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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355739/nicotine-induces-apoptosis-in-human-osteoblasts-via-a-novel-mechanism-driven-by-h2o2-and-entailing-glyoxalase-1-dependent-mg-h1-accumulation-leading-to-tg2-mediated-nf-kb-desensitization-implication-for-smokers-related-osteoporosis
#1
Lorella Marinucci, Stefania Balloni, Katia Fettucciari, Maria Bodo, Vincenzo N Talesa, Cinzia Antognelli
Nicotine contained in cigarette smoke contributes to the onset of several diseases, including osteoporosis, whose emerging pathogenic mechanism is associated with osteoblasts apoptosis. Scanty information is available on the molecular mechanisms of nicotine on osteoblasts apoptosis and, consequently, on an important aspect of the pathogenesis of smokers-related osteoporosis. Glyoxalase 1 (Glo1) is the detoxification enzyme of methylglyoxal (MG), a major precursor of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), potent pro-apoptotic agents...
January 17, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355641/the-nicotinic-receptor-drug-sazetidine-a-reduces-alcohol-consumption-in-mice-without-affecting-concurrent-nicotine-consumption
#2
Jillienne C Touchette, Jamie J Maertens, Margaret M Mason, Kyu Y O'Rourke, Anna M Lee
Alcohol and nicotine addiction are frequently co-morbid. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are critical for both alcohol and nicotine addiction mechanisms, since nAChR drugs that reduce nicotine consumption have been shown to also reduce alcohol consumption. Sazetidine-A, a pre-clinical nAChR drug with agonist and desensitizing effects at α4β2 and α7 nAChRs, has been reported to reduce alcohol consumption and nicotine self-administration in rats when administered at high doses. However, this effect has not been replicated in mice...
January 17, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355593/an-approach-to-testing-undiluted-e-cigarette-aerosol-in-vitro-using-3d-reconstituted-human-airway-epithelium
#3
E Bishop, L Haswell, J Adamson, S Costigan, D Thorne, M Gaca
The data presented here show that to provide an estimate of the relative cytotoxicity and therefore potency of e-cigarettes, undiluted aerosol techniques can be used. With the emergence of electronic nicotine delivery systems, fit-for-purpose in vitro screening methods are required. Reconstituted 3D human airway epithelium, was exposed to undiluted aerosols at the air-liquid interface, using a Vitrocell VC 10. TEER, cilia beat frequency and cytotoxic responses were assessed. Using two smoking regimes (ISO and HCI) a 3R4F reference cigarette, produced IC50s of 5...
January 17, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354872/self-administered-nicotine-increases-fat-metabolism-and-suppresses-weight-gain-in-male-rats
#4
Laura E Rupprecht, Alison D Kreisler, Samantha R Spierling, Giordano de Guglielmo, Marsida Kallupi, Olivier George, Eric C Donny, Eric P Zorrilla, Alan F Sved
RATIONALE: The ability of nicotine to suppress body weight is cited as a factor impacting smoking initiation and the failure to quit. Self-administered nicotine in male rats suppresses weight independent of food intake, suggesting that nicotine increases energy expenditure. OBJECTIVE: The current experiment evaluated the impact of self-administered nicotine on metabolism in rats using indirect calorimetry and body composition analysis. METHODS: Adult male rats with ad libitum access to powdered standard rodent chow self-administered intravenous infusions of nicotine (60 μg/kg/infusion or saline control) in daily 1-h sessions in the last hour of the light cycle...
January 21, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353911/miscellanea-dependent-generalized-functional-linear-models
#5
S Jadhav, H L Koul, Q Lu
This paper considers testing for no effect of functional covariates on response variables in multivariate regression. We use generalized estimating equations to determine the underlying parameters and establish their joint asymptotic normality. This is then used to test the significance of the effect of predictors on the vector of response variables. Simulations demonstrate the importance of considering existing correlation structures in the data. To explore the effect of treating genetic data as a function, we perform a simulation study using gene sequencing data and find that the performance of our test is comparable to that of another popular method used in sequencing studies...
