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Enzyme degradable polymers

Atul P Sherje, Bhushan R Dravyakar, Darshana Kadam, Mrunal Jadhav
Cyclodextrin-based nanosponges (CD-NS) are innovative cross-linked cyclodextrin polymers nanostructured within three-dimensional network. CD-NS are highly porous nanoparticles characterized by crystalline or amorphous structure, spherical shape and swelling properties. Different cross-linkers provide variety of nanosponges. The polarity, dimension of the polymer mesh and release of entrapped molecule can be easily tuned by varying the type of cross-linker and degree of cross-linking. The site-specific targeting can be achieved by conjugating various ligands on the surface of nanosponge...
October 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Tomoki Nishimura, Yoshihiro Sasaki, Kazunari Akiyoshi
As "biotransporting nanofactories", in vivo therapeutic biocatalyst nanoreactors would enable encapsulated enzymes to transform inert prodrugs or neutralize toxic compounds at target disease sites. This would offer outstanding potential for next-generation therapeutic platforms, such as enzyme prodrug therapy. Designing such advanced materials has, however, proven challenging. Here, it is shown that self-assembled nanofactories formulate with polymeric vesicles with an intrinsically permeable membrane. The vesicles, CAPsomes, are composed of carbohydrate-b-poly(propylene glycol) and show molecular-weight-depended permeability...
July 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
Wolf Röther, Jakob Birke, Stephanie Grond, Jose Manuel Beltran, Dieter Jendrossek
In this study, we show the proof of concept for the production of defined oligo-isoprenoids with terminal functional groups that can be used as starting materials for various purposes including the synthesis of isoprenoid-based plastics. To this end, we used three types of rubber oxygenases for the enzymatic cleavage of rubber [poly(cis-1,4-isoprene)]. Two enzymes, rubber oxygenase RoxAXsp and rubber oxygenase RoxBXsp , originate from Xanthomonas sp. 35Y; the third rubber oxygenase, latex-clearing protein (LcpK30 ), is derived from Gram-positive rubber degraders such as Streptomyces sp...
July 11, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Italo Thiago Silveira Rocha Matos, Enedina Nogueira Assunção, Edson Junior do Carmo, Verena Makaren Soares, Spartaco Astolfi-Filho
Yeasts are an important component of insect gut microbial content, playing roles such as degradation of polymers and toxic compounds, biological control, and hormone, vitamin, and digestive enzyme production. The xylophagous beetle gut is a hyperdiverse habitat and a potential source of new species with industrial abilities such as enzyme production, pentose fermentation, and biodetoxification. In this work, samples of Veturius transversus (Passalidae, Coleoptera, and Insecta) were collected from the Central Amazon Rainforest...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
M V Volokitina, V A Korzhikov-Vlakh, T B Tennikova, E G Korzhikova-Vlakh
Nanostructures based on biodegradable polymers are often considered as drug delivery systems. The properties of these nanomaterails towards in vitro biodegradation are very important and usually are studied using the model physiological conditions. In this work the novel approach based on application of monolithic immobilized enzyme reactors (IMERs) as the systems for biodegradation study of the nanoobjects of different nature and morphology was suggested. Rigid nanospheres based on poly(lactic acid) and self-assembled nanoobjects formed from block-copolymer of glutamic acid and phenylalanine were applied as model nanomaterials...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Luyao Wang, Ning Wang, Dandan Mi, Yuming Luo, Jianhua Guo
In this study, we investigate the relationship between γ-PGA productivity and biocontrol capacity of Bacillus subtilis BsE1; one bacterial isolate displayed 62.14% biocontrol efficacy against Fusarium root rot. The γ-PGA yield assay, motility assay, wheat root colonization assay, and biological control assay were analysed in different γ-PGA yield mutants of BsE1. The pgsB (PGA-synthase-CapB gene) deleted mutant of BsE1 reduced γ-PGA yield and exhibited apparent decline of in vitro motile ability. Deletion of pgsB impaired colonizing capacity of BsE1 on wheat root in 30 days, also lowered biocontrol efficacies from 62...
