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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150954/physiological-role-of-urothelial-cancer-associated-1-long-noncoding-rna-in-human-skeletogenic-cell-differentiation
#1
Takanori Ishikawa, Takashi Nishida, Mitsuaki Ono, Takeshi Takarada, Nguyen Ha, Shinnosuke Kurihara, Takayuki Furumatsu, Yurika Murase, Masaharu Takigawa, Toshitaka Oohashi, Hiroshi Kamioka, Satoshi Kubota
A vast number of long-noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) are found expressed in human cells, which RNAs have been developed along with human evolution. However, the physiological functions of these lncRNAs remain mostly unknown. In the present study, we for the first time uncovered the fact that one of such lncRNAs plays a significant role in the differentiation of chondrocytes and, possibly, of osteoblasts differentiated from mesenchymal stem cells, which cells eventually construct the human skeleton. The urothelial cancer-associated 1 (UCA1) lncRNA is known to be associated with several human malignancies...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150094/-geriatric-assessment-and-prognostic-scores-in-older-cancer-patient-additional-support-to-the-therapeutic-decision
#2
REVIEW
Frédéric Pamoukdjian, Evelyne Liuu, Philippe Caillet, Mathilde Gisselbrecht, Stéphane Herbaud, Pascaline Boudou-Rouquette, Laurent Zelek, Elena Paillaud
Cancer is a disease of the elderly as demonstrated by the epidemiological evolution of Western countries. Indeed, two third of cancers newly diagnosed occur over 65 years. However, older cancer patients have been often excluded from clinical trials in oncology and the extrapolation of cancer treatments in this population remains difficult in practice. Scientific societies recommend that a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) be performed in patients aged 70 and over and selected using screening tools for frailty such as the G8 index...
November 14, 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149612/cancer-evolution-no-room-for-negative-selection
#3
Samuel F Bakhoum, Dan A Landau
In this issue of Cell, Martincorena et al. and Campbell et al. interrogated the selection dynamics during tumor evolution using large-scale genomics datasets. They found that somatic mutations in cancer are largely neutral, highlighting a near-complete absence of negative selection. Neutral evolution enables tolerance of hypermutation, which defines a surprisingly large fraction of adult cancer.
November 16, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138097/gastric-microbiota-an-emerging-player-in-helicobacter-pylori-induced-gastric-malignancies
#4
J Luis Espinoza, Ayumi Matsumoto, Hirokazu Tanaka, Itaru Matsumura
The complex diversity of nonpathogenic microbes that colonize the human body, known as microbiota, exert considerable effects on physiological homeostasis, and immune regulation. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a bacterium that frequently colonizes human stomach and is a major pathogenic agent for peptic ulcer diseases, gastric cancer, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Due to its acidic pH and peristaltic movements, the stomach has been considered a hostile environment for most microorganisms, however various commensal microorganisms are capable of colonizing the stomach to form a stomach niche...
November 11, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134647/serial-profiling-of-circulating-tumor-dna-for-optimization-of-anti-vegf-chemotherapy-in-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-patients
#5
Masami Yamauchi, Yuji Urabe, Atsushi Ono, Daiki Miki, Hidenori Ochi, Kazuaki Chayama
Understanding the molecular changes in tumors in response to anti-VEGF chemotherapy is crucial for optimization of the treatment strategy for metastatic colorectal cancer. We prospectively investigated changes in the amount and constitution of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in serial peripheral blood samples during chemotherapy. Sixty-one plasma samples taken at different time points (baseline, remission, and post-progression) and pre-treatment tumor samples were collected from 21 patients who received bevacizumab-containing first-line chemotherapy...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134628/considerations-about-the-use-of-biomarkers-in-cancer-clinical-trials
#6
Bruce A Chabner
The rapid evolution of our understanding of cancer biology has affected every phase of patient management, from early detection to drug development and clinical management. Central to this issue is the challenge of using biomarkers to identify the driving mutations present and identifiable by current assays in many tumors. These biomarkers are integral to the process of selecting patients for the testing of new drugs, many of which are specifically designed to inhibit oncogenic pathways.
