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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914011/activation-of-alpha-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-reduces-brain-edema-in-mice-with-ischemic-stroke-and-bone-fracture
#1
Dingquan Zou, Man Luo, Zhenying Han, Lei Zhan, Wan Zhu, Shuai Kang, Chen Bao, Zhao Li, Jeffrey Nelson, Rui Zhang, Hua Su
Stroke is an important risk factor for bone fracture. We showed previously that bone fracture at the acute stage of ischemic stroke worsens, and activation of α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α-7 nAchR) improves, stroke recovery by attenuating inflammation. We hypothesized that activation of α-7 nAchR also improves the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. Permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) was performed on C57BL/6J mice followed by tibia fracture 1 day later. Mice were treated with 0...
December 2, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913969/laser-photobiomodulation-830-and-660%C3%A2-nm-in-mast-cells-vegf-fgf-and-cd34-of-the-musculocutaneous-flap-in-rats-submitted-to-nicotine
#2
Lais Mara Siqueira das Neves, Gabriella de Paula Marcondes Ferreira Leite, Alexandre Marcio Marcolino, Carlos Eduardo Pinfildi, Sérgio Britto Garcia, João Eduardo de Araújo, Elaine Caldeira de Oliveira Guirro
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of laser photobiomodulation (PBM) on the viability of the transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap in rats subjected to the action of nicotine. We evaluated 60 albino Wistar rats, divided into six groups of ten animals. Group 1 (saline) underwent the surgical technique to obtain a TRAM flap; group 2 (laser 830 nm) underwent the surgical technique and was irradiated with a laser 830 nm; group 3 (laser 660 nm) underwent the surgical technique and was irradiated with a laser 660 nm; group 4 was treated with nicotine subcutaneously (2 mg/kg/2×/day/4 weeks) and underwent surgery; group 5 (nicotine + laser 830 nm) was exposed to nicotine, underwent the surgical technique, and was irradiated with a laser 830 nm; group 6 (nicotine + laser 660 nm) was exposed to nicotine, underwent the surgical technique, and was irradiated with a laser 660 nm...
December 2, 2016: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913689/how-is-low-parental-socioeconomic-status-associated-with-future-smoking-and-nicotine-dependence-in-offspring-a-population-based-longitudinal-13-year-follow-up
#3
Willy Pedersen, Tilmann Von Soest
AIMS: Low socioeconomic status (SES) characterizes smoking and nicotine dependence in adult samples. However, less is known about how parental SES is linked to smoking in offspring and the potential mechanisms at work. METHODS: A population-based longitudinal study (n=1380) from Norway was used. Participants were followed from their mid-teens until their late 20s using survey and register data. Data were collected on parental education, parental smoking, educational aspirations and expectations, school grades and school-related conduct problems...
December 1, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913258/an-experimental-study-on-the-effects-of-smoking-in-the-perinatal-period-and-during-lactation-on-the-intervertebral-discs-of-newborns
#4
Idiris Altun, Kasım Z Yuksel
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the histopathological effects of smoking before, during and after pregnancy on the intervertebral disc structure of the newborns in an experimental rat model. METHODS: Seven adult female Wistar Albino rats were randomly allocated into 7 groups. Nicotine (2 mg/kg/day) was intraperitoneally introduced to these rats in 6 groups before, during and after pregnancy, while the rat in the control group received isotonic saline intraperitoneally. Fourteen newborns delivered by each rat were sacrificed at the end of 9 weeks after being breastfed for 3 weeks after birth...
November 29, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913206/mag-fluo4-in-t-cells-imaging-of-intra-organelle-free-ca-2-concentrations
#5
Björn-Philipp Diercks, Ralf Fliegert, Andreas H Guse
Ca(2+) signaling is a major signal transduction pathway involved in T cell activation, but also in apoptosis of T cells. Since T cells make use of several Ca(2+)-mobilizing second messengers, such as nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate, d-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, and cyclic ADP-ribose, we intended to analyze luminal Ca(2+) concentration upon cell activation. Mag-Fluo4/AM, a low-affinity Ca(2+) dye known to localize to the endoplasmic reticular lumen in many cell types, showed superior brightness and bleaching stability, but, surprisingly, co-localized with mito-tracker, but not with ER-tracker in Jurkat T cells...