December 2017: Biometrika
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353067/antinociception-of-the-spirocyclopiperazinium-salt-compound-lxm-15-via-activating-%C3%AE-7-nachr-and-m4-machr-and-inhibiting-camkii%C3%AE-camp-creb-cgrp-signalling-pathway-in-mice
#6
Hua Yang, Qi Sun, Yingying Liang, Yimin Jiang, Runtao Li, Jia Ye
The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic effect of the spirocyclopiperazinium salt compound LXM-15 by intragastric administration in thermal and chemical pain models and further to elucidate the possible molecular mechanisms. The results showed that LXM-15 exerted significant antinociception in hot-plate test, formalin test and acetic acid writhing test. Western blot analysis showed that LXM-15 significantly reduced the upregulation of phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin -dependent protein kinaseⅡα (CaMKIIα) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and further decreased the elevation of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord in mice...
January 15, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352468/developmental-plasticity-of-gabaergic-neurotransmission-to-brainstem-motoneurons
#7
Lila Buls Wollman, Richard B Levine, Ralph F Fregosi
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) signalling regulates neuronal differentiation and synaptogenesis. Here we test the hypothesis that developmental nicotine exposure (DNE) disrupts the development of GABAergic synaptic transmission to hypoglossal motoneurons (XIIMNs). GABAergic spontaneous and miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSC/mIPSC) were recorded from XIIMNs in brainstem slices from control and DNE rat pups of either sex, 1-5 days old, at baseline and following acute stimulation of nAChRs with nicotine...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352227/ly2087101-and-dfbr-share-transmembrane-binding-sites-in-the-%C3%AE-4-3-%C3%AE-2-2-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor
#8
Farah Deba, Hamed I Ali, Abisola Tairu, Kara Ramos, Jihad Ali, Ayman K Hamouda
Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have potential therapeutic application in neuropathologies associated with decrease in function or loss of nAChRs. In this study, we characterize the pharmacological interactions of the nAChRs PAM, LY2087101, with the α4β2 nAChR using mutational and computational analyses. LY2087101 potentiated ACh-induced currents of low-sensitivity (α4)3(β2)2 and high-sensitivity (α4)2(β2)3 nAChRs with similar potencies albeit to a different maximum potentiation (potentiation I max  = ~840 and 450%, respectively)...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351507/-i-smoke-like-this-to-suppress-these-issues-that-are-flaws-of-my-character-challenges-and-facilitators-of-cessation-among-smokers-with-bipolar-disorder
#9
Jaimee L Heffner, Noreen L Watson, Jennifer B McClure, Robert M Anthenelli, Sarah Hohl, Jonathan B Bricker
OBJECTIVE: Smokers with bipolar disorder (BD) have low rates of successful quitting, yet no prior studies have evaluated the process of quitting among these smokers in the context of a current quit attempt. To facilitate development of more effective interventions, we conducted a qualitative exploration of challenges and facilitators of quitting in an intervention study for smokers with BD. METHODS: Participants were adult daily smokers with BD (n = 10) who completed a 10-week smoking cessation intervention consisting of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and nicotine patch...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351185/brief-report-lead-levels-in-selected-electronic-cigarettes-from-canada-and-the-united-states
#10
Zachary R Dunbar, Ananth Das, Richard J O'Connor, Maciej L Goniewicz, Binnian Wei, Mark J Travers
Few published studies have investigated the presence of lead in the e-liquid of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). Lead inhalation is associated with increased risk of stroke, heart disease, and other diseases. This study used a novel application of graphite furnace technology to compare the concentration of lead between e-liquids of different packaging and product designs using e-liquids that are or were commercially available in the United States and Canada. Eleven nicotine-free disposable ENDS devices and 12 bottled refill solutions that contained nicotine were purchased from retailers in Canada and the United States between 2015 and 2017...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350765/probability-and-correlates-of-nicotine-dependence-among-smokers-with-and-without-major-depressive-disorder-results-from-the-national-epidemiology-survey-on-alcohol-and-related-conditions
#11
Hamzah Alghzawi
PURPOSE: This study aims to use data from a nationally representative survey to examine the correlates of nicotine dependence among smokers with and without major depressive disorder. METHODS: Data were drawn from the Wave 1 of the National Epidemiology Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC, 2001-2002). Logistic regression analyses taking into account the complex sampling design were used to examine the correlates of nicotine dependence. RESULTS: The typical correlates of nicotine dependence (odds > 1...
