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Cancer evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332370/hallmarks-in-the-evolution-of-gynaecological-cancer-surgery-the-famous-pioneers-in-children
#1
Marianna Karamanou, Nikolaos Salakos, Ioannis Grammatikakis, George Androutsos
At the beginning of the 19th century, gynaecological cancer, mainly cancer of the uterus and cervix was a dreadful, incurable affection. However, the popularization of the three fundamentals in surgery, anesthesia, asepsis and haemostasis, ushered the golden age of operative gynaecology. During that period distinguished surgeons/gynaecologists such as Friedrich Benjamin Osiander (1759-1822), Elias von Siebold (1775-1828) and Joseph-Claude-Anthelme Récamier (1774-1852) contributed to the development of the operative techniques, providing a therapeutic solution in gynaecological cancer...
November 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332326/carcinogenic-potential-of-antitumor-therapies-is-the-risk-predictable
#2
Ivanka Nenova, Janet Grudeva-Popova
The growing number of successfully cured cancer patients has created a new field in oncogenesis. The life expectancy of such patients has increased, however this favorable event may create enough time for epigenetic events to occur which can cause a new carcinognic event, i.e. a secondary malignancy. The terms in use are second primary malignancies as well as therapy-related neoplasms in case the treatment of the first neoplasm is a direct cause. Second primary malignancies can be hematological neoplasms or solid tumors, with solid tumors having higher frequency...
November 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331867/classification-and-evolution-of-human-papillomavirus-genome-variants-alpha-5-hpv26-51-69-82-alpha-6-hpv30-53-56-66-alpha-11-hpv34-73-alpha-13-hpv54-and-alpha-3-hpv61
#3
Zigui Chen, Mark Schiffman, Rolando Herrero, Rob DeSalle, Kathryn Anastos, Michel Segondy, Vikrant V Sahasrabuddhe, Patti E Gravitt, Ann W Hsing, Paul K S Chan, Robert D Burk
HPV variants from the same type can be classified into lineages and sublineages based on the complete genome differences and the phylogenetic topologies. We examined nucleotide variations of twelve HPV types within the species Alpha-5 (HPV26, 51, 69, 82), Alpha-6 (HPV30, 53, 56, 66), Alpha-11 (HPV34, 73), Alpha-13 (HPV54) and Alpha-3 (HPV61) by analyzing 1432 partial sequences and 181 complete genomes from multiple geographic populations. The inter-lineage and inter-sublineage mean differences of HPV variants ranged between 0...
January 11, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331227/the-impact-of-technology-on-the-changing-practice-of-lung-sbrt
#4
REVIEW
Marianne Camille Aznar, Samantha Warren, Mischa Hoogeman, Mirjana Josipovic
Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung tumours has been gaining wide acceptance in lung cancer. Here, we review the technological evolution of SBRT delivery in lung cancer, from the first treatments using the stereotactic body frame in the 1990's to modern developments in image guidance and motion management. Finally, we discuss the impact of current technological approaches on the requirements for quality assurance as well as future technological developments.
January 10, 2018: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331175/tracerx-tracking-tumor-evolution-to-impact-the-course-of-lung-cancer
#5
EDITORIAL
Marcelo Vailati Negrao, Kelly Quek, Jianjun Zhang, Boris Sepesi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329582/when-do-patient-reported-quality-of-life-indicators-become-prognostic-in-breast-cancer
#6
Chee Khoon Lee, Malcolm Hudson, John Simes, Karin Ribi, Jürg Bernhard, Alan S Coates
BACKGROUND: Various patient reported quality-of-life indicators are independently prognostic for survival in metastatic breast cancer and other cancers. The same measures recorded at first diagnosis of early breast cancer carry no corresponding prognostic information. The present study aims to assess at what time in the disease evolution the prognostic association appears. METHODS: Among 8024 patients enrolled in one of seven randomized controlled trials in early-stage breast cancer 3247 had a breast cancer relapse after a median follow-up of 12...
January 12, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327728/diverse-modes-of-clonal-evolution-in-hbv-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma-revealed-by-single-cell-genome-sequencing
#7
Meng Duan, Junfeng Hao, Sijia Cui, Daniel L Worthley, Shu Zhang, Zhichao Wang, Jieyi Shi, Longzi Liu, Xiaoying Wang, Aiwu Ke, Ya Cao, Ruibin Xi, Xiaoming Zhang, Jian Zhou, Jia Fan, Chong Li, Qiang Gao
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a cancer of substantial morphologic, genetic and phenotypic diversity. Yet we do not understand the relationship between intratumor heterogeneity and the associated morphologic/histological characteristics of the tumor. Using single-cell whole-genome sequencing to profile 96 tumor cells (30-36 each) and 15 normal liver cells (5 each), collected from three male patients with HBV-associated HCC, we confirmed that copy number variations occur early in hepatocarcinogenesis but thereafter remain relatively stable throughout tumor progression...
