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Enzyme degradable polymers

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333698/design-of-enzyme-micelles-with-controllable-concavo-convex-micromorphologies-for-highly-enhanced-stability-and-catalytical-activity
#1
Tao Chen, Yuanhong Xu, Wenrong Yang, Aihua Li, Yao Wang, Jing Sun, Jingquan Liu
Concavo-convex micelles with controllable sizes and nanostructures are prepared via self-assembling polymer-enzyme (e.g., shellac enzyme) conjugates with heterogeneous polymer chains, which exhibit higher enzyme stability (300%) and bioactivity (760%) comparing with the well-defined ones. The applied amphiphilic and negatively charged copolymer, poly (methyl methacrylate)-block-poly (sodium p-styrene sulfonate), is synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization to modify shellac enzyme and immobilize the enzyme bioactivity inducer by covalent conjugation and electrostatic attraction, respectively...
January 15, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313030/poly-2-propylacrylic-acid-poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-blend-microparticles-as-a-targeted-antigen-delivery-system-to-direct-either-cd4-or-cd8-t-cell-activation
#2
Lirong Yang, Evelyn Bracho-Sanchez, Lawrence P Fernando, Jamal S Lewis, Matthew R Carstens, Craig L Duvall, Benjamin G Keselowsky
Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) based microparticles (MPs) are widely investigated for their ability to load a range of molecules with high efficiency, including antigenic proteins, and release them in a controlled manner. Micron-sized PLGA MPs are readily phagocytosed by antigen presenting cells, and localized to endosomes. Due to low pH and digestive enzymes, encapsulated protein cargo is largely degraded and processed in endosomes for MHC-II loading and presentation to CD4+ T cells, with very little antigen delivered into the cytosol, limiting MHC-I antigenic loading and presentation to CD8+ T cells...
June 2017: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297329/potential-of-selected-fungal-species-to-degrade-wheat-straw-the-most-abundant-plant-raw-material-in-europe
#3
Jasmina Ćilerdžić, Milica Galić, Jelena Vukojević, Ilija Brčeski, Mirjana Stajić
BACKGROUND: Structural component of plant biomass, lignocellulose, is the most abundant renewable resource in nature. Lignin is the most recalcitrant natural aromatic polymer and its degradation presents great challenge. Nowadays, the special attention is given to biological delignification, the process where white-rot fungi take the crucial place owing to strong ligninolytic enzyme system. However, fungal species, even strains, differ in potential to produce high active ligninolytic enzymes and consequently to delignify plant biomass...
December 28, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247734/human-chitotriosidase-does-not-catabolize-hyaluronan
#4
Ben Danielson, Che-Hong Chen, Gernot Kaber, Daria Mochly-Rosen, Kevin Grimes, Robert Stern, Paul L Bollyky
Humans express an enzyme that degrades chitin, called chitotriosidase, despite the fact that we do not produce chitin. One possible explanation for this is that chitinase also degrades hyaluronan, a polysaccharide that is abundant in human tissues and shares structural attributes in common with chitinase. The objective of this study was to determine whether human chitotriosidase is capable of hydrolyzing hyaluronan. Hyaluronan of various sizes under a range of pH conditions displayed no degradation when incubated with various chitinases over a period of 5 days, while commercial hyaluronidase readily digested the hyaluronan...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240834/discovery-of-carbamate-degrading-enzymes-by-functional-metagenomics
#5
Lisa Ufarté, Elisabeth Laville, Sophie Duquesne, Diego Morgavi, Patrick Robe, Christophe Klopp, Angeline Rizzo, Sandra Pizzut-Serin, Gabrielle Potocki-Veronese
Bioremediation of pollutants is a major concern worldwide, leading to the research of new processes to break down and recycle xenobiotics and environment contaminating polymers. Among them, carbamates have a very broad spectrum of uses, such as toxinogenic pesticides or elastomers. In this study, we mined the bovine rumen microbiome for carbamate degrading enzymes. We isolated 26 hit clones exhibiting esterase activity, and were able to degrade at least one of the targeted polyurethane and pesticide carbamate compounds...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211452/promoted-chondrogenesis-of-co-cultured-chondrocytes-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells-under-hypoxia-using-in-situ-forming-degradable-hydrogel-scaffolds
#6
Xiaobin Huang, Yong Hou, Leilei Zhong, Dechun Huang, Hongliang Qian, Marcel Karperien, Wei Chen
We investigated the effects of different oxygen tension (21% and 2.5% O2) on the chondrogenesis of different cell systems cultured in pH-degradable PVA hydrogels including human articular chondrocytes (hACs), human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and their co-cultures with a hAC/hMSC ratio of 20/80. These hydrogels were prepared with vinyl ether acrylate-functionalized PVA (PVA-VEA) and thiolated PVA-VEA (PVA-VEA-SH) via Michael-type addition reaction. The rheology tests determined the gelation of the hydrogels was controlled within 2-7 min dependent on the polymer concentrations...
