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Enzyme degradable polymers

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093952/nanocarriers-protecting-toward-an-intestinal-pre-uptake-metabolism
#1
Wongsakorn Suchaoin, Andreas Bernkop-Schnürch
Pre-uptake metabolism within the GI tract is responsible for the poor oral bioavailability of numerous drugs. As nanocarriers function as a 'shield', protecting incorporated drugs from enzymatic attack, there is an increasing interest in utilizing them as a tool for overcoming drug degradation. Degradation of carriers resulting in the release of incorporated drugs, mucus permeation, enzyme inhibitory properties and their toxicity are crucial factors that must be taken into account when designing proper nanocarriers...
January 17, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087488/cathepsin-k-targeted-sub-micron-particles-for-regenerative-repair-of-vascular-elastic-matrix
#2
Brenton Jennewine, Jonathan Fox, Anand Ramamurthi
: Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA) involve slow dilation and weakening of the aortic wall due to breakdown of structural matrix components, such as elastic fibers by chronically overexpressed matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), primarily, MMPs-2 and -9. Auto-regenerative repair of disrupted elastic fibers by smooth muscle cells (SMCs) at the AAA site is intrinsically poor and together with chronic proteolysis prevents restoration of elastin homeostasis, necessary to enable AAA growth arrest or regression to a healthy state...
January 10, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077463/novel-method-for-detection-of-glycogen-in-cells
#3
Alexander V Skurat, Dyann Segvich, Anna A DePaoli-Roach, Peter J Roach
Glycogen, a branched polymer of glucose, functions as an energy reserve in many living organisms. Abnormalities in glycogen metabolism, usually excessive accumulation, can be caused genetically, most often through mutation of the enzymes directly involved in synthesis and degradation of the polymer leading to a variety of glycogen storage diseases (GSDs). Microscopic visualization of glycogen deposits in cells and tissues is important for the study of normal glycogen metabolism as well as diagnosis of GSDs...
January 10, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076454/a-broad-ph-range-and-processive-chitinase-from-a-metagenome-library
#4
S S Thimoteo, A Glogauer, H Faoro, E M de Souza, L F Huergo, B M Moerschbacher, F O Pedrosa
Chitinases are hydrolases that degrade chitin, a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine linked β(1-4) present in the exoskeleton of crustaceans, insects, nematodes and fungal cell walls. A metagenome fosmid library from a wastewater-contaminated soil was functionally screened for chitinase activity leading to the isolation and identification of a chitinase gene named metachi18A. The metachi18A gene was subcloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and the MetaChi18A chitinase was purified by affinity chromatography as a 6xHis-tagged fusion protein...
January 5, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049705/an-evolutionarily-conserved-transcriptional-activator-repressor-module-controls-expression-of-genes-for-d-galacturonic-acid-utilization-in-aspergillus-niger
#5
Jing Niu, Ebru Alazi, Ian D Reid, Mark Arentshorst, Peter J Punt, Jaap Visser, Adrian Tsang, Arthur F J Ram
The expression of genes encoding extracellular polymer-degrading enzymes and the metabolic pathways required for carbon utilization in fungi are tightly controlled. The control is mediated by transcription factors that are activated by the presence of specific inducers, which are often monomers or monomeric derivatives of the polymers. A D-galacturonic acid-specific transcription factor named GaaR was recently identified and shown to be an activator for the expression of genes involved in galacturonic acid utilization in Botrytis cinerea and Aspergillus niger Using a forward genetic screen, we isolated A...
January 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025527/purification-and-characterization-of-a-new-alginate-lyase-from-marine-bacterium-vibrio-sp-sy08
#6
Shangyong Li, Linna Wang, Jianhua Hao, Mengxin Xing, Jingjing Sun, Mi Sun
Unsaturated alginate disaccharides (UADs), enzymatically derived from the degradation of alginate polymers, are considered powerful antioxidants. In this study, a new high UAD-producing alginate lyase, AlySY08, has been purified from the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. SY08. AlySY08, with a molecular weight of about 33 kDa and a specific activity of 1070.2 U/mg, showed the highest activity at 40 °C in phosphate buffer at pH 7.6. The enzyme was stable over a broad pH range (6.0-9.0) and retained about 75% activity after incubation at 40 °C for 2 h...
