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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645199/do-neurobiological-understandings-of-smoking-influence-quitting-self-efficacy-or-treatment-intentions
#1
Kylie Morphett, Adrian Carter, Wayne Hall, Jayne Lucke, Brad Partridge, Coral Gartner
Introduction: Addiction is increasingly defined as a "brain disease" caused by changes to neurochemistry. While nicotine addiction has historically been excluded in the brain disease model of addiction (BDMA), it is beginning to be labelled a chronic brain disease. We investigated whether Australian smokers endorse brain-based explanations of smoking, and whether these beliefs are associated with quitting self-efficacy or treatment intentions. Method: Cross-sectional study of Australian smokers (N=1,538) who completed a survey measuring their agreement with statements on the brain's role in smoking...
June 22, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644870/effects-of-nicotine-on-corneal-wound-healing-following-acute-alkali-burn
#2
Jong Won Kim, Chae Woong Lim, Bumseok Kim
Epidemiological studies have indicated that smoking is a pivotal risk factor for the progression of several chronic diseases. Nicotine, the addictive component of cigarettes, has powerful pathophysiological properties in the body. Although the effects of cigarette smoking on corneal re-epithelialization have been studied, the effects of nicotine on corneal wound healing-related neovascularization and fibrosis have not been fully demonstrated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic administration of nicotine on corneal wound healing following acute insult induced by an alkali burn...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644205/the-unrecognized-epidemic-of-electronic-cigarette-burns
#3
Jesus I Ramirez, Catherine A Ridgway, Jeanne G Lee, Bruce M Potenza, Soman Sen, Tina L Palmieri, David G Greenhalgh, Pirko Maguina
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are novel battery-operated devices that deliver nicotine as an inhaled aerosol. They originated from China in 2007 and their use has rapidly increased worldwide in the past decade, yet they remain largely unregulated. Reports of injuries associated with their use have appeared as unusual events in the news media and as case reports in the medical literature. This study was undertaken to explore e-cigarettes as a mechanism of burn injury. Referral records to three burn centers from January 2007 to July 2016 were searched to identify patients with injuries caused by e-cigarettes...
July 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643739/patterns-of-tobacco-usage-among-subjects-with-potentially-malignant-oral-lesions-or-conditions-in-chennai-city-a-comparative-study
#4
Mohammed Junaid, Kalaiarasi Periyanan, Anil Raj, P D Madan Kumar
OBJECTIVE: To determine the patterns of tobacco usage among subjects with potentially malignant oral lesions or conditions through a comparative study design. METHODS: The study was carried out in a span of 2 months on a sample of 120 subjects; 60 in case group (30 subjects with leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis [OSMF], respectively) and 60 subjects in control group (30 current smokers and current chewers, respectively), attending the tobacco cessation clinic at a private dental college hospital in Chennai city...
April 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642492/segregation-of-glutamatergic-and-cholinergic-transmission-at-the-mixed-motoneuron-renshaw-cell-synapse
#5
Boris Lamotte d'Incamps, Gardave S Bhumbra, Joshua D Foster, Marco Beato, Philippe Ascher
In neonatal mice motoneurons excite Renshaw cells by releasing both acetylcholine (ACh) and glutamate. These two neurotransmitters activate two types of nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) (the homomeric α7 receptors and the heteromeric α*ß* receptors) as well as the two types of glutamate receptors (GluRs) (AMPARs and NMDARs). Using paired recordings, we confirm that a single motoneuron can release both transmitters on a single post-synaptic Renshaw cell. We then show that co-transmission is preserved in adult animals...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642230/a-review-of-pulmonary-toxicity-of-electronic-cigarettes-in-the-context-of-smoking-a-focus-on-inflammation
#6
Peter G Shields, Micah Berman, Theodore M Brasky, Jo L Freudenheim, Ewy A Mathe, Joseph McElroy, Min-Ae Song, Mark D Wewers
The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) is increasing rapidly, but their effects on lung toxicity are largely unknown. Smoking is a well-established cause of lung cancer and respiratory disease, in part through inflammation. It is plausible that e-cig use might affect similar inflammatory pathways. E-cigs are used by some smokers as an aid for quitting or smoking reduction, and by never smokers (e.g., adolescents and young adults). The relative effects for impacting disease risk may differ for these groups...
June 22, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641950/cholinergic-signaling-plasticity-maintains-viscerosensory-responses-during-aspiculuris-tetraptera-infection-in-mice-small-intestine
#7
Egina C Villalobos-Hernández, Carlos Barajas-López, Elizabeth A Martínez-Salazar, Roberto C Salgado-Delgado, Marcela Miranda-Morales
Intestinal parasites alter gastrointestinal (GI) functions like the cholinergic function. Aspiculuris tetraptera is a pinworm frequently observed in laboratory facilities, which infests the mice cecum and proximal colon. However, little is known about the impact of this infection on the GI sensitivity. Here, we investigated possible changes in spontaneous mesenteric nerve activity and on the mechanosensitivity function of worm-free regions of naturally infected mice with A. tetraptera. Infection increased the basal firing of mesenteric afferent nerves in jejunum...
