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Cancer evolution

Jie Li, He Huang, Yingguang Li, Li Li, Wenhui Hou, Zeshan You
Long non-coding RNA growth arrest-specific 5 (GAS5) was reported to be aberrantly expressed in various types of cancers. However, the role of GAS5 in the evolution and progression of ovarian cancer remains elusive. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the cellular function and clinical significance of GAS5 in ovarian cancer. GAS5 expression levels in 63 ovarian cancer tissues were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was performed to analyze the effect of GAS5 on cell proliferation...
October 24, 2016: Oncology Reports
Andrea Barsevick
OBJECTIVES: To examine the evolution of the concept of the symptom cluster through literature synthesis and identify knowledge gaps. DATA SOURCES: Published literature. CONCLUSION: A robust body of research has developed showing that clusters of symptoms can be identified empirically with modest evidence of convergence across methods. The science would benefit from a coordinated effort of qualitative studies to ensure that appropriate symptoms are evaluated; empirical symptom cluster identification studies building upon qualitative work; and subgroup identification studies based on empirically defined symptom clusters...
October 21, 2016: Seminars in Oncology Nursing
Qi Zhang, Zhongduo Wang, Feng Hou, Rachel Harding, Xinyi Huang, Aiping Dong, John R Walker, Yufeng Tong
BACKGROUND: Seven in absentia homologs (SIAHs) comprise a family of highly conserved E3 ubiquitin ligases that play an important role in regulating signalling pathways in tumorigenesis, including the DNA damage repair and hypoxia response pathways. SIAH1 and SIAH2 have been found to function as a tumour repressor and a proto-oncogene, respectively, despite the high sequence identity of their substrate binding domains (SBDs). Ubiquitin-specific protease USP19 is a deubiquitinase that forms a complex with SIAHs and counteracts the ligase function...
October 21, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
A Dokala, S S Thakur
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane receptor with tyrosine kinase activity involved in regulation of cellular multiplication, survival, differentiation and metastasis. Our knowledge about function and complex management of these receptors has driving the development of specific and targeted treatment modalities for human cancers in the last 20 years. EGFR is the first receptor target against which monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have been evolved for cancer treatment. Here we review the biology of ErbB receptors, including their architecture, signaling, regulation and therapeutic strategies and the mechanisms of resistances offered by the receptors against small-molecule tyrosine kinases and resistance overcome implications of mAbs...
October 24, 2016: Oncogene
Andrew G Nicholson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Pathology
S Boissonneau, L-M Terrier, S De La Rosa Morilla, L Troude, J P Lavieille, P-H Roche
BACKGROUND: Gangliogliomas are rare tumors of the central nervous system. We report two unusual cases of gangliogliomas located in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA). POPULATION AND METHODS: The first patient was a 57-year-old woman, who presented with dizziness and harbored a non-enhanced heterogeneous mass located in the cisternal space of the CPA. A partial microsurgical removal was performed, and the pathological examination concluded a grade I ganglioglioma according to the WHO Classification...
October 19, 2016: Neuro-Chirurgie
Chen-Hsiang Yeang, Robert A Beckman
BACKGROUND: Current cancer precision medicine strategies match therapies to static consensus molecular properties of an individual's cancer, thus determining the next therapeutic maneuver. These strategies typically maintain a constant treatment while the cancer is not worsening. However, cancers feature complicated sub-clonal structure and dynamic evolution. We have recently shown, in a comprehensive simulation of two non-cross resistant therapies across a broad parameter space representing realistic tumors, that substantial improvement in cure rates and median survival can be obtained utilizing dynamic precision medicine strategies...
October 22, 2016: Biology Direct
Daniel Nichol, Mark Robertson-Tessi, Peter Jeavons, Alexander R A Anderson
Non-genetic variation in phenotypes, or bet-hedging, has been observed as a driver of drug resistance in both bacterial infections and cancers. Here, we study how bet-hedging emerges in the genotype-phenotype mapping through a simple interaction model: a molecular switch. We use simple Chemical Reaction Networks to implement stochastic switches that map gene products to phenotypes and investigate the impact of structurally distinct mappings on the evolution of phenotypic heterogeneity. Bet-hedging naturally emerges within this model and is robust to evolutionary loss through mutations to both the expression of individual genes and to the network itself...
October 21, 2016: Genetics
(no author information available yet)
Most pancreatic tumors display complex rearrangements linked to mitotic errors and chromothripsis.
October 21, 2016: Cancer Discovery
Denis Querleu, Jacques Meurette, Emile Daraï, Philippe Morice, François Planchamp
Surgery has evolved as a mainstay of the management of ovarian cancer since evidence of the major benefit of complete surgery, i.e. achieving complete resection of the disease without visible macroscopic residue in a comprehensively explored abdominal cavity, has been made available. This objective may be difficult to complete in case of advanced ovarian cancer, as it requires the use of advanced techniques of peritoneal and visceral surgery, in the setting of adapted perioperative care, generally in institutions where the caseload is sufficient to ensure an appropriate surgical experience, and where specifically trained surgeons are available...
