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Enzyme degradable polymers

N Yacoubi, L Saulnier, E Bonnin, E Devillard, V Eeckhaut, L Rhayat, R Ducatelle, F Van Immerseel
Carbohydrate-degrading multi-enzyme preparations (MEP) are used to improve broiler performances. Their mode of action is complex and not fully understood. In this study, we compared the effect of water-soluble fractions isolated at the pilot scale from wheat grain incubated with (WE) and without (WC) MEP. The fractions were incorporated in a wheat-based diet (0.1% w/w) to feed Ross PM3 broilers and compared with a non-supplemented control group (NC). The body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) until d 14 were determined...
November 10, 2017: Poultry Science
Martin G J Löder, Hannes Klaus Imhof, Maike Ladehoff, Lena A Löschel, Claudia Lorenz, Svenja Mintenig, Sarah Piehl, Sebastian Primpke, Isabella Schrank, Christian Laforsch, Gunnar Gerdts
Micro-Fourier transform infrared (micro-FTIR) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy enable the reliable identification and quantification of microplastics (MPs) in the lower micron range. Since concentrations of MPs in the environment are usually low, the large sample volumes required for these techniques lead to an excess of co-enriched organic or inorganic materials. While inorganic materials can be separated from MPs using density separation, the organic fraction impedes the ability to conduct reliable analyses...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Zohora Iqbal, Willieford Moses, Steven Kim, Eun Jung Kim, William H Fissell, Shuvo Roy
Novel biomaterials for medical device applications must be stable throughout all stages of preparation for surgery, including sterilization. There is a paucity of information on the effects of sterilization on sub-10 nm-thick polymeric surface coatings suitable for silicon-based bioartificial organs. This study explores the effect of five standard sterilization methods on three surface coatings applied to silicon: polyethylene glycol (PEG), poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (pSBMA), and poly (2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (pMPC)...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Preetam Anbukarasu, Dominic Sauvageau, Anastasia L Elias
The effect of dimensional constraint, imparted by a variation in film thickness, on the enzymatic degradation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is reported. The characterization of the crystalline structure and the surface topography of solvent-cast PHB thin films revealed strong correlations between film thickness and both crystallinity and crystal anisotropy, with the polymer film becoming more amorphous with decreasing thickness. The enzymatic degradation of the PHB films was characterized using a high precision diffraction metrology, which enabled the visualization of small variations in the degradation behavior...
November 2, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Swati Mohapatra, Sudipta Maity, Hirak Ranjan Dash, Surajit Das, Swati Pattnaik, Chandi Charan Rath, Deviprasad Samantaray
The microbially derived polyhydroxyalkanoates biopolymers could impact the global climate scenario by replacing the conventional non-degradable, petrochemical-based polymer. The biogenesis, characterization and properties of PHAs by Bacillus species using renewable substrates have been elaborated by many for their wide applications. On the other hand Bacillus species are advantageous over other bacteria due to their abundance even in extreme ecological conditions, higher growth rates even on cheap substrates, higher PHAs production ability, and the ease of extracting the PHAs...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Marek Kieliszek, Boguslaw Lipinski, Stanisław Błażejak
Selenium is an essential trace element that occurs in nature, in both inorganic and organic forms. This element participates in numerous biochemical processes, including antioxidant potential, but the mechanism of its anti-cancer action is still not well known. It should be noted that the anti-cancer properties of selenium depends on its chemical form, therapeutic doses, and the tumor type. Higher nutritional doses of selenium can stimulate human immune system. There are several hypotheses concerning the anticancer activity of selenium, including oxidation of sulfhydryl groups in proteins causing their conformational alterations...
October 24, 2017: Cells
Tomoki Nishimura, Akina Yamada, Kaori Umezaki, Shin-Ichi Sawada, Sada-Atsu Mukai, Yoshihiro Sasaki, Kazunari Akiyoshi
Nanometer-size gel particles, or nanogels, have potential for delivering therapeutic macromolecules. A cationic surface promotes cellular internalization of nanogels, but undesired electrostatic interactions, such as with blood components, cause instability and toxicities. Poly(ethylene glycol) coating has been used to shield charges, but this decreases delivery efficiency. Technical difficulties in synthesis and controlling molecular weights make it unfeasible to, instead, coat with biodegradable polymers...