December 6, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211345/ph-responsive-polyacetal-protein-conjugates-designed-for-polymer-masked-unmasked-protein-therapy-pumpt
#7
Gabriela Rodríguez Escalona, Joaquin Sanchis, María J Vicent
Polymer masked-unmasked protein therapy (PUMPT) employs polymer conjugation to protect therapeutic proteins during transit through the bloodstream and allow controlled release at a disease site via triggered degradation of the polymeric component. Most reported PUMPT systems are based on the specific enzymatic degradation of the polymeric component to release the protein and reinstate its activity. In these cases, therapeutic output is dependent on the presence of the required enzyme at the disease site at a sufficiently high concentration...
December 6, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208283/a-review-of-recent-progress-in-drug-and-protein-encapsulation-approaches-applications-and-challenges
#8
REVIEW
Chen Ye, Hong Chi
Many drugs and proteins formulated for treatment of various diseases are not fully utilised due to environmentally problems such as degradation by enzymes or it being hydrophobic. To counter this problem, the drug and protein of interest are encapsulated by synthetic polymers where they are protected from the environment. This allows the molecule to reach its target safely and maximise its function. In this paper, we will discuss about the different techniques of encapsulation that includes emulsion evaporation, self-emulsifying drug delivery system and supercritical fluid...
February 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167663/metagenomic-analysis-of-the-gut-microbiome-of-the-common-black-slug-arion-ater-in-search-of-novel-lignocellulose-degrading-enzymes
#9
Ryan Joynson, Leighton Pritchard, Ekenakema Osemwekha, Natalie Ferry
Some eukaryotes are able to gain access to well-protected carbon sources in plant biomass by exploiting microorganisms in the environment or harbored in their digestive system. One is the land pulmonate Arion ater, which takes advantage of a gut microbial consortium that can break down the widely available, but difficult to digest, carbohydrate polymers in lignocellulose, enabling them to digest a broad range of fresh and partially degraded plant material efficiently. This ability is considered one of the major factors that have enabled A...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155571/oxygen-activation-by-cu-lpmos-in-recalcitrant-carbohydrate-polysaccharide-conversion-to-monomer-sugars
#10
Katlyn K Meier, Stephen M Jones, Thijs Kaper, Henrik Hansson, Martijn J Koetsier, Saeid Karkehabadi, Edward I Solomon, Mats Sandgren, Bradley Kelemen
Natural carbohydrate polymers such as starch, cellulose, and chitin provide renewable alternatives to fossil fuels as a source for fuels and materials. As such, there is considerable interest in their conversion for industrial purposes, which is evidenced by the established and emerging markets for products derived from these natural polymers. In many cases, this is achieved via industrial processes that use enzymes to break down carbohydrates to monomer sugars. One of the major challenges facing large-scale industrial applications utilizing natural carbohydrate polymers is rooted in the fact that naturally occurring forms of starch, cellulose, and chitin can have tightly packed organizations of polymer chains with low hydration levels, giving rise to crystalline structures that are highly recalcitrant to enzymatic degradation...
