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Stroke prehospital

Matthew S Siket
Although stroke declined from the third to fifth most common cause of death in the United States, the annual incidence and overall prevalence continue to increase. Since the available US Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment options are time dependent, improving early stroke care may have more of a public health impact than any other phase of care. Timely and efficient stroke treatment should be a priority for emergency department and prehospital providers. This article discusses currently available and emerging treatment options in acute ischemic stroke focusing on the preservation of salvageable brain tissue, minimizing complications, and secondary prevention...
November 2016: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
Lauren M Nentwich
Acute ischemic stroke is a challenging and time-sensitive diagnosis. Diagnosis begins with rapid detection of acute stroke symptoms by the patient, their family or caregivers, or bystanders. If acute stroke is suspected, EMS providers should be called for rapid assessment. EMS providers will utilize prehospital stroke tools to diagnose and determine potential stroke severity. Once at the hospital, the stroke team works rapidly to solidify the patient history, perform a focused neurologic examination and obtain necessary laboratory tests and brain imaging to accurately diagnose acute ischemic stroke and properly treat the patient...
November 2016: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
David Carrera, Bruce C V Campbell, Jordi Cortés, Montse Gorchs, Marisol Querol, Xavier Jiménez, Mònica Millán, Antoni Dávalos, Natalia Pérez de la Ossa
BACKGROUND: Prehospital clinical scales to identify patients with acute stroke with a large vessel occlusion (LVO) and direct them to an endovascular-capable stroke center are needed. We evaluated whether simplification of the Rapid Arterial oCclusion Evaluation (RACE) scale, a 5-item scale previously validated in the field, could maintain its high performance to identify patients with LVO. METHODS: Using the original prospective validation cohort of the RACE scale, 7 simpler versions of the RACE scale were designed and retrospectively recalculated for each patient...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
G Lee Pride, Justin F Fraser, Rishi Gupta, Mark J Alberts, J Neal Rutledge, Ray Fowler, Sameer A Ansari, Todd Abruzzo, Barb Albani, Adam Arthur, Blaise Baxter, Ketan R Bulsara, Michael Chen, Josser E Delgado Almandoz, Chirag D Gandhi, Don Heck, Steven W Hetts, Joshua A Hirsch, M Shazam Hussain, Richard Klucznik, Seon-Kyu Lee, William J Mack, Thabele Leslie-Mazwi, Ryan A McTaggart, Philip M Meyers, J Mocco, Charles Prestigiacomo, Athos Patsalides, Peter Rasmussen, Robert M Starke, Peter Sunenshine, Donald Frei, Mahesh V Jayaraman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
Laura Cluzol, Jennifer Cautela, Pierre Michelet, Antoine Roch, François Kerbaul, Julien Mancini, Marc Laine, Michael Peyrol, Floriane Robin, Franck Paganelli, Laurent Bonello, Franck Thuny
BACKGROUND: Acute heart failure (AHF) is a life-threatening medical emergency for which no new effective therapies have emerged in recent decades. No previous study has exhaustively described the entire course of care of AHF patients from first medical contact to hospital discharge or assessed its impact on prognosis. AIM: To fully describe the course of care and analyze its influence on outcomes in patients hospitalized with an AHF syndrome in an academic university center...
September 29, 2016: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
Nerses Sanossian, Kathleen C Apibunyopas, David S Liebeskind, Sidney Starkman, Adrian M Burgos, Robin Conwit, Marc Eckstein, Frank Pratt, Sam Stratton, Scott Hamilton, Jeffrey L Saver
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Greater numbers of individuals aged ≥80 years enjoy a high quality of life, yet historically stroke trials have excluded this population. We aimed to describe a population of very elderly successfully enrolled into an acute stroke trial and compare their characteristics and outcomes with the younger cohort. METHODS: We analyzed consecutive patients enrolled <2 hours of symptom onset in a prehospital stroke treatment trial, the FAST-MAG clinical trial (Field Administration of Stroke Therapy-Magnesium)...
September 27, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
O S Mattila, H Harve, S Pihlasviita, J Ritvonen, G Sibolt, M Pystynen, D Strbian, S Curtze, M Kuisma, T Tatlisumak, P J Lindsberg
OBJECTIVES: Blood-based biomarkers could enable early and cost-effective diagnostics for acute stroke patients in the prehospital setting to support early initiation of treatments. To facilitate development of ultra-acute biomarkers, we set out to implement large-scale prehospital blood sampling and determine feasibility and diagnostic timesavings of this approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Emergency medical services (EMS) personnel of the Helsinki metropolitan area were trained to collect prehospital blood samples from thrombolysis candidates using a cannula adapter technique...