January 19, 2018: Perspectives in Psychiatric Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350320/ethical-implications-in-vaccine-pharmacotherapy-for-treatment-and-prevention-of-drug-of-abuse-dependence
#12
Anna Carfora, Paola Cassandro, Alessandro Feola, Francesco La Sala, Raffaella Petrella, Renata Borriello
Different immunotherapeutic approaches are in the pipeline for the treatment of drug dependence. "Drug vaccines" aim to induce the immune system to produce antibodies that bind to drugs and prevent them from inducing rewarding effects in the brain. Drugs of abuse currently being tested using these new approaches are opioids, nicotine, cocaine, and methamphetamine. In human clinical trials, "cocaine and nicotine vaccines" have been shown to induce sufficient antibody levels while producing few side effects. Studies in humans, determining how these vaccines interact in combination with their target drug, are underway...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350176/pharmacokinetic-characterization-of-three-novel-4-mg-nicotine-lozenges%C3%A2
#13
Manpreet Sukhija, Reena Srivastava, Aditya Kaushik
OBJECTIVE: Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) increases the probability of smoking cessation. This study was conducted to determine if three prototype 4-mg nicotine lozenges produced locally in India were bioequivalent to a globally marketed reference product, Nicorette® 4-mg nicotine lozenge. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Healthy adult smokers (N = 39) were treated with three prototype 4-mg nicotine lozenges in comparison with a reference 4-mg lozenge in this single-center, randomized, open-label, single-dose, 4-way crossover study...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349263/worldviews-and-trust-of-sources-for-health-information-on-electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems-effects-on-risk-perceptions-and-use
#14
Scott R Weaver, Amelia Jazwa, Lucy Popova, Paul Slovic, Richard B Rothenberg, Michael P Eriksen
Public health agencies, the news media, and the tobacco/vapor industry have issued contradictory statements about the health effects of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). We investigated the levels of trust that consumers place in different information sources and how trust is associated with cultural worldviews, risk perceptions, ENDS use, and sociodemographic characteristics using a nationally representative sample of 6051 U.S. adults in 2015. Seventeen percent of adults were uncertain about their trust for one or more potential sources...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349250/best-worst-scaling-survey-of-preferences-regarding-the-adverse-effects-of-tobacco-use-in-china
#15
Takeshi Mori, Takahiro Tsuge
We use best-worst scaling to assess two types of concern levels of the adverse consequences of smoking in China. While the smoking cessation policy has worked well in Taiwan, more than 1 million people in mainland China are estimated to die every year from tobacco use. This study compares the preferences of Chinese individuals in the two jurisdictions (mainland versus Taiwan) and explores the possibility of information-based interventions. The relative importance of 13 adverse effects was assessed by conducting a web-based survey on a sample of 480 Chinese participants...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348436/high-throughput-analysis-using-non-depletive-spme-challenges-and-applications-to-the-determination-of-free-and-total-concentrations-in-small-sample-volumes
#16
Ezel Boyacı, Barbara Bojko, Nathaly Reyes-Garcés, Justen J Poole, Germán Augusto Gómez-Ríos, Alexandre Teixeira, Beate Nicol, Janusz Pawliszyn