November 20, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140465/short-chain-arabinoxylans-prepared-from-enzymatically-treated-wheat-grain-exert-prebiotic-effects-during-the-broiler-starter-period
#11
N Yacoubi, L Saulnier, E Bonnin, E Devillard, V Eeckhaut, L Rhayat, R Ducatelle, F Van Immerseel
Carbohydrate-degrading multi-enzyme preparations (MEP) are used to improve broiler performances. Their mode of action is complex and not fully understood. In this study, we compared the effect of water-soluble fractions isolated at the pilot scale from wheat grain incubated with (WE) and without (WC) MEP. The fractions were incorporated in a wheat-based diet (0.1% w/w) to feed Ross PM3 broilers and compared with a non-supplemented control group (NC). The body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) until d 14 were determined...
November 10, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110472/enzymatic-purification-of-microplastics-in-environmental-samples
#12
Martin G J Löder, Hannes Klaus Imhof, Maike Ladehoff, Lena A Löschel, Claudia Lorenz, Svenja Mintenig, Sarah Piehl, Sebastian Primpke, Isabella Schrank, Christian Laforsch, Gunnar Gerdts
Micro-Fourier transform infrared (micro-FTIR) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy enable the reliable identification and quantification of microplastics (MPs) in the lower micron range. Since concentrations of MPs in the environment are usually low, the large sample volumes required for these techniques lead to an excess of co-enriched organic or inorganic materials. While inorganic materials can be separated from MPs using density separation, the organic fraction impedes the ability to conduct reliable analyses...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105972/sterilization-effects-on-ultrathin-film-polymer-coatings-for-silicon-based-implantable-medical-devices
#13
Zohora Iqbal, Willieford Moses, Steven Kim, Eun Jung Kim, William H Fissell, Shuvo Roy
Novel biomaterials for medical device applications must be stable throughout all stages of preparation for surgery, including sterilization. There is a paucity of information on the effects of sterilization on sub-10 nm-thick polymeric surface coatings suitable for silicon-based bioartificial organs. This study explores the effect of five standard sterilization methods on three surface coatings applied to silicon: polyethylene glycol (PEG), poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (pSBMA), and poly (2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (pMPC)...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094122/enzymatic-degradation-of-dimensionally-constrained-polyhydroxybutyrate-films
#14
Preetam Anbukarasu, Dominic Sauvageau, Anastasia L Elias
The effect of dimensional constraint, imparted by a variation in film thickness, on the enzymatic degradation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is reported. The characterization of the crystalline structure and the surface topography of solvent-cast PHB thin films revealed strong correlations between film thickness and both crystallinity and crystal anisotropy, with the polymer film becoming more amorphous with decreasing thickness. The enzymatic degradation of the PHB films was characterized using a high precision diffraction metrology, which enabled the visualization of small variations in the degradation behavior...
November 2, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090283/bacillus-and-biopolymer-prospects-and-challenges
#15
REVIEW
Swati Mohapatra, Sudipta Maity, Hirak Ranjan Dash, Surajit Das, Swati Pattnaik, Chandi Charan Rath, Deviprasad Samantaray
The microbially derived polyhydroxyalkanoates biopolymers could impact the global climate scenario by replacing the conventional non-degradable, petrochemical-based polymer. The biogenesis, characterization and properties of PHAs by Bacillus species using renewable substrates have been elaborated by many for their wide applications. On the other hand Bacillus species are advantageous over other bacteria due to their abundance even in extreme ecological conditions, higher growth rates even on cheap substrates, higher PHAs production ability, and the ease of extracting the PHAs...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064404/application-of-sodium-selenite-in-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-cancers
#16
REVIEW
Marek Kieliszek, Boguslaw Lipinski, Stanisław Błażejak
Selenium is an essential trace element that occurs in nature, in both inorganic and organic forms. This element participates in numerous biochemical processes, including antioxidant potential, but the mechanism of its anti-cancer action is still not well known. It should be noted that the anti-cancer properties of selenium depends on its chemical form, therapeutic doses, and the tumor type. Higher nutritional doses of selenium can stimulate human immune system. There are several hypotheses concerning the anticancer activity of selenium, including oxidation of sulfhydryl groups in proteins causing their conformational alterations...