November 29, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913166/dose-dependent-effect-of-donepezil-administration-on-long-term-enhancement-of-visually-evoked-potentials-and-cholinergic-receptor-overexpression-in-rat-visual-cortex
#6
Mira Chamoun, Marianne Groleau, Menakshi Bhat, Elvire Vaucher
Stimulation of the cholinergic system tightly coupled with periods of visual stimulation boosts the processing of specific visual stimuli via muscarinic and nicotinic receptors in terms of intensity, priority and long-term effect. However, it is not known whether more diffuse pharmacological stimulation with donepezil, a cholinesterase inhibitor, is an efficient tool for enhancing visual processing and perception. The goal of the present study was to potentiate cholinergic transmission with donepezil treatment (0...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911815/nicotinic-receptors-in-mouse-prefrontal-cortex-modulate-ultraslow-fluctuations-related-to-conscious-processing
#7
Fani Koukouli, Marie Rooy, Jean-Pierre Changeux, Uwe Maskos
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays an important role in cognitive processes, including access to consciousness. The PFC receives significant cholinergic innervation and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) contribute greatly to the effects of acetylcholine signaling. Using in vivo two-photon imaging of both awake and anesthetized mice, we recorded spontaneous, ongoing neuronal activity in layer II/III in the PFC of WT mice and mice deleted for different nAChR subunits. As in humans, this activity is characterized by synchronous ultraslow fluctuations and neuronal synchronicity is disrupted by light general anesthesia...
December 2, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910771/induction-of-flavin-containing-monooxygenase-in-mice-by-oral-administration-of-phellinus-baumii-agaricomycetes-extract
#8
Batbayar Sainkhuu, Beom Su Park, Ha Won Kim
Phellinus baumii is a yellow mushroom long used in alternative medicine in Korea and other central Asian countries. To identify genes affected by a single or 7-day oral administration of a water extract of Ph. Baumii, mouse liver tissue was analyzed using microarrays. The results showed that 8 and 23 genes were upregulated and 3 and 11 genes downregulated more than 3-fold by single and multiple oral administrations of 100 mg/kg PBE, respectively. Among the upregulated genes, the expression of 3 flavin-containing monooxygenase (Fmo) family genes, Fmo2-4, was upregulated in a concentration-dependent manner...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910109/electronic-absorption-spectra-of-pyridine-and-nicotine-in-aqueous-solution-with-a-combined-molecular-dynamics-and-polarizable-qm-mm-approach
#9
Marco Pagliai, Giordano Mancini, Ivan Carnimeo, Nicola De Mitri, Vincenzo Barone
The electronic absorption spectra of pyridine and nicotine in aqueous solution have been computed using a multistep approach. The computational protocol consists in studying the solute solvation with accurate molecular dynamics simulations, characterizing the hydrogen bond interactions, and calculating electronic transitions for a series of configurations extracted from the molecular dynamics trajectories with a polarizable QM/MM scheme based on the fluctuating charge model. Molecular dynamics simulations and electronic transition calculations have been performed on both pyridine and nicotine...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909995/solithromycin-a-novel-fluoroketolide-for-the-treatment-of-community-acquired-bacterial-pneumonia
#10
REVIEW
George G Zhanel, Erika Hartel, Heather Adam, Sheryl Zelenitsky, Michael A Zhanel, Alyssa Golden, Frank Schweizer, Bala Gorityala, Philippe R S Lagacé-Wiens, Andrew J Walkty, Alfred S Gin, Daryl J Hoban, Joseph P Lynch, James A Karlowsky
Solithromycin is a novel fluoroketolide developed in both oral and intravenous formulations to address increasing macrolide resistance in pathogens causing community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). When compared with its macrolide and ketolide predecessors, solithromycin has several structural modifications which increase its ribosomal binding and reduce its propensity to known macrolide resistance mechanisms. Solithromycin, like telithromycin, affects 50S ribosomal subunit formation and function, as well as causing frame-shift errors during translation...
