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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933371/the-evolution-of-pediatric-disease-a-moving-target-in-public-health
#1
Mark A Brown
There is a growing threat in the re-emergence of diseases that impact pediatric demographics. While major strides have been made in the field of childhood cancers, there are still more questions than answers. In addition, public resistance to recommended practices related to childhood vaccinations fueled by misinformation has allowed infectious diseases to resurface in developed nations. Meanwhile, climate change and other destabilizing factors are shifting vector populations and driving the emergence of new diseases...
August 31, 2017: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933069/optical-tomographic-imaging-for-breast-cancer-detection
#2
Wenxiang Cong, Xavier Intes, Ge Wang
Diffuse optical breast imaging utilizes near-infrared (NIR) light propagation through tissues to assess the optical properties of tissues for the identification of abnormal tissue. This optical imaging approach is sensitive, cost-effective, and does not involve any ionizing radiation. However, the image reconstruction of diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a nonlinear inverse problem and suffers from severe illposedness due to data noise, NIR light scattering, and measurement incompleteness. An image reconstruction method is proposed for the detection of breast cancer...
September 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930282/esophageal-cancer-genomic-and-molecular-characterization-stem-cell-compartment-and-clonal-evolution
#3
REVIEW
Ugo Testa, Germana Castelli, Elvira Pelosi
Esophageal cancer (EC) is the eighth most common cancer and is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. The incidence of histologic subtypes of EC, esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and esophageal squamous carcinoma (ESCC), display considerable geographic variation. EAC arises from metaplastic Barrett's esophagus (BE) in the context of chronic inflammation secondary to exposure to acid and bile. The main risk factors for developing ESCC are cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. The main somatic genetic abnormalities showed a different genetic landscape in EAC compared to ESCC...
September 14, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930173/polyphenols-from-root-tubercles-and-grains-cropped-in-brazil-chemical-and-nutritional-characterization-and-their-effects-on-human-health-and-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Diego Dos Santos Baião, Cyntia Silva de Freitas, Laidson Paes Gomes, Davi da Silva, Anna Carolina N T F Correa, Patricia Ribeiro Pereira, Eduardo Mere Del Aguila, Vania Margaret Flosi Paschoalin
Throughout evolution, plants have developed the ability to produce secondary phenolic metabolites, which are important for their interactions with the environment, reproductive strategies and defense mechanisms. These (poly)phenolic compounds are a heterogeneous group of natural antioxidants found in vegetables, cereals and leguminous that exert beneficial and protective actions on human health, playing roles such as enzymatic reaction inhibitors and cofactors, toxic chemicals scavengers and biochemical reaction substrates, increasing the absorption of essential nutrients and selectively inhibiting deleterious intestinal bacteria...
September 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930164/liver-cancer-molecular-characterization-clonal-evolution-and-cancer-stem-cells
#5
REVIEW
Germana Castelli, Elvira Pelosi, Ugo Testa
Liver cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death. The major forms of primary liver cancer are hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA). Both these tumors develop against a background of cirrhotic liver, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic liver damage and fibrosis. HCC is a heterogeneous disease which usually develops within liver cirrhosis related to various etiologies: hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (frequent in Asia and Africa), hepatitis C virus (HCV), chronic alcohol abuse, or metabolic syndrome (frequent in Western countries)...
September 20, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929459/revisiting-ovarian-cancer-microenvironment-a-friend-or-a-foe
#6
REVIEW
Boyi Zhang, Fei Chen, Qixia Xu, Liu Han, Jiaqian Xu, Libin Gao, Xiaochen Sun, Yiwen Li, Yan Li, Min Qian, Yu Sun
Development of ovarian cancer involves the co-evolution of neoplastic cells together with the adjacent microenvironment. Steps of malignant progression including primary tumor outgrowth, therapeutic resistance, and distant metastasis are not determined solely by genetic alterations in ovarian cancer cells, but considerably shaped by the fitness advantage conferred by benign components in the ovarian stroma. As the dynamic cancer topography varies drastically during disease progression, heterologous cell types within the tumor microenvironment (TME) can actively determine the pathological track of ovarian cancer...