October 24, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059529/self-assembled-polypeptide-nanogels-with-enzymatically-transformable-surface-as-a-small-interfering-rna-delivery-platform
#17
Tomoki Nishimura, Akina Yamada, Kaori Umezaki, Shin-Ichi Sawada, Sada-Atsu Mukai, Yoshihiro Sasaki, Kazunari Akiyoshi
Nanometer-size gel particles, or nanogels, have potential for delivering therapeutic macromolecules. A cationic surface promotes cellular internalization of nanogels, but undesired electrostatic interactions, such as with blood components, cause instability and toxicities. Poly(ethylene glycol) coating has been used to shield charges, but this decreases delivery efficiency. Technical difficulties in synthesis and controlling molecular weights make it unfeasible to, instead, coat with biodegradable polymers...
November 13, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030427/structural-insights-into-marine-carbohydrate-degradation-by-family-gh16-kappa-carrageenases
#18
Maria Matard-Mann, Thomas Bernard, Cédric Leroux, Tristan Barbeyron, Robert Larocque, Aurélie Préchoux, Alexandra Jeudy, Murielle Jam, Pi Nyvall-Collén, Gurvan Michel, Mirjam Czjzek
Carrageenans are sulfated α-1,3-β-1,4-galactans found in the cell wall of some red algae that are practically valuable for their gelation and biomimetic properties but also serve as a potential carbon source for marine bacteria. Carbohydrate degradation has been studied extensively for terrestrial plant/bacterial systems, but sulfation is not present in these cases, meaning the marine enzymes used to degrade carrageenans must possess unique features to recognize these modifications. To gain insights into these features, we have focused on κ-carrageenases from two distant bacterial phyla, which belong to glycoside hydrolase family 16 (GH16) and cleave the β-1,4 linkage of κ-carrageenan...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021549/protease-resistance-of-porcine-acidic-mammalian-chitinase-under-gastrointestinal-conditions-implies-that-chitin-containing-organisms-can-be-sustainable-dietary-resources
#19
Eri Tabata, Akinori Kashimura, Satoshi Wakita, Misa Ohno, Masayoshi Sakaguchi, Yasusato Sugahara, Yasutada Imamura, Shiro Seki, Hitoshi Ueda, Vaclav Matoska, Peter O Bauer, Fumitaka Oyama
Chitin, a polymer of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc), is a major structural component in chitin-containing organism including crustaceans, insects and fungi. Mammals express two chitinases, chitotriosidase (Chit1) and acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase). Here, we report that pig AMCase is stable in the presence of other digestive proteases and functions as chitinolytic enzyme under the gastrointestinal conditions. Quantification of chitinases expression in pig tissues using quantitative real-time PCR showed that Chit1 mRNA was highly expressed in eyes, whereas the AMCase mRNA was predominantly expressed in stomach at even higher levels than the housekeeping genes...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020919/cell-wall-metabolism-and-hexose-allocation-contribute-to-biomass-accumulation-in-high-yielding-extreme-segregants-of-a-saccharum-interspecific-f2-population
#20
Ching Man Wai, Jisen Zhang, Tyler C Jones, Chifumi Nagai, Ray Ming
BACKGROUND: Sugarcane is an emerging dual-purpose biofuel crop for energy and sugar production, owing to its rapid growth rate, high sucrose storage in the stems, and high lignocellulosic yield. It has the highest biomass production reaching 1.9 billion tonnes in 2014 worldwide. RESULTS: To improve sugarcane biomass accumulation, we developed an interspecific cross between Saccharum officinarum 'LA Purple' and Saccharum robustum 'MOL5829'. Selected F1 individuals were self-pollinated to generate a transgressive F2 population with a wide range of biomass yield...
October 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
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