December 1, 2016: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909988/predicting-the-abuse-liability-of-entactogen-class-new-and-emerging-psychoactive-substances-via-preclinical-models-of-drug-self-administration
#11
Shawn M Aarde, Michael A Taffe
Animal models of drug self-administration are currently the gold standard for making predictions regarding the relative likelihood that a recreational drug substance will lead to continued use and addiction. Such models have been found to have high predictive accuracy and discriminative validity for a number of drug classes including ethanol, nicotine, opioids, and psychostimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine. Members of the entactogen class of psychostimulants (drugs that produce an "open mind state" including feelings of interpersonal closeness, intimacy and empathy) have been less frequently studied in self-administration models...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908269/levamisole-a-positive-allosteric-modulator-for-the-%C3%AE-3%C3%AE-4-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-prevents-weight-gain-in-cd-1-mice-on-a-high-fat-diet
#12
Jeanne A Lewis, Jerrel L Yakel, Anshul A Pandya
Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) regulate the function of multiple neurotransmitter pathways throughout the central nervous system. This includes nAChRs found on the proopiomelanocortin neurons in the hypothalamus. Activation of these nAChRs by nicotine causes a decrease in consumption of food in rodents. In this study, we tested the effect of subtype selective allosteric modulators for nAChRs on the body weight of CD-1 mice. Levamisole, an allosteric modulator for the α3β4 subtype of nAChRs, prevented weight gain in mice that were fed a high fat diet...
December 1, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907839/influence-of-picolinic-acid-on-seizure-susceptibility-in-mice
#13
Anna Cioczek-Czuczwar, Piotr Czuczwar, Waldemar Andrzej Turski, Jolanta Parada-Turska
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of drug resistance in epilepsy remains unknown. Picolinic acid (PIC) is an endogenous metabolite of the kynurenine pathway and a chelating agent added to dietary supplements. Both inhibitory and excitatory properties of PIC were reported. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of exogenously applied PIC upon the electroconvulsive threshold and the activity of chemical convulsants in eight models of epilepsy in mice. METHODS: All experiments were performed on adult male Swiss albino mice...
October 12, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907050/when-is-the-brain-dead-living-like-electrophysiological-responses-and-photon-emissions-from-applications-of-neurotransmitters-in-fixed-post-mortem-human-brains
#14
Michael A Persinger, Nicolas Rouleau, Nirosha J Murugan, Lucas W E Tessaro, Justin N Costa
The structure of the post-mortem human brain can be preserved by immersing the organ within a fixative solution. Once the brain is perfused, cellular and histological features are maintained over extended periods of time. However, functions of the human brain are not assumed to be preserved beyond death and subsequent chemical fixation. Here we present a series of experiments which, together, refute this assumption. Instead, we suggest that chemical preservation of brain structure results in some retained functional capacity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907022/nicotine-induces-podocyte-apoptosis-through-increasing-oxidative-stress
#15
Xiqian Lan, Rivka Lederman, Judith M Eng, Seyedeh Shadafarin Marashi Shoshtari, Moin A Saleem, Ashwani Malhotra, Pravin C Singhal
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking plays an important role in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Nicotine, one of the major components of cigarette smoking, has been demonstrated to increase proliferation of renal mesangial cells. In this study, we examined the effect of nicotine on podocyte injury. METHODS: To determine the expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR subunits) in podocytes, cDNAs and cell lysate of cultured human podocytes were used for the expression of nAChR mRNAs and proteins, respectively; and mouse renal cortical sections were subjected to immunofluorescant staining...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905916/study-protocol-a-dose-escalating-phase-2-study-of-oral-lisdexamfetamine-in-adults-with-methamphetamine-dependence
#16
Nadine Ezard, Adrian Dunlop, Brendan Clifford, Raimondo Bruno, Andrew Carr, Alexandra Bissaker, Nicholas Lintzeris
BACKGROUND: The treatment of methamphetamine dependence is a continuing global health problem. Agonist type pharmacotherapies have been used successfully to treat opioid and nicotine dependence and are being studied for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. One potential candidate is lisdexamfetamine, a pro-drug for dexamphetamine, which has a longer lasting therapeutic action with a lowered abuse potential. The purpose of this study is to determine the safety of lisdexamfetamine in this population at doses higher than those currently approved for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or binge eating disorder...
