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Xianhua Liu, Ruiheng Yang, Bo Dai, Honghao Zhang, Jinxue Wang, Ning Ma
BACKGROUND: Studies indicate that nicotinic acid and related compounds may decrease phosphorus concentrations effectively by reducing the absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. However, the efficacy and safety of oral niacin treatments have only been investigated in a limited number of small-scale studies. METHODS: We performed this meta-analysis by pooling 12 qualified relevant preclinical and clinical trials to evaluate the association of nicotinic acid (and its related compounds) treatment and hyperphosphatemia among dialysis patients...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Chun-Kuei Su, Yi-Yin Chen, Chiu-Ming Ho
Nitric oxide (NO) is a diffusible gas and has multifarious effects on both pre- and postsynaptic events. As a consequence of complex excitatory and inhibitory integrations, NO effects on neuronal activities are heterogeneous. Using in vitro preparations of neonatal rats that retain the splanchnic sympathetic nerves and the thoracic spinal cord as an experimental model, we report here that either enhancement or attenuation of NO production in the neonatal rat spinal cords could increase, decrease, or not change the spontaneous firing behaviors recorded from splanchnic sympathetic single fibers...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Ghulam Hussain, Azhar Rasul, Haseeb Anwar, Nimra Aziz, Aroona Razzaq, Wei Wei, Muhammad Ali, Jiang Li, Xiaomeng Li
Neurodegenerative diseases are conventionally demarcated as disorders with selective loss of neurons. Conventional as well as newer molecules have been tested but they offer just symptomatic advantages along with abundant side effects. The discovery of more compelling molecules that can halt the pathology of these diseases will be considered as a miracle of present time. Several synthetic compounds are available but they may cause several other health issues. Therefore, natural molecules from the plants and other sources are being discovered to replace available medicines...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Eva Ceskova, Petr Silhan
In spite of tremendous development in central nervous system research, current treatment is suboptimal, especially in severe mental disorders. In medicine, there are two main methods of improving the health care provided: seeking new treatment procedures and perfecting (optimizing) the existing ones. Optimization of treatment includes not only practical tools such as therapeutic drug monitoring but also implementation of general trends in the clinical practice. New pharmacological options include new more sophisticated forms of monoaminergic drugs, old drugs rediscovered on the base of a better understanding of pathophysiology of mental illnesses, and drugs aimed at new treatment targets...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Alexa A Lopez, Ryan Redner, Allison N Kurti, Diana R Keith, Andrea C Villanti, Cassandra A Stanton, Diann E Gaalema, Janice Y Bunn, Nathan J Doogan, Antonio Cepeda-Benito, Megan E Roberts, Stephen T Higgins
This study examined prevalence and correlates of using cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and other tobacco/nicotine delivery products in a U.S. national sample of women of reproductive age. Weighted data were obtained from women aged 15-44 years who were not currently pregnant in the first wave of the Population Assessment of Health and Tobacco (PATH, 2013-2014) study (N = 12,848). 20.1% of women were current cigarette smokers, 5.9% current e-cigarette users, 4.9% current cigar smokers, and 6.5% current hookah users...
March 17, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Jian Weng, Yan-Hua Wang, Ming Li, Dian-Ying Zhang, Bao-Guo Jiang
Delay of axon regeneration after peripheral nerve injury usually leads to progressive muscle atrophy and poor functional recovery. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is considered to be one of the main molecular mechanisms that lead to skeletal muscle atrophy in the elderly. We hold the hypothesis that the innervation of target muscle can be promoted by accelerating axon regeneration and decelerating muscle cell degeneration so as to improve functional recovery of skeletal muscle following peripheral nerve injury...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Kateryna Zhalnina, Katherine B Louie, Zhao Hao, Nasim Mansoori, Ulisses Nunes da Rocha, Shengjing Shi, Heejung Cho, Ulas Karaoz, Dominique Loqué, Benjamin P Bowen, Mary K Firestone, Trent R Northen, Eoin L Brodie
Like all higher organisms, plants have evolved in the context of a microbial world, shaping both their evolution and their contemporary ecology. Interactions between plant roots and soil microorganisms are critical for plant fitness in natural environments. Given this co-evolution and the pivotal importance of plant-microbial interactions, it has been hypothesized, and a growing body of literature suggests, that plants may regulate the composition of their rhizosphere to promote the growth of microorganisms that improve plant fitness in a given ecosystem...