July 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Enzo Di Marco, Pablo M Soraire, Cintia M Romero, Liliana B Villegas, María Alejandra Martínez
Paenibacillus species isolated from a variety of natural sources have shown to be important glycoside hydrolases producers. These enzymes play a key role in bio-refining applications, as they are central biocatalysts for the processing of different types of polymers from vegetal biomass. Xylanase production by three native isolates belonging to the genus Paenibacillus was approached by utilizing mineral-based medium and agricultural by-products as a convenient source to produce biocatalysts suitable for their degradation...
June 28, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Marco Agostoni, John A Hangasky, Michael A Marletta
Bacteria have long been known to secrete enzymes that degrade cellulose and chitin. The degradation of these two polymers predominantly involves two enzyme families that work synergistically with one another: glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs). Although bacterial PMOs are a relatively recent addition to the known biopolymer degradation machinery, there is an extensive amount of literature implicating PMO in numerous physiological roles. This review focuses on these diverse and physiological aspects of bacterial PMOs, including facilitating endosymbiosis, conferring a nutritional advantage, and enhancing virulence in pathogenic organisms...
September 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Norimasa Kashiwagi, Chiaki Ogino, Akihiko Kondo
Bioproduction using microbes from biomass feedstocks is of interest in regards to environmental problems and cost reduction. Streptomyces as an industrial microorganism plays an important role in the production of useful secondary metabolites for various applications. This strain also secretes a wide range of extracellular enzymes which degrade various biopolymers in nature, and it consumes these degrading substrates as nutrients. Hence, Streptomyces can be employed as a cell factory for the conversion of biomass-derived substrates into various products...
June 23, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Sunil Kumar, Shikha Singh, Sudipta Senapati, Akhand Pratap Singh, Biswajit Ray, Pralay Maiti
Biodegradation rate of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) has been regulated, both increase and decrease with respect to the biodegradation of pure PLA, by embedding meager amount of inorganic salts in polymer matrix. Biodegradation is performed in enzyme medium on suspension and film and the extent of biodegradation is measured through spectroscopic technique which is also verified by weight loss measurement. Media pH has been controlled using trace amount of inorganic salt which eventually control the biodegradation of PLA...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Werner E G Müller, Heinz C Schröder, Xiaohong Wang
Initiated by studies on the mechanism of formation of the skeletons of the evolutionary oldest still extant multicellular animals, the sponges (phylum Porifera) have provided new insights into the mechanism of formation of the Ca-phosphate/hydroxyapatite skeleton of vertebrate bone. Studies on the formation of the biomineral skeleton of sponges revealed that both the formation of the inorganic siliceous skeletons (sponges of the class of Hexactinellida and Demospongiae) and of the calcareous skeletons (class of Calcarea) is mediated by enzymes (silicatein: polymerization of biosilica; and carbonic anhydrase: deposition of Ca-carbonate)...
June 12, 2017: Marine Drugs
Zohara Nafeesa, B R Shivalingu, K N Neema, Raghu Ram Achar, B K Venkatesh, Veeresh Hanchinal, B S Priya, S Nanjunda Swamy
Upon examination of the fruit extract of Cucumis sativus L. for its pharmacological benefits, it was previously observed that it has potential proteolytic, fibrinogenolytic and procoagulant activities. These properties can be attributed to the presence of the protease. In this regard, the present study comprised of purification and characterization of protease. Purification of the enzyme involved ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. The purified cucumis protease (CPro) exhibits homogeneity as attested by SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC with a retention time of 14...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
Roohi, Kulsoom Bano, Mohammed Kuddus, Mohd Rehan Zaheer, Qamar Zia, Mohd Farhan Khan, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Gjumrakch Aliev
Background The use of different types of plastics in the world either synthetic or biodegradable has become a part in all sectors of the economy. Infrastructure such as agriculture, building and construction, telecommunication, consumer goods, packaging, health and medical are all high growth areas that ensure a spiralling demand for plastics. Lack of degradability, environmental pollution and closing of landfill sites has led to concern more about plastic waste disposal. Appropriate biodegradation should occur for these water-immiscible polymers since they eventually enter streams which can neither be recycled nor incinerated and also not despoiled with existing physical and chemical means of degradation...
