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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214937/factors-affecting-the-variability-in-the-observed-levels-of-cadmium-in-blood-and-urine-among-former-and-current-smokers-aged-20-64-and-%C3%A2-65years
#1
Ram B Jain
Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 1999-2012 were used to evaluate factors that affect observed levels of blood cadmium (BCd) and urine cadmium (UCd) among former and current smokers aged 20-64 and ≥65 years. Adjusted levels (AGM) for BCd and UCd were higher among females as compared to males. The order of AGM for BCd by race/ethnicity for 20-64 years old was non-Hispanic white (NHW) < non-Hispanic black (NHB) and NHW > NHB for ≥65 years old. The order of AGMs for UCd for 20-64-year-old current smokers was NHW > NHB and NHW > NHB for former smokers...
February 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214741/identifying-social-smoking-u-s-young-adults-using-an-empirically-driven-approach
#2
Andrea C Villanti, Amanda L Johnson, Jessica M Rath, Valerie Williams, Donna M Vallone, David B Abrams, Donald Hedeker, Robin J Mermelstein
The phenomenon of "social smoking" emerged in the past decade as an important area of research, largely due to its high prevalence in young adults. The purpose of this study was to identify classes of young adult ever smokers based on measures of social and contextual influences on tobacco use. Latent class models were developed using social smoking measures, and not the frequency or quantity of tobacco use. Data come from a national sample of young adult ever smokers aged 18-24 (Truth Initiative Young Adult Cohort Study, N=1564)...
February 10, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214708/evaluating-the-role-of-smokeless-tobacco-use-indices-as-brief-measures-of-dependence
#3
Nasir Mushtaq, Laura A Beebe
INTRODUCTION: There is considerable interest in using brief measures of dependence for evaluation and treatment of tobacco dependence. The Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI) is a validated measure of dependence among cigarette smokers. However, a similar index has not been studied among ST users. The aim of this study is to develop similar ST use indices and evaluate their utility as concise dependence measures. Time to first chew/dip of the day (TTFD), number of cans of ST used per week (CPW), and number of dips/chews per day (DPD) were used to create three ST use indices; heaviness of ST use index (HSTI), ST dependence index (STDI), and ST quantity frequency index (ST-QFI)...
February 10, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214392/reduced-nicotine-content-cigarette-advertising-how-false-beliefs-and-subjective-ratings-affect-smoking-behavior
#4
Melissa Mercincavage, Megan L Saddleson, Emily Gup, Angela Halstead, Darren Mays, Andrew A Strasser
INTRODUCTION: Tobacco advertising can create false beliefs about health harms that are reinforced by product design features. Reduced nicotine content (RNC) cigarettes may reduce harm, but research has not addressed advertising influences. This study examined RNC cigarette advertising effects on false harm beliefs, and how these beliefs - along with initial subjective ratings of RNC cigarettes - affect subsequent smoking behaviors. We further explored whether subjective ratings moderate associations between false beliefs and behavior...
February 3, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214106/multicenter-study-of-cigarette-smoking-among-adults-with-asthma-exacerbations-in-the-emergency-department-2011-2012
#5
Robert A Silverman, Kohei Hasegawa, Daniel J Egan, Kirk A Stiffler, Ashley F Sullivan, Carlos A Camargo
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies demonstrated a high prevalence of cigarette smoking in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with acute asthma. Despite the clinical and public health importance, there have been no recent multicenter efforts to characterize this patient population. We aimed to update the prevalence of cigarette smoking among ED patients with asthma exacerbations. METHODS: Multicenter chart review study of 48 EDs across 23 US states...
February 7, 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213472/%C3%AE-2-microglobulin-participates-in-development-of-lung-emphysema-by-inducing-lung-epithelial-cells-senescence
#6
Na Gao, Ying Wang, Chun-Ming Zheng, Yan-Li Gao, Hui Li, Yan Li, Ting-Ting Fu, Li-Li Xu, Wei Wang, Sun Ying, Kewu Huang
β2-microglobulin (β2m), the light chain of major histocompatibility complex class 1 (MHC I), has been identified as a pro-aging factors and involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders by driving cognitive and regenerative impairments. However, little attention has focused on the effect of β2m in development of lung emphysema. Here, we found that concentrations of β2m in plasma were significantly elevated in patients with lung emphysema than those in normal control subjects (1.89 ± 0.12 mg/l vs 1...
February 17, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212524/role-of-nrf2-and-protective-effects-of-metformin-against-tobacco-smoke-induced-cerebrovascular-toxicity
#7
Shikha Prasad, Ravi K Sajja, Mohammad Abul Kaisar, Jee Hyun Park, Heidi Villalba, Taylor Liles, Thomas Abbruscato, Luca Cucullo
Cigarette smoking (CS) is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction in a causative way primarily related to the TS content of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nicotine, and inflammation. TS promotes glucose intolerance and increases the risk of developing type-2 diabetes mellitus (2DM) with which it shares other pathogenic traits including the high risk of cerebrovascular and neurological disorders like stroke via ROS generation, inflammation, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment. Herein we provide evidence of the role played by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) in CS-induced cerebrobvascular/BBB impairments and how these cerebrovascular harmful effects can be circumvented by the use of metformin (MF; a widely prescribed, firstline anti-diabetic drug) treatment...