November 14, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134064/cancer-and-intercellular-cooperation
#7
REVIEW
Marta Bertolaso, Anna Maria Dieli
The major transitions approach in evolutionary biology has shown that the intercellular cooperation that characterizes multicellular organisms would never have emerged without some kind of multilevel selection. Relying on this view, the Evolutionary Somatic view of cancer considers cancer as a breakdown of intercellular cooperation and as a loss of the balance between selection processes that take place at different levels of organization (particularly single cell and individual organism). This seems an elegant unifying framework for healthy organism, carcinogenesis, tumour proliferation, metastasis and other phenomena such as ageing...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132683/-impairment-of-dna-damage-response-and-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Chloé Rancoule, Alexis Vallard, Jean-Baptiste Guy, Sophie Espenel, Sylvie Sauvaigo, Claire Rodriguez-Lafrasse, Nicolas Magné
Maintaining the genetic integrity is a key process in cell viability and is enabled by a wide network of repair pathways. When this system is defective, it generates genomic instability and results in an accumulation of chromosomal aberrations and mutations that may be responsible for various clinical phenotypes, including susceptibility to develop cancer. Indeed, these defects can promote not only the initiation of cancer, but also allow the tumor cells to rapidly acquire mutations during their evolution. Several genes are involved in these damage repair systems and particular polymorphisms are predictive of the onset of cancer, the best described of them being BRCA...
November 10, 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132385/aptamer-selection-and-applications-for-breast-cancer-diagnostics-and-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Mei Liu, Xiaocheng Yu, Zhu Chen, Tong Yang, Dandan Yang, Qianqian Liu, Keke Du, Bo Li, Zhifei Wang, Song Li, Yan Deng, Nongyue He
Aptamers are short non-coding, single-stranded oligonucleotides (RNA or DNA) developed through Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment (SELEX) in vitro. Similar to antibodies, aptamers can bind to specific targets with high affinity, and are considered promising therapeutic agents as they have several advantages over antibodies, including high specificity, stability, and non-immunogenicity. Furthermore, aptamers can be produced at a low cost and easily modified, and are, therefore, called "chemical antibodies"...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132144/a-neoantigen-fitness-model-predicts-tumour-response-to-checkpoint-blockade-immunotherapy
#10
Marta Łuksza, Nadeem Riaz, Vladimir Makarov, Vinod P Balachandran, Matthew D Hellmann, Alexander Solovyov, Naiyer A Rizvi, Taha Merghoub, Arnold J Levine, Timothy A Chan, Jedd D Wolchok, Benjamin D Greenbaum
Checkpoint blockade immunotherapies enable the host immune system to recognize and destroy tumour cells. Their clinical activity has been correlated with activated T-cell recognition of neoantigens, which are tumour-specific, mutated peptides presented on the surface of cancer cells. Here we present a fitness model for tumours based on immune interactions of neoantigens that predicts response to immunotherapy. Two main factors determine neoantigen fitness: the likelihood of neoantigen presentation by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and subsequent recognition by T cells...
November 8, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130219/-colorectal-cancer-heterogeneity-genotype-phenotype-and-clinical-manifestation
#11
Sanjun Cai, Junjie Peng, Fangqi Liu
Colorectal cancer is the third high-incidence of malignant tumors in the world, and also a kind of tumor with good biological behavior and good efficacy. Colorectal cancer heterogeneity is a very important trait of its biological behavior, which can be reflected in many different aspects, including tumor type, pathogenesis, molecular phenotyping and time-space heterogeneity. Different pathogenesis produces different tumor phenotypes, which are generated in the process of natural evolution and intervention. Various phenotypes show the difference among different individuals of colorectal cancer, in terms of clinical characteristics, treatment response and prognosis...
October 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130157/target-discovery-for-precision-medicine-using-high-throughput-genome-engineering
#12
Xinyi Guo, Poonam Chitale, Neville E Sanjana
Over the past few years, programmable RNA-guided nucleases such as the CRISPR/Cas9 system have ushered in a new era of precision genome editing in diverse model systems and in human cells. Functional screens using large libraries of RNA guides can interrogate a large hypothesis space to pinpoint particular genes and genetic elements involved in fundamental biological processes and disease-relevant phenotypes. Here, we review recent high-throughput CRISPR screens (e.g. loss-of-function, gain-of-function, and targeting noncoding elements) and highlight their potential for uncovering novel therapeutic targets, such as those involved in cancer resistance to small molecular drugs and immunotherapies, tumor evolution, infectious disease, inborn genetic disorders, and other therapeutic challenges...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124955/current-issues-of-preoperative-radio-chemo-therapy-and-its-future-evolution-in-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer
#13
Bin Ma, Qingzhou Xu, Yongxi Song, Peng Gao, Zhenning Wang
Neoadjuvant therapies are effective for local control and tumor downstaging. Up to date, preoperative long-course chemoradiotherapy and short-course radiotherapy are the two primary guideline-recommended neoadjuvant therapies for locally advanced rectal cancer patients. However, clinicians throughout the world are trying their best to further optimize the regimens and concepts of neoadjuvants. Hence, there is an urgent need to summarize evidence regarding indications of neaoadjuvant therapies and relative merits of current standard regimens...