January 12, 2018: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324969/apobec-mutagenesis-in-drug-resistance-and-immune-escape-in-hiv-and-cancer-evolution
#8
S Venkatesan, R Rosenthal, N Kanu, N McGranahan, J Bartek, S A Quezada, J Hare, R S Harris, C Swanton
The APOBEC mutational signature has only recently been detected in a multitude of cancers through next-generation sequencing. In contrast, APOBEC has been a focus of virology research for over a decade. Many lessons learnt regarding APOBEC within virology are likely to be applicable to cancer. In this review, we explore the parallels between the role of APOBEC enzymes in HIV and cancer evolution. We discuss data supporting the role of APOBEC mutagenesis in creating HIV genome heterogeneity, drug resistance, and immune escape variants...
January 8, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324546/applying-precision-medicine-to-ovarian-cancer-proof-of-principle-for-a-molecular-second-look
#9
Melissa Schwartz, Olga Camacho-Vanegas, Ashley M Wood, Matthew Dashkoff, Courtney Whitelock, Timothy T Harkins, Carmel J Cohen, Ann Marie Beddoe, Peter Dottino, John A Martignetti
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to assess if targeted investigation for tumor-specific mutations by ultradeep DNA sequencing of peritoneal washes of ovarian cancer patients after primary surgical debulking and chemotherapy, and clinically diagnosed as disease free, provides a more sensitive and specific method to assess actual treatment response and tailor future therapy and to compare this "molecular second look" with conventional cytology and histopathology-based findings...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323545/focal-nodular-hyperplasia-after-treatment-with-oxaliplatin-a-multiinstitutional-series-of-cases-diagnosed-at-mri
#10
Alessandro Furlan, Giuseppe Brancatelli, Marco Dioguardi Burgio, Luigi Grazioli, Jeong Min Lee, Elena Murmura, Olivier Lucidarme, Christiane Strauss, Agnes Rode, Maxime Ronot, Valerie Vilgrain
OBJECTIVE: Benign hepatic lesions may occur after chemotherapy treatment and may mimic metastases at imaging. We describe focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) lesions diagnosed at MRI that occurred de novo after treatment with oxaliplatin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a multiinstitutional case series. We report 14 adult patients with cancer (eight men and six women) with a history of treatment with oxaliplatin and development of new hepatic lesions diagnosed as FNH at pathologic analysis or MRI or both...
January 11, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323486/a-ph-sensing-optode-for-mapping-spatiotemporal-gradients-in-3d-paper-based-cell-cultures
#11
Rachael M Kenney, Matthew W Boyce, Nathan Whitman, Brenden P Kromhout, Matthew R Lockett
Paper-based cultures are an emerging platform for preparing 3D tissue-like structures. Chemical gradients can be imposed upon these cultures, generating microenvironments similar to those found in poorly vascularized tumors. There is increasing evidence that the tumor microenvironment is responsible for promoting drug resistance and increased invasiveness. Acidosis, or the acidification of the extracellular space, is particularly important in promoting these aggressive cancer phenotypes. To better understand how cells respond to acidosis there is a need for 3D culture platforms that not only model relevant disease states, but also contain sensors capable of quantifying the extracellular environment...
January 11, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321667/the-management-of-retinoblastoma
#12
REVIEW
Ido D Fabian, Zerrin Onadim, Esin Karaa, Catriona Duncan, Tanzina Chowdhury, Irene Scheimberg, Shin-Ichi Ohnuma, M Ashwin Reddy, Mandeep S Sagoo
Retinoblastoma (Rb) is the most common primary intraocular malignancy of childhood, but an uncommon paediatric cancer, with a constant incidence worldwide of 1:15,000-1:20,000 live births. Despite its rarity, Rb has served as a cornerstone in the field of oncology in many of the aspects that comprise cancer management, including classification schemes, treatment modalities, genetic testing and screening. Until just over half a century ago, the major treatment for Rb was eye removal, and prognosis was poor with outcome fatal for most children...
January 11, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320604/reconstruction-of-molecular-network-evolution-from-cross-sectional-omics-data
#13
Mehran Aflakparast, Mathisca C M de Gunst, Wessel N van Wieringen
Cross-sectional studies may shed light on the evolution of a disease like cancer through the comparison of patient traits among disease stages. This problem is especially challenging when a gene-gene interaction network needs to be reconstructed from omics data, and, in addition, the patients of each stage need not form a homogeneous group. Here, the problem is operationalized as the estimation of stage-wise mixtures of Gaussian graphical models (GGMs) from high-dimensional data. These mixtures are fitted by a (fused) ridge penalized EM algorithm...
January 10, 2018: Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320389/sponges-a-reservoir-of-genes-implicated-in-human-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Helena Ćetković, Mirna Halasz, Maja Herak Bosnar
Recently, it was shown that the majority of genes linked to human diseases, such as cancer genes, evolved in two major evolutionary transitions-the emergence of unicellular organisms and the transition to multicellularity. Therefore, it has been widely accepted that the majority of disease-related genes has already been present in species distantly related to humans. An original way of studying human diseases relies on analyzing genes and proteins that cause a certain disease using model organisms that belong to the evolutionary level at which these genes have emerged...