February 12, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212302/the-importance-of-conditioned-stimuli-in-cigarette-and-e-cigarette-craving-reduction-by-e-cigarettes
#8
Martijn Van Heel, Dinska Van Gucht, Koen Vanbrabant, Frank Baeyens
This study examined the impact of four variables pertaining to the use of e-cigarettes (e-cigs) on cravings for tobacco cigarettes and for e-cigs after an overnight abstinence period. The four variables were the nicotine level, the sensorimotor component, the visual aspect, and the aroma of the e-cig. In an experimental study, 81 participants without prior vaping experience first got acquainted with using e-cigs in a one-week tryout period, after which they participated in a lab session assessing the effect of five minutes of vaping following an abstinence period of 12 h...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211191/cigarette-smoking-increases-bronchial-mucosal-il-17a-expression-in-asthmatics-which-acts-in-concert-with-environmental-aeroallergens-to-engender-neutrophilic-inflammation
#9
Leonard Quok Chean Siew, Shih-Ying Wu, Sun Ying, Christopher John Corrigan
BACKGROUND: Mild asthmatics who smoke cigarettes may develop unstable disease and neutrophilic infiltration of the airways, features more usually associated with severe asthmatic disease. The mechanisms giving rise to this response remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To address the hypothesis that smoking increases bronchial mucosal production of IL-17A which acts on bronchial epithelial cells directly and in concert with other environmental stimuli to induce the production of IL-6 and neutrophil chemotaxins...
February 17, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210778/threshold-dose-for-behavioral-discrimination-of-cigarette-nicotine-content-in-menthol-vs-non-menthol-smokers
#10
Kenneth A Perkins, Nicole Kunkle, Joshua L Karelitz
RATIONALE: The lowest threshold content (or "dose") of nicotine discriminated in cigarettes may differ due to menthol preference. OBJECTIVES: Menthol and non-menthol Spectrum research cigarettes differing in nicotine content were used to determine discrimination thresholds. METHODS: Dependent smokers preferring menthol (n = 40) or non-menthol (n = 21) brands were tested on ability to discriminate cigarettes (matched for their menthol preference) with nicotine contents of 16-17, 11-12, 5, 2, and 1 mg/g, one per session, from an "ultra-low" cigarette with 0...
February 16, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210095/is-elevated-levels-of-serum-soluble-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-harmful-in-cigarette-smokers
#11
COMMENT
Kailash Prasad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: International Journal of Angiology: Official Publication of the International College of Angiology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209772/maternal-smoke-exposure-decreases-mesenchymal-proliferation-and-modulates-rho-gtpase-dependent-actin-cytoskeletal-signaling-in-fetal-lungs
#12
Uchenna Unachukwu, Jordis Trischler, Monica Goldklang, Rui Xiao, Jeanine D'Armiento
The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal smoke exposure results in fetal lung growth retardation due to dysregulation in various signaling pathways, including the Wnt (wingless-related integration site)/β-catenin pathway. Pregnant female C57BL/6J mice were exposed to cigarette smoke (100-150 mg/m(3)) or room air, and offspring were humanely killed on 12.5, 14.5, 16.5, and 18.5 d post coitum (dpc). We assessed lung stereology with Cavalieri estimation; apoptosis with proliferating cell nuclear antigen, TUNEL, and caspase assays; and gene expression with quantitative PCR (qPCR) and RNA sequencing on lung epithelium and mesenchyme retrieved by laser capture microdissection...
February 16, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209422/-the-role-of-spirometry-in-encouraging-smoking-cessation-in-general-practice-a-pilot-study-using-lung-age
#13
A Lorenzo, F Noël, M Lorenzo, J Van Den Broucke
INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to investigate whether spirometry, performed in general practitioners' offices would change non-motivated smokers' attitudes toward smoking cessation. METHOD: We performed an interventional, prospective, before-after single-center study, approved by a research ethics committee. We included 74 smokers older than 18years old, who reported no intention to quit smoking, whatever they were visiting general practitioners for. We performed spirometry and gave them their results, FEV1/FVC and lung age together with a comment on it...