October 18, 2016: Bulletin du Cancer
Ching-Feng Yang, Wan-Yu Tsai, Wei-An Chen, Kai-Wen Liang, Cheng-Ju Pan, Pei-Lun Lai, Pan-Chyr Yang, Hsiao-Chun Huang
During natural evolution, the spindles often scale with cell sizes to orchestrate accurate chromosome segregation. Whether in cancer evolution, when the constraints on genome integrity are relaxed, cancer cells may evolve the spindle to confer other advantages has not been investigated. Using invasion as a selective pressure in vitro, we found that a highly metastatic cancer clone displays a lengthened metaphase spindle, with faster spindle elongation that correlates with transiently elevated speed of cell migration...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
James J Hsieh, Emily H Cheng
With the ever-increasing complexity of tumor heterogeneity (TH) discovered through cancer genome sequencing, it is apparent that TH has become the biggest hurdle for precision cancer therapeutics. Through studying the genomics of exceptional responders to targeted therapeutic agents in kidney cancer, we demonstrated parallel convergent gene/pathway/capability/function evolution of kidney cancer in the context of TH, which prompted us to propose a new cancer evolution model "the braided cancer river model". Based on this model, we might be able to outsmart a given cancer type within an individual patient through simultaneously inhibiting preferred parallel pathways or sequential nodes...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Fernando Velayos, Priya Kathpalia, Emily Finlayson
This review chronicles the evolution of dysplasia detection and management in IBD since 1925, the year the first case report of colitis-related colorectal cancer was published. We have grouped advances in colorectal cancer research, endoscopic techniques, surgery, and technology into 4 unequally timed eras, before colonoscopy, early era of colonoscopy, new century, and 2017 and beyond. We conclude that colorectal cancer prevention and dysplasia management for patients with IBD has changed over these periods, from somewhat hopeless to hopeful...
October 17, 2016: Gastroenterology
Sanaz Tabarestani, Marzieh Motallebi, Mohammad Esmaeil Akbari
CONTEXT: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer constitutes the majority of these cancers. Hormone therapy has significantly improved clinical outcomes for early- and late-stage hormone receptor positive breast cancer. Although most patients with early stage breast cancer are treated with curative intent, approximately 20% - 30% of patients eventually experience a recurrence. During the last two decades, there have been tremendous efforts to understand the biological mechanisms of hormone therapy resistance, with the ultimate goal of implementing new therapeutic strategies to improve the current treatments for ER positive breast cancer...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Cancer Prevention
Paula D Bos
A prerequisite for tumor evolution toward a malignant state is the establishment of cell intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms of immune suppression (Hanahan and Weinberg, 2000, 2011; Schreiber, Old, and Smyth, 2011). Widespread recruitment of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (TREG) is a prevailing means to dampen antitumor immunity. Advances in the characterization of TREG cell heterogeneity and physiological function of tissue resident TREG cells unfold new possibilities for nontraditional tumor-promoting functions of intratumoral TREG cells...
October 19, 2016: Immunological Investigations
Yingjiao Xue, Shenda Hou, Hongbin Ji, Xiangkun Han
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Targeted therapy is beneficial in most cases, but the development of drug resistance stands as an obstacle to good prognosis. Multiple mechanisms were explored such as genetic alterations, activation of bypass signaling, and phenotypic transition. These intrinsic and/or extrinsic dynamic regulations facilitate tumor cell survival in meeting the demands of signaling under different stimulus. This review introduces lung cancer plasticity and heterogeneity and their correlation with drug resistance...
October 18, 2016: Protein & Cell
Jinghua Wu, Shan Jia, Changxi Wang, Wei Zhang, Sixi Liu, Xiaojing Zeng, Huirong Mai, Xiuli Yuan, Yuanping Du, Xiaodong Wang, Xueyu Hong, Xuemei Li, Feiqiu Wen, Xun Xu, Jianhua Pan, Changgang Li, Xiao Liu
Acute B lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is one of the most common types of childhood cancer worldwide and chemotherapy is the main treatment approach. Despite good response rates to chemotherapy regiments, many patients eventually relapse and minimal residual disease (MRD) is the leading risk factor for relapse. The evolution of leukemic clones during disease development and treatment may have clinical significance. In this study, we performed immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) repertoire high throughput sequencing (HTS) on the diagnostic and post-treatment samples of 51 pediatric B-ALL patients...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Maria Zhivagui, Michael Korenjak, Jiri Zavadil
Mutation spectra in cancer genomes provide information on the disease aetiology and the causality underlying the evolution and progression of cancer. Genome-wide mutation patterns reflect the effects of mutagenic insults and can thus reveal past carcinogen-specific exposures and inform hypotheses on the causative factors for specific cancer types. In order to identify mutation profiles in human cancers, single genes studies were first employed, focusing mainly on the tumour suppressor gene TP53. Furthermore, experimental studies had been developed in model organisms...
October 18, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Naftali Stern
As both the rate of hypertension and cancer rise with age, concomitant hypertension in patients receiving treatment for cancer is very common. Increase in blood pressure during cancer treatment requires careful clinical assessment. Distinction between discontinuation or malabsorption of antihypertensive treatment due to factors such as nausea/vomiting/diarrhea and anti-cancer drug specific effects must be first made. De-novo hypertension during cancer treatment is likely related to anticancer drugs per se. Classical chemotherapeutic agents such as cyclophosphamide, cisplatin and busulfan have been previously linked to rising blood pressure...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
N García-Fernández, Hada C Macher, Amalia Rubio, Pilar Jiménez-Arriscado, C Bernal-Bellido, M L Bellido-Díaz, G Suárez-Artacho, Juan M Guerrero, M A Gómez-Bravo, Patrocinio Molinero
p53 is the most commonly mutated gene in malignant human cancers. To detect p53 mutations in circulating DNA (cirDNA) of transplanted hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients could be an interesting approach to know of any tumor recurrence. In this study, our objective was to determine the utility of this method in the diagnosis and the prognosis of HCC tumor recurrence.Twenty four liver transplanted HCC patients were included in the study together with a group of healthy controls. Detection of the specific p53 mutation in cirDNA was performed by high-resolution melting PCR (HRM-PCR) and COLD-PCR immediately before the transplantation...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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