December 1, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905561/anti-hu-antibodies-activate-enteric-and-sensory-neurons
#17
Qin Li, Klaus Michel, Anita Annahazi, Ihsan E Demir, Güralp O Ceyhan, Florian Zeller, Lars Komorowski, Winfried Stöcker, Michael J Beyak, David Grundy, Gianrico Farrugia, Roberto De Giorgio, Michael Schemann
IgG of type 1 anti-neuronal nuclear antibody (ANNA-1, anti-Hu) specificity is a serological marker of paraneoplastic neurological autoimmunity (including enteric/autonomic) usually related to small-cell lung carcinoma. We show here that IgG isolated from such sera and also affinity-purified anti-HuD label enteric neurons and cause an immediate spike discharge in enteric and visceral sensory neurons. Both labelling and activation of enteric neurons was prevented by preincubation with the HuD antigen. Activation of enteric neurons was inhibited by the nicotinic receptor antagonists hexamethonium and dihydro-β-erythroidine and reduced by the P2X antagonist pyridoxal phosphate-6-azo (benzene-2,4-disulfonic acid (PPADS) but not by the 5-HT3 antagonist tropisetron or the N-type Ca-channel blocker ω-Conotoxin GVIA...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905059/exposure-to-secondhand-smoke-impairs-fracture-healing-in-rats
#18
Hildemberg A R Santiago, Ariane Zamarioli, Manoel D Sousa Neto, Jose B Volpon
BACKGROUND: Nonsmokers may be affected by environmental tobacco smoke (secondhand smoke), but the effects of such exposure on fracture healing have not been well studied. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: To explore the possible effects of passive inhalation of tobacco smoke on the healing of a diaphyseal fracture in femurs of rats. We hypothesized that secondhand exposure to tobacco smoke adversely affects fracture healing. METHODS: A mid-diaphyseal fracture was created in the femur of 41 female Wistar rats and fixed with an intramedullary metallic pin; 14 rats were excluded (nine for inadequate fractures and five for K wire extrusion)...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904164/consequences-and-possible-predictors-of-health-damaging-behaviors-and-mental-health-problems-in-pregnancy-a-review
#19
REVIEW
F Ulrich, F Petermann
In recent decades, the understanding of the short and longer term effects of health-damaging behaviors and mental health problems in pregnant women and the underlying mechanisms of these behaviors and illnesses has significantly increased. In contrast, little is known about the factors affecting individual pregnant women which contribute to health-damaging behaviors and mental illness. The aim of this paper was therefore to summarize the current state of research into the consequences of nicotine and alcohol consumption, malnutrition, excessive weight gain or obesity, and impaired mental health (depression and anxiety) during pregnancy...
November 2016: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903957/medicalisation-smoking-and-e-cigarettes-evidence-and-implications
#20
Kylie Morphett, Adrian Carter, Wayne Hall, Coral Gartner
There is debate in the tobacco control literature about the value of a medical model in reducing smoking-related harm. The variety of medical treatments for smoking cessation has increased, health professionals are encouraged to use them to assist smoking cessation and tobacco dependence is being described as a 'chronic disease'. Some critics suggest that the medicalisation of smoking undermines the tobacco industry's responsibility for the harms of smoking. Others worry that it will lead smokers to deny personal responsibility for cessation, create beliefs in 'magic bullets' for smoking cessation, or erode smokers' confidence in their ability to quit...
November 30, 2016: Tobacco Control
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