May 23, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Nan Zhao, Zhaolong Feng, Meng Shao, Jichao Cao, Fengshan Wang, Chunhui Liu
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) has attracted considerable attention on treatment of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related disorders. We previously conjugated Cu/Zn SOD to O-quaternary chitosan derivatives (O-HTCC) to yield a polymer-enzyme conjugate O-HTCC-SOD that demonstrated superior therapeutic effect to native SOD. The present study demonstrated that O-HTCC-SOD had wider pH activity range, better thermal stability, excellent long-term stability for storage, as well as unique reinstatement of activity exposure to proteolytic degradation that was helpful for longer half-life in vivo...
May 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jean-Guy Berrin, Marie-Noëlle Rosso, Maher Abou Hachem
Enzymatic degradation of plant biomass is of growing interest for the development of a sustainable bio-based industry. Filamentous fungi, which degrade complex and recalcitrant plant polymers, are proficient secretors of enzymes acting on the lignocellulose composite of plant cell walls in addition to starch, the main carbon storage reservoir. In this review, we focus on the identification of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) and their redox partners in fungal secretomes to highlight the biological functions of these remarkable enzyme systems and we discuss future trends related to LPMO-potentiated bioconversion...
May 17, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
Anindita Sengupta, Angela Zabala, Si Yu Tan, Arthur Broadstock, T S Suryanarayanan, Venkat Gopalan
Ionic liquids (ILs) are used in lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) pretreatment due to their ability to disrupt the extensive hydrogen-bonding network in cellulose and hemicellulose, and thereby decrease LCB recalcitrance to subsequent enzymatic degradation. However, this approach necessitates development of a cellulases and hemicellulases that can tolerate ~20% (w/v) IL, an amount that either co-precipitates with the sugar polymers after the initial pretreatment or is typically used in single-pot biomass deconstructions...
May 19, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Anne van der Meij, Sarah F Worsley, Matthew I Hutchings, Gilles P van Wezel
Actinomycetes are a diverse family of filamentous bacteria that produce a plethora of natural products relevant for agriculture, biotechnology and medicine, including the majority of the antibiotics we use in the clinic. Rather than as free-living bacteria, many actinomycetes have evolved to live in symbiosis with among others plants, fungi, insects and sponges. As a common theme, these organisms profit from the natural products and enzymes produced by the actinomycetes, for example, for protection against pathogenic microbes, for growth promotion or for the degradation of complex natural polymers such as lignocellulose...
May 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Xiaohong Wang, Maximilian Ackermann, Meik Neufurth, Shunfeng Wang, Heinz C Schröder, Werner E G Müller
We describe a novel regeneratively-active barrier membrane which consists of a durable electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) net covered with a morphogenetically-active biohybrid material composed of collagen and inorganic polyphosphate (polyP). The patch-like fibrous collagen structures are decorated with small amorphous polyP nanoparticles (50 nm) formed by precipitation of this energy-rich and enzyme-degradable (alkaline phosphatase) polymer in the presence of calcium ions. The fabricated PCL-polyP/collagen hybrid mats are characterized by advantageous biomechanical properties, such as enhanced flexibility and stretchability with almost unaltered tensile strength of the PCL net...
May 17, 2017: Marine Drugs
Yongfu Diao, Mingwei Song, Yulin Zhang, Lin-Ying Shi, Yusan Lv, Rong Ran
The enzymatic degradation behavior of hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) samples with different molar substitutions (MS) values was investigated. The changes in the molecular structure of HEC treated with enzymatic approach in comparison to the native HEC were studied through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques and kinetics of degradation was studied by viscometry. The cleavage of HEC chains could be observed from FTIR and kinetics results...
August 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Ido Livneh, Yelena Kravtsova-Ivantsiv, Ori Braten, Yong Tae Kwon, Aaron Ciechanover
A polyubiquitin chain attached covalently to the target substrate has been recognized for long as the "canonical" proteasomal degradation signal. However, several proteins have been shown to be targeted for degradation following monoubiquitination, indicating that the proteasome can recognize signals other than a ubiquitin polymer. A comprehensive screen aiming at determining the extent of this mode of recognition revealed that ∼40% of mammalian and ∼20% of yeast proteins are degraded following monoubiquitination...
June 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
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