February 13, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209242/survival-of-macrovascular-disease-chronic-kidney-disease-chronic-respiratory-disease-cancer-and-smoking-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-biobank-japan-cohort
#14
Hiroshi Yokomichi, Akiko Nagai, Makoto Hirata, Yutaka Kiyohara, Kaori Muto, Toshiharu Ninomiya, Koichi Matsuda, Yoichiro Kamatani, Akiko Tamakoshi, Michiaki Kubo, Yusuke Nakamura, Zentaro Yamagata
BACKGROUND: The number of patients with diabetes is increasing worldwide. Macrovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, chronic respiratory disease, cancer and smoking frequently accompany type 2 diabetes. Few data are available related to mortality of Asians with diabetes associated with these serious comorbidities. The present study aimed to quantify the excess mortality risks of type 2 diabetic patients with comorbidities. METHODS: We analysed the available records of 30,834 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes from the BioBank Japan Project between 2003 and 2007...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208905/n-acetylcysteine-combined-with-home-based-physical-activity-effect-on-health-related-quality-of-life-in-stable-copd-patients-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Vijay Tukaram Salve, Jitesh S Atram
INTRODUCTION: Quality of life is adversely affected in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), due to irreversible, progressive nature of the disease and limitations of current treatment options available. One of the important aim of treatment of COPD is to improve Quality of Life (QoL). Cigarette smoke contains numerous free radicals and other oxidants. Oxidative stress has been implicated in pathogenesis, progression of disease and exacerbation in COPD. Pulmonary tuberculosis, outdoor and indoor air pollution and many others are aetiologies of COPD in non-smokers...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208158/epidemiologic-factors-that-predict-long-term-survival-following-a-diagnosis-of-epithelial-ovarian-cancer
#16
Shana J Kim, Barry Rosen, Isabel Fan, Anna Ivanova, John R McLaughlin, Harvey Risch, Steven A Narod, Joanne Kotsopoulos
BACKGROUND: Various epidemiologic factors have been shown to influence the risk of ovarian cancer development. Given the high fatality associated with this disease, it is of interest to evaluate the association of prediagnostic hormonal, reproductive, and lifestyle exposures with ovarian cancer-specific survival. METHODS: We included 1421 patients with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed in Ontario, Canada. Clinical information was obtained from medical records and prediagnostic exposure information was collected by telephone interview...
February 16, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207744/utilization-of-smoking-cessation-medication-benefits-among-medicaid-fee-for-service-enrollees-1999-2008
#17
Jennifer Kahende, Ann Malarcher, Lucinda England, Lei Zhang, Paul Mowery, Xin Xu, Varadan Sevilimedu, Italia Rolle
OBJECTIVE: To assess state coverage and utilization of Medicaid smoking cessation medication benefits among fee-for-service enrollees who smoked cigarettes. METHODS: We used the linked National Health Interview Survey (survey years 1995, 1997-2005) and the Medicaid Analytic eXtract files (1999-2008) to assess utilization of smoking cessation medication benefits among 5,982 cigarette smokers aged 18-64 years enrolled in Medicaid fee-for-service whose state Medicaid insurance covered at least one cessation medication...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207496/recent-advances-in-the-pathogenesis-prediction-and-management-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-associated-interstitial-lung-disease
#18
Cheilonda Johnson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of recently published articles covering interstitial lung disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA-ILD). RECENT FINDINGS: Over the past year, many studies replicated previous findings in more diverse and occasionally larger populations internationally. Specifically, the association among cigarette smoking, high rheumatoid factor titer, elevated anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) levels, and RA-ILD was strengthened...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207340/impact-of-cvs-pharmacy-s-discontinuance-of-tobacco-sales-on-cigarette-purchasing-2012-2014
#19
Jennifer M Polinski, Benjamin Howell, Michael A Gagnon, Steven M Kymes, Troyen A Brennan, William H Shrank
OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of CVS Health's discontinuation of tobacco sales on cigarette purchasing. METHODS: We used households' purchasing data to assess rates at which households stopped cigarette purchasing for at least 6 months during September 2014 to August 2015 among 3 baseline groups: CVS-exclusive cigarette purchasers, CVS+ (CVS and other retailers), and other-exclusive (only non-CVS retailers). In state-level analyses using retailers' point-of-sale purchase data, an interrupted time series compared cigarette purchasing before (January 2012 to August 2014) and after (September 2014 to April 2015) tobacco removal in 13 intervention states with CVS market share of at least 15% versus 3 control states with no CVS stores...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206778/personal-and-cultural-identity-development-in-recently-immigrated-hispanic-adolescents-links-with-psychosocial-functioning
#20
Alan Meca, Raha F Sabet, Colleen M Farrelly, Cynthia G Benitez, Seth J Schwartz, Melinda Gonzales-Backen, Elma I Lorenzo-Blanco, Jennifer B Unger, Byron L Zamboanga, Lourdes Baezconde-Garbanati, Simona Picariello, Sabrina E Des Rosiers, Daniel W Soto, Monica Pattarroyo, Juan A Villamar, Karina M Lizzi
OBJECTIVES: This study examined directionality between personal (i.e., coherence and confusion) and cultural identity (i.e., ethnic and U.S.) as well as their additive effects on psychosocial functioning in a sample of recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents. METHOD: The sample consisted of 302 recent (<5 years) immigrant Hispanic adolescents (53% boys; Mage = 14.51 years at baseline; SD = .88 years) from Miami and Los Angeles who participated in a longitudinal study...
February 16, 2017: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
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