November 10, 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123586/long-term-evolution-of-squamous-cell-cancer-in-plummer-vinson-syndrome
#14
Ulaş Aday, Ebubekir Gündeş, Durmuş Ali Çetin, Hüseyin Çiyiltepe, Kayhan Başak, Mustafa Duman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Przegla̜d Gastroenterologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119505/parameters-estimation-in-phase-space-landscape-reconstruction-of-cell-fate-a-systems-biology-approach
#15
Sheyla Montero, Reynaldo Martin, Ricardo Mansilla, Germinal Cocho, José Manuel Nieto-Villar
The thermodynamical formalism of irreversible processes offers a theoretical framework appropriate to explain the complexity observed at the macroscopic level of dynamic systems. In this context, together with the theory of complex systems and systems biology, the thermodynamical formalism establishes an appropriate conceptual framework to address the study of biological systems, in particular cancer.The Chapter is organized as follows: In Subheading 1, an integrative view of these disciplines is offered, for the characterization of the emergence and evolution of cancer, seen as a self-organized dynamic system far from the thermodynamic equilibrium...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118137/defector-clustering-is-linked-to-cooperation-in-a-pathogenic-bacterium
#16
Edward W Tekwa, Dao Nguyen, Michel Loreau, Andrew Gonzalez
Spatial clustering is thought to favour the evolution of cooperation because it puts cooperators in a position to help each other. However, clustering also increases competition. The fate of cooperation may depend on how much cooperators cluster relative to defectors, but these clustering differences have not been the focus of previous models and experiments. By competing siderophore-producing cooperator and defector strains of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa in experimental microhabitats, we found that at the spatial scale of individual interactions, cooperator clustering lowers cooperation, but defector clustering favours cooperation...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116645/the-impact-of-physical-activity-on-fatigue-and-quality-of-life-during-and-after-adjuvant-treatment-for-breast-cancer
#17
Florian Manneville, Christine Rotonda, Thierry Conroy, Franck Bonnetain, Francis Guillemin, Abdou Y Omorou
BACKGROUND: Although physical activity (PA) can alleviate fatigue and improve quality of life (QoL) in patients with breast cancer (BC), not all domains of PA may have equal impact. The objective of the current study was to examine the longitudinal impact of PA components on the evolution of fatigue and QoL during and after adjuvant treatment for BC. METHODS: The women included in the study were participants in the 2-year longitudinal FATSEIN ("Fatigue dans le cancer du Sein") study...
November 8, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113995/time-for-change-a-new-training-programme-for-morpho-molecular-pathologists
#18
REVIEW
David A Moore, Caroline A Young, Hayley T Morris, Karin A Oien, Jessica L Lee, J Louise Jones, Manuel Salto-Tellez
The evolution of cellular pathology as a specialty has always been driven by technological developments and the clinical relevance of incorporating novel investigations into diagnostic practice. In recent years, the molecular characterisation of cancer has become of crucial relevance in patient treatment both for predictive testing and subclassification of certain tumours. Much of this has become possible due to the availability of next-generation sequencing technologies and the whole-genome sequencing of tumours is now being rolled out into clinical practice in England via the 100 000 Genome Project...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113422/novel-dna-targeted-therapies-for-head-and-neck-cancers-clinical-potential-and-biomarkers
#19
REVIEW
Mary Glorieux, Rüveyda Dok, Sandra Nuyts
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and despite advances in treatment over the last years, there is still a relapse rate of 50%. New therapeutic agents are awaited to increase the survival of patients. DNA repair targeted agents in combination with standard DNA damaging therapies are a recent evolution in cancer treatment. These agents focus on the DNA damage repair pathways in cancer cells, which are often involved in therapeutic resistance. Interesting targets to overcome these cancer defense mechanisms are: PARP, DNA-PK, PI3K, ATM, ATR, CHK1/2, and WEE1 inhibitors...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113290/telomere-dna-damage-signaling-regulates-cancer-stem-cell-evolution-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-metastasis
#20
Angelica M Lagunas, Jianchun Wu, David L Crowe
Chromosome ends are protected by telomeres that prevent DNA damage response and degradation. When telomeres become critically short, the DNA damage response is activated at chromosome ends which induces cellular senescence or apoptosis. Telomeres are protected by the double stranded DNA binding protein TRF2 and maintained by telomerase or a recombination based mechanism known as alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). Telomerase is expressed in the basal layer of the epidermis, and stem cells in epidermis have longer telomeres than proliferating populations...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
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