September 18, 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Mark T Mackay, Belinda Stojanovski, Ian Mosley, Leonid Churilov, Geoffrey A Donnan, Paul Monagle
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Taking appropriate action in the prehospital setting is important for rapid stroke diagnosis in adults. Data are lacking for children. We aimed to describe parental care-seeking behavior and prehospital timelines of care in childhood arterial ischemic stroke. METHODS: A structured questionnaire was developed, using value-focused event-driven conceptual modeling techniques, to interview parents of children presenting to the emergency department with arterial ischemic stroke from 2008 to 2014...
October 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
C García-Cabo, L Benavente, J Martínez-Ramos, Á Pérez-Álvarez, A Trigo, S Calleja
INTRODUCTION: Prehospital code stroke (CS) systems have been proved effective for improving access to specialised medical care in acute stroke cases. They also improve the prognosis of this disease, which is one of the leading causes of death and disability in our setting. The aim of this study is to analyse results one year after implementation of the new code stroke protocol at one hospital in Asturias. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We prospectively included patients who were admitted to our tertiary care centre as per the code stroke protocol for the period of one year...
July 25, 2016: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
Bin Jiang, Xiaojuan Ru, Haixin Sun, Hongmei Liu, Dongling Sun, Yunhai Liu, Jiuyi Huang, Li He, Wenzhi Wang
This study aimed to explore pre-hospital delay and its associated factors in first-ever stroke registered in communities from three cities in China. The rates of delay greater than or equal to 2 hours were calculated and factors associated with delays were determined by non-conditional binary logistic regression, after adjusting for different explanatory factors. Among the 403 cases of stroke with an accurate documented time of prehospital delay, the median time (interquartile range) was 4.00 (1.50-14.00) hours...
2016: Scientific Reports
Erika Frischknecht Christensen, Thomas Mulvad Larsen, Flemming Bøgh Jensen, Mette Dahl Bendtsen, Poul Anders Hansen, Søren Paaske Johnsen, Christian Fynbo Christiansen
OBJECTIVE: Knowledge about patients after calling for an ambulance is limited to subgroups, such as patients with cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, trauma and stroke, while population-based studies including all diagnoses are few. We examined the diagnostic pattern and mortality among all patients brought to hospital by ambulance after emergency calls. DESIGN: Registry-based cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We included patients brought to hospital in an ambulance dispatched after emergency calls during 2007-2014 in the North Denmark Region (580 000 inhabitants)...
2016: BMJ Open
Fabricio O Lima, Gisele S Silva, Karen L Furie, Michael R Frankel, Michael H Lev, Érica C S Camargo, Diogo C Haussen, Aneesh B Singhal, Walter J Koroshetz, Wade S Smith, Raul G Nogueira
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with large vessel occlusion strokes (LVOS) may be better served by direct transfer to endovascular capable centers avoiding hazardous delays between primary and comprehensive stroke centers. However, accurate stroke field triage remains challenging. We aimed to develop a simple field scale to identify LVOS. METHODS: The Field Assessment Stroke Triage for Emergency Destination (FAST-ED) scale was based on items of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) with higher predictive value for LVOS and tested in the Screening Technology and Outcomes Project in Stroke (STOPStroke) cohort, in which patients underwent computed tomographic angiography within the first 24 hours of stroke onset...
August 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
John Adam Oostema, Trevor Carle, Nadine Talia, Mathew Reeves
BACKGROUND: Emergency dispatchers represent the first point of contact for patients activating an acute stroke response. Accurate dispatcher stroke recognition is associated with faster emergency medical services response time; however, stroke is often unrecognized during initial emergency calls. Stroke screening tools such as the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale have been shown to improve on-scene stroke recognition and thus have been proposed as a means to improve dispatcher accuracy...
June 28, 2016: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Peter M Koch, Alexander Kunz, Martin Ebinger, Frederik Geisler, Michal Rozanski, Carolin Waldschmidt, Joachim E Weber, Matthias Wendt, Benjamin Winter, Katja Zieschang, Kerstin Bollweg, Sabina Kaczmarek, Matthias Endres, Heinrich J Audebert
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Specialized computed tomography-equipped stroke ambulances shorten time to intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke by starting treatment before hospital arrival. Because of longer travel-time-to-scene, time benefits of this concept are expected to diminish with longer distances from base station to scene. METHODS: We used data from the Prehospital Acute Neurological Treatment and Optimization of Medical Cares in Stroke (PHANTOM-S) trial comparing time intervals between patients for whom a specialized stroke ambulance (stroke emergency mobile) was deployed and patients with conventional emergency medical service...