November 13, 2017: Biomacromolecules
Maria Matard-Mann, Thomas Bernard, Cédric Leroux, Tristan Barbeyron, Robert Larocque, Aurélie Préchoux, Alexandra Jeudy, Murielle Jam, Pi Nyvall-Collén, Gurvan Michel, Mirjam Czjzek
Carrageenans are sulfated α-1,3-β-1,4-galactans found in the cell wall of some red algae that are practically valuable for their gelation and biomimetic properties but also serve as a potential carbon source for marine bacteria. Carbohydrate degradation has been studied extensively for terrestrial plant/bacterial systems, but sulfation is not present in these cases, meaning the marine enzymes used to degrade carrageenans must possess unique features to recognize these modifications. To gain insights into these features, we have focused on κ-carrageenases from two distant bacterial phyla, which belong to glycoside hydrolase family 16 (GH16) and cleave the β-1,4 linkage of κ-carrageenan...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Eri Tabata, Akinori Kashimura, Satoshi Wakita, Misa Ohno, Masayoshi Sakaguchi, Yasusato Sugahara, Yasutada Imamura, Shiro Seki, Hitoshi Ueda, Vaclav Matoska, Peter O Bauer, Fumitaka Oyama
Chitin, a polymer of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc), is a major structural component in chitin-containing organism including crustaceans, insects and fungi. Mammals express two chitinases, chitotriosidase (Chit1) and acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase). Here, we report that pig AMCase is stable in the presence of other digestive proteases and functions as chitinolytic enzyme under the gastrointestinal conditions. Quantification of chitinases expression in pig tissues using quantitative real-time PCR showed that Chit1 mRNA was highly expressed in eyes, whereas the AMCase mRNA was predominantly expressed in stomach at even higher levels than the housekeeping genes...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ching Man Wai, Jisen Zhang, Tyler C Jones, Chifumi Nagai, Ray Ming
BACKGROUND: Sugarcane is an emerging dual-purpose biofuel crop for energy and sugar production, owing to its rapid growth rate, high sucrose storage in the stems, and high lignocellulosic yield. It has the highest biomass production reaching 1.9 billion tonnes in 2014 worldwide. RESULTS: To improve sugarcane biomass accumulation, we developed an interspecific cross between Saccharum officinarum 'LA Purple' and Saccharum robustum 'MOL5829'. Selected F1 individuals were self-pollinated to generate a transgressive F2 population with a wide range of biomass yield...
October 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
Andrew Bristol, Steven Hubert, Felix Hofmann, Hans Baer
SYN-004 (ribaxamase) delayed release drug product is a multi-particulate, hard capsule for oral delivery of a recombinant β-lactamase enzyme designed to degrade β-lactam antibiotics administered intravenously, and thus prevent colon dysbiosis. Here we describe the development of the SYN-004 enteric coated pellet formulation, which has been tested in multiple clinical trials. Since the SYN-004 drug substance is a buffered liquid, several binder excipients in different ratios were tested to facilitate binding of SYN-004 to sugar spheres...
October 3, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Hiroko Kitamoto, Shigenobu Yoshida, Motoo Koitabashi, Kimiko Yamamoto-Tamura, Hirokazu Ueda, Tohru Yarimizu, Yuka Sameshima-Yamashita
Agricultural mulch films made from biodegradable polymers (BP) have been used to decrease the burden of plastic waste recovery and recycling. However, their degradations depend largely on environmental conditions and sometimes do not proceed as desired. Yeast strains of Pseudozyma antarctica often isolated from rice husks were found to secrete an esterase to degrade BP films. Poly-butylene succinate-co-adipate (PBSA) films buried in unsterilized rice husks with 60% (w/w) moisture degraded rapidly compared to that buried in field soil...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Benwei Zhu, Fang Ni, Yun Sun, Zhong Yao
Alginate lyases play an essential role in the production of oligosaccharides by degrading alginate polysaccharide. Although many alginate lyases from various microorganisms have been characterized, reports on alginate lyases with special characteristics and commercial potential are still rather rare. In this study, a new alginate lyase, FsAlgA, was cloned from the deep-sea marine bacterium Flammeovirga sp. NJ-04. The recombinant enzyme was purified on Ni-NTA sepharose and then characterized in detail. It exhibited the highest activity (3343...