June 3, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641491/nicotine-and-cigarette-smoke-modulate-nrf2-bdnf-dopaminergic-signal-and-neurobehavioral-disorders-in-adult-rat-cerebral-cortex
#8
Nibedita Naha, D N Gandhi, A K Gautam, J Ravi Prakash
BACKGROUND: Nicotine and cigarette smoking (CS) are associated with addiction behavior, drug-seeking, and abuse. However, the mechanisms that mediate this association especially, the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), dopamine (DA), and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling in the cerebral cortex, are not fully known. Therefore, we hypothesized that overexpression of BDNF and DA, and suppression of Nrf2 contribute to several pathological and behavioral alterations in adult cerebral cortex...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641297/factor-analysis-and-psychometric-properties-of-the-minnesota-nicotine-withdrawal-scale-and-the-minnesota-nicotine-withdrawal-scale-revised-italian-version
#9
Andrea Svicher, Agnese Beghè, Giacomo Mangiaracina, Fiammetta Cosci
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We run Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses of the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS) and of the MNWS-Revised (MNWS-R). Psychometric properties were also explored. METHODS: Adult Italian smokers, 366 in all, were assessed via the MNWS-R together with rating scales measuring cigarette dependence, alcohol use, anxiety sensitivity and negative affect at baseline and after 3 months. RESULTS: The MNWS showed good psychometric properties (α = 0...
June 23, 2017: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640852/differential-roles-of-3-hydroxyflavone-and-7-hydroxyflavone-against-nicotine-induced-oxidative-stress-in-rat-renal-proximal-tubule-cells
#10
Bidisha Sengupta, Mehdi Sahihi, Monireh Dehkhodaei, Darrian Kelly, Istvan Arany
Plant flavonoids are well known as antioxidants against oxidative stress induced by exposure to external pollutants. Nicotine (NIC) is one of those agents which increases renal oxidative stress, an important factor in the pathogenesis of renal epithelial injury in smokers. Although several studies had been conducted on flavonoids and oxidative stress, the mechanism of the protective pathways are not fully understood. Here, we present studies on antioxidant properties of two mono-hydroxyflavone isomers, 3-hydroxyflanove (3HF)- and 7-hydroxyflavone (7HF), against nicotine-associated oxidative stress and injury in cultured renal proximal tubule cells and correlate their antioxidant properties with their chemical structure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640564/-design-and-user-testing-of-a-decision-aid-comparing-medications-for-smoking-cessation
#11
Julian Jakob, Jacques Cornuz, Reto Auer, Isabelle Jacot Sadowski, Regula Cardinaux, Kevin Selby
Medications for smoking cessation, such as nicotine replacement, bupropion and varenicline have comparable efficacy, but present different advantages and drawbacks, making patient-specific preferences important when choosing a medication for smoking cessation. Through 3 PDCA cycles (Plan-Do-Check-Act), we developed and user-tested a decision aid for use during consultations. It contains the most relevant information for choosing a smoking cessation medication and is freely available online. The methodology used for its development could be employed for other decision aids for preference-sensitive decisions...
June 7, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640563/-smoking-vaping-and-cardiovascular-risk-an-update
#12
Sofia Dalkou, Carole Clair
It is well known that tobacco smoking increases cardiovascular (CV) mortality and morbidity, however, smoking cessation is often neglected compared to other CV risk factors. Behavioral counseling as well as smoking cessation treatments are efficient and do not increase the risk of CV events when used for a defined duration. Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) contain potentially cardiotoxic substances but in lower concentrations than in cigarettes. The CV effect of ENDS is to date difficult to assess and depends on the type of device used and its mode of consumption...
June 7, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640562/-vaping-electronic-cigarette-how-to-advise-smokers-in-2017
#13
Isabelle Jacot Sadowski, Jean-Paul Humair, Jacques Cornuz
Questions about electronic cigarettes, also called electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), are very common when advising patients to stop smoking in medical practice. It is widely recognized that the risks of vaping are significantly lower than those of smoking, although there are uncertainties about its long-term health effects. Some studies suggest that vaping helps to stop smoking. Effective smoking cessation medications should be recommended in first line but vaping should not be discouraged when patients choose to use this device, as the main aim is smoking cessation...
June 7, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639813/contingency-management-interventions-for-tobacco-and-other-substance-use-disorders-in-pregnancy
#14
Dennis J Hand, Jennifer D Ellis, Meagan M Carr, Diane J Abatemarco, David M Ledgerwood
Contingency management (CM) is an effective intervention for reducing use of licit and illicit substances in a variety of populations. Pregnant women are a vulnerable population with much to gain from effective interventions for substance use disorders, and for whom CM interventions may be especially well-suited. We reviewed the literature on CM interventions among pregnant women with tobacco and other substance use disorders with 3 aims: (a) describe the effectiveness of CM for reducing use of tobacco and other substances during pregnancy, (b) describe the effects of CM interventions on infant outcomes, and (c) identify needs for future research on CM in pregnancy...