September 19, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928963/recent-advances-in-understanding-the-roles-of-whole-genome-duplications-in-evolution
#7
REVIEW
Carol MacKintosh, David E K Ferrier
Ancient whole-genome duplications (WGDs)- paleopolyploidy events-are key to solving Darwin's 'abominable mystery' of how flowering plants evolved and radiated into a rich variety of species. The vertebrates also emerged from their invertebrate ancestors via two WGDs, and genomes of diverse gymnosperm trees, unicellular eukaryotes, invertebrates, fishes, amphibians and even a rodent carry evidence of lineage-specific WGDs. Modern polyploidy is common in eukaryotes, and it can be induced, enabling mechanisms and short-term cost-benefit assessments of polyploidy to be studied experimentally...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927761/comprehensive-geriatric-assessment-and-caring-for-the-older-person-with-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Janine Overcash, Mary Alice Momeyer
OBJECTIVES: To discuss the evolution and effectiveness of the comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA), the need for interprofessional collaboration, and the role of oncology nurses in the assessment and care coordination of the older patient with cancer. DATA SOURCES: Historical and recent publications. CONCLUSION: Oncology nurses collect and synthesize geriatric data and can be a central resource to the multidisciplinary team. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE: Oncology nurses can incorporate CGA and results into their practice to enhance the care of the older person...
September 15, 2017: Seminars in Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927536/reflections-on-a-career-and-on-the-history-of-genetic-toxicity-testing-in-the-national-toxicology-program
#9
Errol Zeiger
One of the highly visible aspects of the U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) has been its genetic toxicity testing program, which has been responsible for testing, and making publicly available, in vitro and in vivo test data on thousands of chemicals since 1979. What is less well known, however, is that this NTP program had its origin in two separate testing programs that were initiated independently at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) before the NTP was established...
July 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927426/the-acid-sensing-ion-channel-asic2-promotes-invasion-and-metastasis-of-colorectal-cancer-under-acidosis-by-activating-the-calcineurin-nfat1-axis
#10
Zhi-Hang Zhou, Jin-Wen Song, Wen Li, Xue Liu, Liu Cao, Lu-Ming Wan, Ying-Xia Tan, Shou-Ping Ji, Yu-Mei Liang, Feng Gong
BACKGROUND: The tumor acidic microenvironment, a common biochemical event in solid tumors, offers evolutional advantage for tumors cells and even enhances their aggressive phenotype. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying the acidic microenvironment-induced invasion and metastasis. METHODS: We examined the expression of the acid-sending ion channel (ASIC) family members after acidic exposure using RT-PCR and immunofluoresence. Gene manipulation was applied to reveal the potential of ASIC2 on invasion, proliferation, colony formation of colorectal cancer (CRC)...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924377/current-progresses-of-single-cell-dna-sequencing-in-breast-cancer-research
#11
REVIEW
Jianlin Liu, Ragini Adhav, Xiaoling Xu
Breast cancers display striking genetic and phenotypic diversities. To date, several hypotheses are raised to explain and understand the heterogeneity, including theories for cancer stem cell (CSC) and clonal evolution. According to the CSC theory, the most tumorigenic cells, while maintaining themselves through symmetric division, divide asymmetrically to generate non-CSCs with less tumorigenic and metastatic potential, although they can also dedifferentiate back to CSCs. Clonal evolution theory recapitulates that a tumor initially arises from a single cell, which then undergoes clonal expansion to a population of cancer cells...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923910/a-transposon-screen-identifies-loss-of-primary-cilia-as-a-mechanism-of-resistance-to-smo-inhibitors
#12
Xuesong Zhao, Ekaterina Pak, Kimberly J Ornell, Maria F Pazyra-Murphy, Ethan L MacKenzie, Emily J Chadwick, Tatyana Ponomaryov, Joseph F Kelleher, Rosalind A Segal
Drug resistance poses a great challenge to targeted cancer therapies. In Hedgehog pathway-dependent cancers, the scope of mechanisms enabling resistance to Smo-inhibitors is not known. Here, we performed a transposon mutagenesis screen in medulloblastoma and identified multiple modes of resistance. Surprisingly, mutations in ciliogenesis genes represent a frequent cause of resistance, and patient datasets indicate that cilia loss constitutes a clinically relevant category of resistance. Conventionally, primary cilia are thought to enable oncogenic Hedgehog signaling...
September 18, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923402/synergistic-chemo-photodynamic-therapy-by-big-small-combo-nanoparticles-sequential-release-system
#13
Li Fan, Saisai Zhao, Xin Jin, Yongsheng Zhang, Chaojun Song, Hong Wu
Chemo-photodynamic combination has been manifested great potential for synergistic cancer therapy. Moreover, the synergistic efficacy could be significantly enhanced by well designed sequential release manner of photosensitizers (PSs). Here we propose a "Big & small combo nanoparticles (NPbig&small)" system for double loading PSs methylene blue (MB) and single absorbing chemotherapeutics drug Gemcitabine hydrochloride (GM(.)HCl). The "grown-in" MB from NPbig&small show two-peak sequential release profile, significantly improve the absorbed chemo therapeutic efficacy of GM(...
