatma Yülek, Utku Serkant, Yasin Toklu, Asım Hocaoğlu, Şaban Şimsek
PURPOSE: To evaluate the blood lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) levels in age related macular degeneration (AMD) in a turkish urban population. METHODS: Blood Pb and Cd levels of 31 AMD patients and 24 age and gender matched controls with no sign of AMD were measured using dual atomic absorption spectrophotometer system (AAS). History of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, myocardial infarction and stroke were obtained from all subjects. Degree of AMD was grade 4 according to the Age-Related Eye Disease Study grading system...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772812/change-and-continuity-in-vaping-and-smoking-by-young-people-a-qualitative-case-study-of-a-friendship-group
#15
Neil McKeganey, Marina Barnard
This paper reports a qualitative case study of a small friendship group ( n = 8) in Glasgow, Scotland. Interviewed twice at six months apart, these 16 to 17 year olds reported a substantial change in their use of and attitudes towards e-cigarettes and tobacco. At time 1, vaping generated much excitement and interest, with six out of eight individuals having their own vape device. At time 2, only two young people still vaped, with the others no longer professing any interest in continued vaping. The two regular smokers, who had been smoking before they first vaped, now only vaped privately and to reduce their tobacco intake...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771706/accidental-carbon-monoxide-poisoning-while-driving-a-case-report-with-review-of-the-literature
#16
Amanda O Fisher-Hubbard, Colin Appleford, Kilak Kesha, Carl J Schmidt, Avneesh Gupta
Carbon monoxide (CO) is the cause of a significant percentage of fatal poisonings in many countries. It is known that fatalities resulting from CO poisoning are underreported and/or misclassified. Carbon monoxide exposure while driving can occur due to faulty exhaust systems, defective ventilation systems, emission from other vehicles, and even cigarette smoking. We report the case of a 23-year-old woman who was involved in a low-speed motor vehicle collision and was found unresponsive in her vehicle due to CO poisoning...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771158/global-methylation-profiles-in-buccal-cells-of-long-term-smokers-and-moist-snuff-consumers
#17
Walter J Jessen, Michael F Borgerding, G L Prasad
PURPOSE: Alternations in gene methylation and other epigenetic changes regulate normal development as well as drive disease progression. The aim of this study is to investigate global methylation changes in the buccal cells of smokers and smokeless tobacco users. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Generally healthy adult male subjects were recruited into Smoker (SMK), Moist Snuff Consumer (MSC) and Non-Tobacco Consumer (NTC) cohorts (40 subjects/cohort) (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01923402)...
May 17, 2018: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771152/personality-and-its-relation-to-the-use-of-alcohol-and-cigarettes-during-pregnancy-a-multinational-study
#18
Angela Lupattelli, Elke Ronningen, Stine Kleppe Krogsrud, Hedvig Nordeng, Eivind Ystrom
This study explored the impact of women's personality on drinking and smoking habits before and during pregnancy, using a multinational perspective. Data on maternal personality traits, background information, and alcohol and cigarette smoking before and during pregnancy were collected from 9187 women from more than 18 countries. High conscientiousness and agreeableness resulted as protective factors against alcohol consumption during pregnancy; trait-specific associations were apparent on individual region level...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770947/when-marijuana-is-used-before-cigarettes-or-alcohol-demographic-predictors-and-associations-with-heavy-use-cannabis-use-disorder-and-other-drug-related-outcomes
#19
Brian J Fairman, C Debra Furr-Holden, Renee M Johnson
Recent loosening of state and federal policy restrictions on marijuana, along with changes in social norms regarding marijuana use and decreases in prevalence of other types of substance use, may lead to increases in youth initiating marijuana before other types of substances such as alcohol and tobacco. We investigated predictors and potential consequences of initiating marijuana before other drugs for youth aged 12-21-years in the USA. Nationally representative, cross-sectional survey data from the US National Survey on Drug Use and Health supplied self-reported age of first marijuana, cigarettes, alcohol, other tobacco, and other illegal drug use among 12-21-year-old samples from 2004 to 2014 (n = 275,559)...
May 17, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769355/role-of-obesity-in-smoking-behaviour-mendelian-randomisation-study-in-uk-biobank
#20
Robert Carreras-Torres, Mattias Johansson, Philip C Haycock, Caroline L Relton, George Davey Smith, Paul Brennan, Richard M Martin
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether body mass index, body fat percentage, and waist circumference influence smoking status and intensity. DESIGN: Mendelian randomisation study. SETTING: UK Biobank, with replication of results from the Tobacco and Genetics (TAG) consortium. PARTICIPANTS: European descent participants from the UK Biobank cohort (n=372 791) and the TAG consortium (n=74 035). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk of current and past smoking, number of cigarettes smoked per day, age of smoking initiation...
May 16, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
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