March 19, 2018: Nature Microbiology
Shin-Ichi Hachisuka, Takaaki Sato, Haruyuki Atomi
Many organisms possess pathways that regenerate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ ) from its degradation products, and two pathways are known to salvage NAD+ from nicotinamide (Nm). One is a four-step pathway that proceeds through deamination of Nm to nicotinic acid (Na) by Nm deamidase and phosphoribosylation to nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN), followed by adenylylation and amidation. Another is a two-step pathway that does not involve deamination, and directly proceeds with the phosphoribosylation of Nm to nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), followed by adenylylation...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
D Thorne, M Hollings, A Seymour, J Adamson, A Dalrymple, M Ballantyne, M Gaca
There is a growing consensus that e-cigarettes hold the potential for reducing the harm associated with cigarette smoking. Recently published studies have reported in vitro testing of e-cigarettes, demonstrating reduced toxicological and biological effects. Few studies however have reported the use of e-cigarettes under extreme testing conditions. To assess the full mutagenic potential of a commercially available electronic-cigarette (Vype ePen), this study investigated the delivery of aerosol under extreme conditions, using a scaled-down 35 mm plate Ames bacterial reverse mutagenicity assay...
April 2018: Mutation Research
Karolina Pekala, Agnieszka Michalak, Marta Kruk-Slomka, Barbara Budzynska, Grazyna Biala
Taking into account the rather frequent concomitance of nicotine abuse and stress, we aimed to research memory- and depression-related effects of nicotine administration in combination with chronic mild unpredictable stress (CMUS) in mice and an involvement of the endocannabinoid system through CB1 and CB2 receptors. Mice were submitted to the CMUS for 4 weeks. Effects on depression-like behaviors and cognition, exerted by a combined administration of CB1, i.e., Oleamide (2.5, 5.0 mg/kg), AM 251 (0.1, 0.25 mg/kg) and CB2, i...
March 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Andrine M Lemieux, Motohiro Nakajima, Riyadh Saif-Ali, Molham Al-Habori, Anisa Dokam, Mustafa al'Absi
INTRODUCTION: Glucocorticoid activity is disrupted in substance users including khat chewers who also use tobacco. Anger, dysphoria, and anxiety can mediate this relationship. The aim of this study was to contrast emotion dysregulation and substance use variables as predictors of post-stress cortisol output. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Comparable numbers of males (n = 90) and females (n = 85) including controls, khat only, and concurrent khat and tobacco users participated in a stress study...
March 2, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Erin S Rogers, Steven S Fu, Paul Krebs, Siamak Noorbaloochi, Sean M Nugent, Amy Gravely, Scott E Sherman
INTRODUCTION: Veterans with a mental health diagnosis have high rates of tobacco use but encounter low rates of treatment from providers. This study tested whether a proactive tobacco treatment approach increases treatment engagement and abstinence rates in Department of Veterans Affairs mental health patients. STUDY DESIGN: RCT. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: The study was performed from 2013 to 2017 and analyses were conducted in 2017. Investigators used the electronic medical record at four Veterans Administration facilities to identify patients documented as current smokers and who had a mental health clinic visit in the past 12 months...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Katherine A McDermott, Keanan J Joyner, Jahn K Hakes, Sarah A Okey, Jesse R Cougle
BACKGROUND: Pain interference is associated with substance use, but has yet to be considered as a potential indicator of SUDs among substance users. We sought to examine whether moderate and high pain interference would confer risk for SUDs in ever and weekly users. METHODS: Using data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between pain interference and concurrent and prospective alcohol and nicotine dependence, as well as concurrent cannabis use disorder...