August 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Iris Quasar Grunwald, Andreas Ragoschke-Schumm, Michael Kettner, Lenka Schwindling, Safwan Roumia, Stefan Helwig, Matthias Manitz, Silke Walter, Umut Yilmaz, Eric Greveson, Martin Lesmeister, Wolfgang Reith, Klaus Fassbender
BACKGROUND: Recently, a mobile stroke unit (MSU) was shown to facilitate acute stroke treatment directly at the emergency site. The neuroradiological expertise of the MSU is improved by its ability to detect early ischemic damage via automatic electronic (e) evaluation of CT scans using a novel software program that calculates the electronic Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (e-ASPECTS). METHODS: The feasibility of integrating e-ASPECTS into an ambulance was examined, and the clinical integration and utility of the software in 15 consecutive cases evaluated...
June 16, 2016: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Sherita N Chapman Smith, Prasanthi Govindarajan, Matthew M Padrick, Jason M Lippman, Timothy L McMurry, Brian L Resler, Kevin Keenan, Brian S Gunnell, Prachi Mehndiratta, Christina Y Chee, Elizabeth A Cahill, Cameron Dietiker, David C Cattell-Gordon, Wade S Smith, Debra G Perina, Nina J Solenski, Bradford B Worrall, Andrew M Southerland
OBJECTIVES: In this 2-center study, we assessed the technical feasibility and reliability of a low cost, tablet-based mobile telestroke option for ambulance transport and hypothesized that the NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) could be performed with similar reliability between remote and bedside examinations. METHODS: We piloted our mobile telemedicine system in 2 geographic regions, central Virginia and the San Francisco Bay Area, utilizing commercial cellular networks for videoconferencing transmission...
July 5, 2016: Neurology
Mirjam R Heldner, Kety Hsieh, Anne Broeg-Morvay, Pasquale Mordasini, Monika Bühlmann, Simon Jung, Marcel Arnold, Heinrich P Mattle, Jan Gralla, Urs Fischer
Simple clinical scores to predict large vessel occlusion (LVO) in acute ischemic stroke would be helpful to triage patients in the prehospital phase. We assessed the ability of various combinations of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) subitems and published stroke scales (i.e., RACE scale, 3I-SS, sNIHSS-8, sNIHSS-5, sNIHSS-1, mNIHSS, a-NIHSS items profiles A-E, CPSS1, CPSS2, and CPSSS) to predict LVO on CT or MR arteriography in 1085 consecutive patients (39.4 % women, mean age 67.7 years) with anterior circulation strokes within 6 h of symptom onset...
August 2016: Journal of Neurology
Sidsel Hastrup, Dorte Damgaard, Søren Paaske Johnsen, Grethe Andersen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We designed and validated a simple prehospital stroke scale to identify emergent large vessel occlusion (ELVO) in patients with acute ischemic stroke and compared the scale to other published scales for prediction of ELVO. METHODS: A national historical test cohort of 3127 patients with information on intracranial vessel status (angiography) before reperfusion therapy was identified. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) items with the highest predictive value of occlusion of a large intracranial artery were identified, and the most optimal combination meeting predefined criteria to ensure usefulness in the prehospital phase was determined...
July 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Michael E Abboud, Roger Band, Judy Jia, William Pajerowski, Guy David, Michelle Guo, C Crawford Mechem, Steven R Messé, Brendan G Carr, Michael T Mullen
OBJECTIVE: Hospital arrival via Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and EMS prenotification are associated with faster evaluation and treatment of stroke. We sought to determine the impact of diagnostic accuracy by prehospital providers on emergency department quality measures. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed of patients presenting via EMS between September 2009 and December 2012 with a discharge diagnosis of transient ischemic attack (TIA), ischemic stroke (IS), or intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)...
May 31, 2016: Prehospital Emergency Care
Brit J Long, Luis A Serrano, Jose G Cabanas, M Fernanda Bellolio
UNLABELLED: Introduction Emergency Medical Service (EMS) systems are vital in the identification, assessment, and treatment of trauma, stroke, myocardial infarction, and sepsis patients, improving early recognition, resuscitation, and transport. Emergency Medical Service personnel provide similar care for patients with syncope. The role of EMS in the management of patients with syncope has not been reported. Hypothesis/Objective The objective of this study was to describe the management of out-of-hospital syncope by prehospital providers in an urban EMS system...
August 2016: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
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