January 10, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317634/punctuated-evolution-of-canonical-genomic-aberrations-in-uveal-melanoma
#15
Matthew G Field, Michael A Durante, Hima Anbunathan, Louis Z Cai, Christina L Decatur, Anne M Bowcock, Stefan Kurtenbach, J William Harbour
Cancer is thought to arise through the accumulation of genomic aberrations evolving under Darwinian selection. However, it remains unclear when the aberrations associated with metastasis emerge during tumor evolution. Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary eye cancer and frequently leads to metastatic death, which is strongly linked to BAP1 mutations. Accordingly, UM is ideally suited for studying the clonal evolution of metastatic competence. Here we analyze sequencing data from 151 primary UM samples using a customized bioinformatic pipeline, to improve detection of BAP1 mutations and infer the clonal relationships among genomic aberrations...
January 9, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316705/translocation-breakpoints-preferentially-occur-in-euchromatin-and-acrocentric-chromosomes
#16
Cheng-Yu Lin, Ankit Shukla, John P Grady, J Lynn Fink, Eloise Dray, Pascal H G Duijf
Chromosomal translocations drive the development of many hematological and some solid cancers. Several factors have been identified to explain the non-random occurrence of translocation breakpoints in the genome. These include chromatin density, gene density and CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)/cohesin binding site density. However, such factors are at least partially interdependent. Using 13,844 and 1563 karyotypes from human blood and solid cancers, respectively, our multiple regression analysis only identified chromatin density as the primary statistically significant predictor...
January 8, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315013/on-the-evolution-of-bile-salts-and-the-farnesoid-x-receptor-in-vertebrates
#17
Kim Frisch, Aage Kristian Olsen Alstrup
In recent decades, our knowledge of bile salts has undergone a vast development, and bile salts are now known not only for their detergent properties that aid in the absorption of dietary lipids but also for their interaction with specific nuclear and membrane receptors. In particular, it has been realized that the response of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) to bile acids provides a signal bridge between the liver and small intestine, controlling the intracellular levels, biosynthesis, and enterohepatic circulation of bile acids...
March 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312538/genome-wide-gene-expression-analysis-in-the-amphioxus-branchiostoma-belcheri-after-poly-i-c-challenge-using-strand-specific-rna-seq
#18
Qi-Lin Zhang, Zheng-Qing Xie, Ming-Zhong Liang, Bang Luo, Xiu-Qiang Wang, Jun-Yuan Chen
The gene expression associated with immune response to bacteria/bacterial mimic has been extensively analyzed in amphioxus, but remains largely unknown about how gene are involved in the immune response to viral invasion at expression level. Here, we analyze the rRNA-depleted transcriptomes of Branchiostoma belcheri using strand-specific RNA-seq in response to the viral mimic, poly (I:C) (pIC). A total of 5,317 differentially expressed genes were detected at treatment group by comparing with control. The gene with the most significant expression changes (top 15) after pIC challenge and 7 immune-related categories involving 58 differently expressed genes were scrutinized...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306548/disrupting-the-warburg-effect-re-routes-cancer-cells-to-oxphos-offering-a-vulnerability-point-via-ferroptosis-induced-cell-death
#19
REVIEW
Maša Ždralević, Milica Vučetić, Boutaina Daher, Ibtissam Marchiq, Scott K Parks, Jacques Pouysségur
The evolution of life from extreme hypoxic environments to an oxygen-rich atmosphere has progressively selected for successful metabolic, enzymatic and bioenergetic networks through which a myriad of organisms survive the most extreme environmental conditions. From the two lethal environments anoxia/high O2, cells have developed survival strategies through expression of the transcriptional factors ATF4, HIF1 and NRF2. Cancer cells largely exploit these factors to thrive and resist therapies. In this review, we report and discuss the potential therapeutic benefit of disrupting the major Myc/Hypoxia-induced metabolic pathway, also known as fermentative glycolysis or "Warburg effect", in aggressive cancer cell lines...
December 28, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305616/inhibitors-of-protein-translocation-across-membranes-of-the-secretory-pathway-novel-antimicrobial-and-anticancer-agents
#20
REVIEW
Victor Van Puyenbroeck, Kurt Vermeire
Proteins routed to the secretory pathway start their journey by being transported across biological membranes, such as the endoplasmic reticulum. The essential nature of this protein translocation process has led to the evolution of several factors that specifically target the translocon and block translocation. In this review, various translocation pathways are discussed together with known inhibitors of translocation. Properties of signal peptide-specific systems are highlighted for the development of new therapeutic and antimicrobial applications, as compounds can target signal peptides from either host cells or pathogens and thereby selectively prevent translocation of those specific proteins...
January 5, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
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