September 15, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923230/randomized-clinical-trials-in-pancreatic-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Neha Goel, Sanjay S Reddy
The management of pancreatic cancer has grown rapidly in the last decade. The Gastrointestinal Tumor Study Group trial in 1985 supported postoperative chemoradiation, and a more recent study recommended 6 months of adjuvant gemcitabine and capecitabine or monotherapy with gemcitabine or fluorouracil plus folinic acid, in the absence of neoadjuvant therapy. Clinicians are now studying the role of targeted therapy in pancreatic cancer and neoadjuvant chemotherapy in resectable, borderline resectable, and locally advanced pancreatic cancer...
October 2017: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919923/revealing-topics-and-their-evolution-in-biomedical-literature-using-bio-dtm-a-case-study-of-ginseng
#15
Qian Chen, Ni Ai, Jie Liao, Xin Shao, Yufeng Liu, Xiaohui Fan
BACKGROUND: Valuable scientific results on biomedicine are very rich, but they are widely scattered in the literature. Topic modeling enables researchers to discover themes from an unstructured collection of documents without any prior annotations or labels. In this paper, taking ginseng as an example, biological dynamic topic model (Bio-DTM) was proposed to conduct a retrospective study and interpret the temporal evolution of the research of ginseng. METHODS: The system of Bio-DTM mainly includes four components, documents pre-processing, bio-dictionary construction, dynamic topic models, topics analysis and visualization...
2017: Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919575/an-integrative-model-of-prostate-cancer-interaction-with-the-bone-microenvironment
#16
A Farhat, D Jiang, D Cui, E T Keller, Trachette L Jackson
Despite advanced efforts in early diagnosis, aggressive surgical treatment, and use of targeted chemotherapies, the prognosis for many cancers is still dismal. This emphasizes the necessity to develop new strategies for understanding tumor growth and metastasis. Here we use a systems approach that combines mathematical modeling and numerical simulation to develop a predictive computational model for prostate cancer and its subversion of the bone microenvironment. This model simulates metastatic prostate cancer evolution, progressing from normal bone and hormone levels to quantifiable diseased states...
September 14, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915922/recent-urbanization-in-china-is-correlated-with-a-westernized-microbiome-encoding-increased-virulence-and-antibiotic-resistance-genes
#17
Kathryn Winglee, Annie Green Howard, Wei Sha, Raad Z Gharaibeh, Jiawu Liu, Donghui Jin, Anthony A Fodor, Penny Gordon-Larsen
BACKGROUND: Urbanization is associated with an increased risk for a number of diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and cancer, which all also show associations with the microbiome. While microbial community composition has been shown to vary across continents and in traditional versus Westernized societies, few studies have examined urban-rural differences in neighboring communities within a single country undergoing rapid urbanization. In this study, we compared the gut microbiome, plasma metabolome, dietary habits, and health biomarkers of rural and urban people from a single Chinese province...
September 15, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914666/the-regulation-and-importance-of-monocyte-chemoattractant-protein-1
#18
Vanessa Bianconi, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Stephen L Atkin, Matteo Pirro
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, a chemokine regulating monocyte chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte differentiation by binding to the CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2), plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, atherosclerosis and cancer. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the regulation and importance of the MCP-1/CCR2 axis, focusing on the therapeutic potential of its inhibition. RECENT FINDINGS: Differential modulation of MCP-1 and CCR2 lead to downstream activation pathways, pathogenetic to differing disease conditions characterized by dysregulated monocyte/macrophage tissue recruitment...
September 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914620/new-developments-in-the-molecular-mechanisms-of-pancreatic-tumorigenesis
#19
Matthäus Felsenstein, Ralph H Hruban, Laura D Wood
Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive disease with a dismal prognosis in dire need of novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of data on the genetic alterations that occur in pancreatic cancer, as comprehensive next-generation sequencing analyses have been performed on samples from large cohorts of patients. These studies have defined the genomic landscape of this disease and identified novel candidates whose mutations contribute to pancreatic tumorigenesis. They have also clarified the genetic alterations that underlie multistep tumorigenesis in precursor lesions and provided insights into clonal evolution in pancreatic neoplasia...
September 13, 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912838/phylogenomics-of-colombian-helicobacter-pylori-isolates
#20
Andrés Julián Gutiérrez-Escobar, Esperanza Trujillo, Orlando Acevedo, María Mercedes Bravo
BACKGROUND: During the Spanish colonisation of South America, African slaves and Europeans arrived in the continent with their corresponding load of pathogens, including Helicobacter pylori. Colombian strains have been clustered with the hpEurope population and with the hspWestAfrica subpopulation in multilocus sequence typing (MLST) studies. However, ancestry studies have revealed the presence of population components specific to H. pylori in Colombia. The aim of this study was to perform a thorough phylogenomic analysis to describe the evolution of the Colombian urban H...
2017: Gut Pathogens
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