March 7, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Chen Geng, Tengfei Zhao, Chunxian Yang, Qiaozhuo Zhang, Feng Bai, Junlan Zeng, Fangyuan Zhang, Xiaoqiang Liu, Xiaozhong Lan, Min Chen, Zhihua Liao
N-methylputrescine is the precursor of nicotine and pharmaceutical tropane alkaloids such as hyoscyamine. Putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT) catalyzes the N-methylation of putrescine to form N-methylputrescine. While the role of PMT in nicotine biosynthesis is clear, knowledge of PMT in the biosynthesis of tropane alkaloids (TAs) and the regulation of polyamines remains limited. We characterized a PMT gene from Hyoscyamus niger, designated HnPMT that was specifically expressed in roots, especially in the secondary roots and dramatically induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA)...
March 2, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Asti Jackson, Roger L Papke, M Imad Damaj
RATIONALE: Recent preclinical data has implicated the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) as a target in modulating nicotine reward. However, the role of the channel properties of the α7 nAChR in nicotine withdrawal is unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the impact of α7 nAChR pharmacological modulation on mecamylamine-precipitated nicotine withdrawal behaviors in mice by using positive allosteric modulators (PAMs). METHODS: The effect of the orthosteric α7 nAChR full agonist PNU282987 (1, 3, 9 mg/kg, s...
March 16, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Francisco I Salgado García, Karen J Derefinko, Zoran Bursac, Sarah Hand, Robert C Klesges
Smoking cessation programs are efficacious and have been validated to assist the 10% to 30% of smokers who are ready to quit in the next 30 days. While the majority of smokers want to quit smoking in the future, only 69% are planning to quit within the next year. Planning a Change Easily (PACE) is a nation-wide, telephone-based comparative effectiveness, randomized controlled trial for smokers not ready to quit (SNRTQ). This project, as well as its intervention components, outcomes, and hypotheses are discussed...
March 13, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Bryan W Heckman, K Michael Cummings, Georges J Nahas, Marc C Willemsen, Richard J O'Connor, Ron Borland, Alexander A Hirsch, Warren K Bickel, Matthew J Carpenter
Introduction: The demand for alternative nicotine/tobacco products is not well established. This paper uses a behavioral economic approach to test whether smokers have differential demand for conventional factory-made, electronic, and very low nicotine content cigarettes (FMCs/ECs/VLNCs) and uses the prospective cohort design to test the predictive validity of demand indices on subsequent use of commercially available FMCs and ECs. Methods: Daily smokers (>16 years) from the Netherlands completed an online survey in April 2014 (N=1215)...
March 14, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Barry A Finegan, Daniel Roblin, Fadi Hammal
Quality problem: For smokers, hospital admission is accompanied by forced involuntary nicotine abstinence due to smoke-free site/grounds policies. An audit of patients admitted to our surgical wards revealed that identification of smoking status was inadequate and that nicotine addiction management (NAM) was infrequently offered. The project aimed to enhance both these metrics by initiating NAM in the post anesthesia care unit (PACU). Initial assessment: Out of 744 patients admitted to our PACU in August 2015, 54% had their smoking status documented...
March 14, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
Ying Hu, Zhonghai Fang, Yichen Yang, Ting Fan, Ju Wang
Nicotine dependence is the primary addictive stage of cigarette smoking. Although a lot of studies have been performed to explore the molecular mechanism underlying nicotine dependence, our understanding on this disorder is still far from complete. Over the past decades, an increasing number of candidate genes involved in nicotine dependence have been identified by different technical approaches, including the genetic association analysis. In this study, we performed a comprehensive collection of candidate genes reported to be genetically associated with nicotine dependence...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Verena M Throm, David Männle, Thomas Giese, Andrea S Bauer, Matthias M Gaida, Juergen Kopitz, Thomas Bruckner, Konstanze Plaschke, Svetlana P Grekova, Klaus Felix, Thilo Hackert, Nathalia A Giese, Oliver Strobel
Smoking is associated with increased risk and poorer prognosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Nicotine acts through cholinergic nicotinic receptors, preferentially α7 (CHRNA7) that also binds the endogenous ligand SLURP1 (Secreted Ly-6/uPAR-Related Protein 1). The clinical significance of SLURP1 and its interaction with nicotine in PDAC are unclear. We detected similar levels of SLURP1 in sera from healthy donors and patients with chronic pancreatitis or PDAC; higher preoperative values were associated with significantly better survival in patients with resected tumors...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
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