November 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
V A Spiridonova, T M Novikova, D M Nikulina, T A Shishkina, E V Golubkina, O S Dyukareva, N N Trizno
Antithrombin DNA aptamersRE31 are single-chain oligonucleotides that fold into three-dimensional forms allowing them to bind the enzyme with high affinity and inhibit its activity in vivo. They are rapidly degraded by a nonspecific nuclease, and, to prolong the lifetime of the aptamer DNA in the bloodstream, it is necessary to coat it with a polymer envelope. A new approach to solving this problem based on preparation of DNA-polyelectrolyte complexes with a minimal particle size that can circulate with blood flow...
September 19, 2017: Biochimie
Asma Absar Bhatti, Shamsul Haq, Rouf Ahmad Bhat
Actinomycetes are aerobic, spore forming gram-positive bacteria, belonging to the order actinomycetales characterized with substrate and aerial mycelium growth. They are the most abundant organisms that form thread-like filaments in the soil and are responsible for characteristically "earthy" smell of freshly turned healthy soil. They play major roles in the cycling of organic matter; inhibit the growth of several plant pathogens in the rhizosphere and decompose complex mixtures of polymer in dead plant, animal and fungal material results in production of many extracellular enzymes which are conductive to crop production...
October 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
J M Fernández-Novell, M Díaz-Lobo
The compound 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-α-D-glucopyranosyl fluoride (F2Glc), which is a nonmetabolized superior glucose analogue, is a potent inhibitor of glycogen phosphorylase and pharmacological properties are reported. Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) and glycogen synthase (GS) are responsible of the degradation and synthesis, respectively, of glycogen which is a polymer of glucose units that provides a readily available source of energy in mammals. GP and GS are two key enzymes that modulate cellular glucose and glycogen levels; therefore, these proteins are suggested as potential targets for the treatment of diseases related to glycogen metabolism disorders...
September 16, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Aparna Singh, Anil K Singh
Halophilic archaea are unique microorganisms adapted to survive under high salt conditions and biomolecules produced by them may possess unusual properties. Haloarchaeal metabolites are stable at high salt and temperature conditions that are useful for industrial applications. Proteins and enzymes of this group of archaea are functional under salt concentrations at which bacterial counterparts fail to be active. Such properties makes haloarchaeal enzymes suitable for salt-based applications and their use under dehydrating conditions...
September 12, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
Chun Y Wong, Hani Al-Salami, Crispin R Dass
Nanoparticles have demonstrated significant advancements in potential oral delivery of insulin. In this publication, we review the current status of polymeric, inorganic and solid-lipid nanoparticles designed for oral administration of insulin. Firstly, the structure and physiological function of insulin are examined. Then, the efficiency and shortcomings of insulin nanoparticle are discussed. These include the susceptibility to digestive enzyme degradation, instability in the acidic pH environment, poor mucus diffusion and inadequate permeation through the gastrointestinal epithelium...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Owen L Lewis, James P Keener, Aaron L Fogelson
It is generally accepted that the gastric mucus layer provides a protective barrier between the lumen and the mucosa, shielding the mucosa from acid and digestive enzymes and preventing auto-digestion of the stomach epithelium. However, the precise mechanisms that contribute to this protective function are still up for debate. In particular, it is not clear what physical processes are responsible for transporting hydrogen protons, secreted within the gastric pits, across the mucus layer to the lumen without acidifying the environment adjacent to the epithelium...
September 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Pingsheng Huang, Huijuan Song, Yumin Zhang, Jinjian Liu, Zhen Cheng, Xing-Jie Liang, Weiwei Wang, Deling Kong, Jianfeng Liu
Thermosensitive "micellar hydrogel" is prepared based on poly(ε-caprolactone-co- 1,4,8-trioxa[4.6]spiro-9-undecanone)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)- b-poly(ε-caprolactone- co-1,4,8-trioxa[4.6]spiro-9-undecanone) (PECT) triblock copolymer. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is adopted to explore its assembly (formation) and disassembly (degradation) mechanism within the range of 10 nm. Results prove that the thermosensitive non-covalent aggregation of micelles facilitates the hydrogel formation and the sustained shedding of cognate micelles induces the hydrogel degradation, during which polymers are steadily incorporated in micelles without any micelle disassembly or reassembly...
July 10, 2017: Biomaterials
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