June 22, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639209/substance-use-and-misuse-among-children-and-youth-with-mental-illness-a%C3%A2-pilot-study
#15
V Herz, N Franzin, J Huemer, D Mairhofer, J Philipp, K Skala
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine prevalence, patterns and predictors of substance use among a sample of adolescent psychiatric inpatients. METHODS: Participants included 25 minors aged 12-17 years admitted to an Austrian department of child and adolescent psychiatry. Lifetime use, initiation, frequency and quantity of substance use, sociodemographic, family and school-related data were collected by self-report measures. Substance use disorders were detected using CAGE (a screening instrument for problem drinking) and FTND (Fagerström Test For Nicotine Dependence)...
June 21, 2017: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638710/nicotine-prevented-learning-and-memory-impairment-in-rem-sleep-deprived-rat-is-modulated-by-dream-protein-in-the-hippocampus
#16
Norlinda Abd Rashid, Hermizi Hapidin, Hasmah Abdullah, Zalina Ismail, Idris Long
INTRODUCTION: REM sleep deprivation is associated with impairment in learning and memory, and nicotine treatment has been shown to attenuate this effect. Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of DREAM protein in learning and memory processes. This study investigates the association of DREAM protein in REM sleep-deprived rats hippocampus upon nicotine treatment. METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to normal condition, REM sleep deprivation and control wide platform condition for 72 hr...
June 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638646/crystal-structure-of-4-4-bis-3-piperidin-1-yl-prop-1-yn-1-yl-1-1-biphen-yl
#17
Anqi Walbaum, E Kim Fifer, Sean Parkin, Peter A Crooks
The title compound, C28H32N2, (I), is one of a second generation of compounds designed and synthesized based on a very potent and selective α9α10 nicotinic acetyl-choline receptor antagonist ZZ161C {1,1'-[[1,1'-biphen-yl]-4,4'-diylbis(prop-2-yne-3,1-di-yl)]bis-(3,4-di-methyl-pyridin-1-ium) bromide}, which has shown analgesic effects in a chemotherapy-induced neuropathy animal model. Compound (I) was synthesized by the reaction of 4,4'-bis-(3-bromo-prop-1-yn-1-yl)-1,1'-biphenyl with piperidine at room temperature in aceto-nitrile...
June 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637659/enduring-effects-of-perinatal-nicotine-exposure-on-murine-sleep-in-adulthood
#18
Jeremy Charles Borniger, Reuben F Don, Ning Zhang, Robert Thomas Boyd, Randy J Nelson
The long-term consequences of early life nicotine exposure are poorly defined. Approximately 8-10% of women report smoking during pregnancy, and this may promote aberrant development in the offspring. To this end, we investigated potential enduring effects of perinatal nicotine exposure on murine sleep and affective behaviors in adulthood (~13-15 weeks of age) in C57Bl6j mice. Mothers received a water bottle containing 200 µg/ml nicotine bitartrate dihydrate in 2% w/v saccharin or pH-matched 2% saccharin with 0...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637344/nicotine-delivery-to-the-aerosol-of-a-heat-not-burn-tobacco-product-comparison-with-a-tobacco-cigarette-and-e-cigarettes
#19
Konstantinos E Farsalinos, Nikoletta Yannovits, Theoni Sarri, Vassilis Voudris, Konstantinos Poulas
Introduction: The purpose was to measure nicotine levels to the tobacco and levels emitted to the aerosol of a heat-not-burn product (HnB, IQOS) compared to e-cigarettes (ECs) and a tobacco cigarette. Methods: The HnB device and regular and menthol sticks were purchased from Italy. Three types of ECs (ciga-like, eGo-style and variable wattage) and a commercially-available tobacco cigarette were also tested. A custom-made liquid containing 2% nicotine was used with ECs...
June 16, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637262/qualitative-exploration-of-a-smoking-cessation-trial-for-people-living-with-hiv-in-south-africa
#20
Nandita Krishnan, Joel Gittelsohn, Alexandra Ross, Jessica Elf, Sandy Chon, Raymond Niaura, Neil Martinson, Jonathan E Golub
Introduction: In South Africa, people living with HIV (PLWH) have a high prevalence of smoking, which undermines the beneficial effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, little is known about barriers to smoking cessation and what interventions work for PLWH in this setting. Methods: A randomized trial comparing intensive anti-smoking counseling versus counseling and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was recently concluded in Klerksdorp, South Africa. In a post-trial follow-up, 23 in-depth interviews with patients and one focus group discussion with counselors from the trial were conducted...
June 16, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
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