In vitro high-throughput non-depletive quantitation of chemicals in biofluids is of growing interest in many areas. Some of the challenges facing researchers include the limited volume of biofluids, rapid and high-throughput sampling requirements, and the lack of reliable methods. Coupled to the above, growing interest in the monitoring of kinetics and dynamics of miniaturized biosystems has spurred the demand for development of novel and revolutionary methodologies for analysis of biofluids. The applicability of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is investigated as a potential technology to fulfill the aforementioned requirements...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346545/influence-of-nicotine-metabolism-ratio-on-11c-phno-pet-binding-in-tobacco-smokers
#17
Patricia Di Ciano, Rachel F Tyndale, Esmaeil Mansouri, Christian S Hendershot, Alan A Wilson, Dina Lagzdins, Sylvain Houle, Isabelle Boileau, Bernard Le Foll
Background: Identifying the biological basis of smoking cessation success is of growing interest. The rate of nicotine metabolism, measured by the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), affects multiple aspects of nicotine dependence. Fast nicotine metabolizers (FM) tend to smoke more, experience more withdrawal and craving and have lower cessation rates as compared to slow metabolizers (SM). The NMR predicts treatment response, and differences in brain activation between FM and SM have been reported in fMRI studies...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345720/effects-of-nicotine-administration-in-rats-on-mmp2-and-vegf-levels-in-periodontal-membrane
#18
Buşra Deveci, Buket Ayna, İbrahim Halil Tacir, Engin Deveci, Mehmet Cudi Tuncer, Ayşegül Pala
Nicotine is associated with increased incidence of periodontal disease and poor response to therapy. This article aimed at identifying the expression of Matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP2) and Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) proteins on extracellular matrix, fibrous distribution and angiogenetic development in periodontitis caused by nicotine effects on periodontal membrane. In this experimental study, the groups were divided into nicotine and control groups. While the nicotine groups in rats (n=6) were administered 2mg/kg Nicotine sulphate for 28 days, the control group in rats (n=6) were only administered 1,5 ml physiologic saline solution subcutaneously for 28 days...
January 18, 2018: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343689/a-novel-%C3%AE-conopeptide-eu1-6-inhibits-n-type-cav2-2-calcium-channels-and-exhibits-potent-analgesic-activity
#19
Zhuguo Liu, Peter Bartels, Mahsa Sadeghi, Tianpeng Du, Qing Dai, Cui Zhu, Shuo Yu, Shuo Wang, Mingxin Dong, Ting Sun, Jiabin Guo, Shuangqing Peng, Ling Jiang, David J Adams, Qiuyun Dai
We here describe a novel α-conopeptide, Eu1.6 from Conus eburneus, which exhibits strong anti-nociceptive activity by an unexpected mechanism of action. Unlike other α-conopeptides that largely target nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), Eu1.6 displayed only weak inhibitory activity at the α3β4 and α7 nAChR subtypes and TTX-resistant sodium channels, and no activity at TTX-sensitive sodium channels in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, or opiate receptors, VR1, KCNQ1, L- and T-type calcium channels expressed in HEK293 cells...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343455/adolescent-social-stress-increases-anxiety-like-behavior-and-alters-synaptic-transmission-without-influencing-nicotine-responses-in-a-sex-dependent-manner
#20
Michael J Caruso, Nicole A Crowley, Dana E Reiss, Jasmine I Caulfield, Bernhard Luscher, Sonia A Cavigelli, Helen M Kamens
Early-life stress is a risk factor for comorbid anxiety and nicotine use. Because little is known about the factors underlying this comorbidity, we investigated the effects of adolescent stress on anxiety-like behavior and nicotine responses within individual animals. Adolescent male and female C57BL/6J mice were exposed to chronic variable social stress (CVSS; repeated cycles of social isolation + social reorganization) or control conditions from postnatal days (PND) 25-59. Anxiety-like behavior and social avoidance were measured in the elevated plus-maze (PND 61-65) and social approach-avoidance test (Experiment 1: PND 140-144; Experiment 2: 95-97), respectively...
January 14, 2018: Neuroscience
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