December 23, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018390/emerging-technologies-for-the-production-of-renewable-liquid-transport-fuels-from-biomass-sources-enriched-in-plant-cell-walls
#7
REVIEW
Hwei-Ting Tan, Kendall R Corbin, Geoffrey B Fincher
Plant cell walls are composed predominantly of cellulose, a range of non-cellulosic polysaccharides and lignin. The walls account for a large proportion not only of crop residues such as wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse, but also of residues of the timber industry and specialist grasses and other plants being grown specifically for biofuel production. The polysaccharide components of plant cell walls have long been recognized as an extraordinarily large source of fermentable sugars that might be used for the production of bioethanol and other renewable liquid transport fuels...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017891/self-immolative-nanoparticles-for-simultaneous-delivery-of-microrna-and-targeting-of-polyamine-metabolism-in-combination-cancer-therapy
#8
Ying Xie, Tracy Murray-Stewart, Yazhe Wang, Fei Yu, Jing Li, Laurence J Marton, Robert A Casero, David Oupický
Combination of anticancer drugs with therapeutic microRNA (miRNA) has emerged as a promising anticancer strategy. However, the promise is hampered by a lack of desirable delivery systems. We report on the development of self-immolative nanoparticles capable of simultaneously delivering miR-34a mimic and targeting dysregulated polyamine metabolism in cancer. The nanoparticles were prepared from a biodegradable polycationic prodrug, named DSS-BEN, which was synthesized from a polyamine analog N(1),N(11)-bisethylnorspermine (BENSpm)...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013276/changes-in-cell-wall-polymers-and-degradability-in-maize-mutants-lacking-3-and-5-o-methyltransferases-involved-in-lignin-biosynthesis
#9
Silvia Fornalé, Jorge Rencoret, Laura García-Calvo, Antonio Encina, Joan Rigau, Ana Gutiérrez, José Carlos Del Río, David Caparros-Ruiz
Caffeoyl Coenzyme A 3-O-Methyltransferase (CCoAOMT) and Caffeic acid-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) are key enzymes in the biosynthesis of coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols, the precursors of guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) lignin subunits. The function of these enzymes was characterised in single and double mutant maize plants. In this work, we determined that the comt (brown-midrib 3) mutant plants display a reduction of the flavonolignin unit derived from tricin (a dimethylated flavone), demonstrating that COMT is a key enzyme involved in the synthesis of this compound...
December 23, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012009/hydrolase-bioh-knockout-in-e-coli-enables-efficient-fatty-acid-methyl-ester-bioprocessing
#10
Marvin Kadisch, Andreas Schmid, Bruno Bühler
Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) originating from plant oils are most interesting renewable feedstocks for biofuels and bio-based materials. FAMEs can also be produced and/or functionalized by engineered microbes to give access to, e.g., polymer building blocks. Yet, they are often subject to hydrolysis yielding free fatty acids, which typically are degraded by microbes. We identified BioH as the key enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of medium-chain length FAME derivatives in different E. coli K-12 strains...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994846/hybrid-polyurea-elastomers-with-enzymatic-degradation-and-tunable-mechanical-properties
#11
Nicholas A Sears, Geraldine Pena-Galea, Stacy N Cereceres, Elizabeth Cosgriff-Hernandez
Herein, we report on the synthesis and characterization of enzymatically labile polyureas for use as a tissue-engineered ligament scaffold. Polyureas were selected due to their excellent tensile properties, fatigue resistance, and highly tunable nature. Incorporation of a collagenase-sensitive peptide into the backbone of the polyurea provided a means to confer cell-responsive degradation to the synthetic polymer. Chemical, morphological, and mechanical testing were used to confirm incorporation of the peptide and characterize polyurea films...
January 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990807/molecular-precision-and-enzymatic-degradation-from-readily-to-undegradable-polymeric-micelles-by-minor-structural-changes
#12
Merav Segal, Ram Avinery, Marina Buzhor, Rona Shaharabani, Assaf J Harnoy, Einat Tirosh, Roy Beck, Roey J Amir
Studying the enzymatic degradation of synthetic polymers is crucial for the design of suitable materials for biomedical applications ranging from advanced drug delivery systems to tissue engineering. One of the key parameters that governs enzymatic activity is the limited accessibility of the enzyme to its substrates that may be collapsed inside hydrophobic domains. PEG-dendron amphiphiles can serve as powerful tools for the study of enzymatic hydrolysis of polymeric amphiphiles due to the monodispersity and symmetry of the hydrophobic dendritic block, which significantly simplifies kinetic analyses...
January 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956490/soluble-and-membrane-bound-%C3%AE-glucosidases-are-involved-in-trimming-the-xyloglucan-backbone
#13
Javier Sampedro Jimenez, Elene R Valdivia, Patricia Fraga, Natalia Iglesias, Gloria Revilla, Ignacio Zarra
In many flowering plants xyloglucan is a major component of primary cell walls, where it plays an important role in growth regulation. Xyloglucan can be degraded by a suite of exoglycosidases that remove specific sugars. In this work we show that the xyloglucan backbone, formed by (1→4)-linked β-D-glucopyranosyl residues, can be attacked by two different Arabidopsis β-glucosidases from Glycoside Hydrolase family 3 (GH3). While BGLC1 (At5g20950) is responsible for all or most of the soluble activity, BGLC3 (At5g04885) is usually a membrane-anchored protein...
December 12, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942753/cyanophycinase-cphe-from-p-alcaligenes-produced-in-different-compartments-of-n-benthamiana-degrades-high-amounts-of-cyanophycin-in-plant-extracts
#14
Henrik Nausch, Inge Broer
One of the major constraints in pig and poultry farming is the supply of protein-rich forage, containing sufficient amounts of key amino acids such as arginine (Ufaz and Galili 2008). Since these are underrepresented in plant proteins, the usage of plants as feed is limited. The heterologous production of the cyanobacterial storage polymer cyanophycin granule polypeptide (CGP) in plastids increases the amount of arginine substantially (Huhns et al. 2008; Huhns et al. 2009; Nausch et al. 2016a). CGP degradation releases arginine-aspartate dipeptides...
December 9, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919839/heparin-hyaluronic-acid-hydrogel-for-efficient-cellular-activities-of-3d-encapsulated-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#15
Kihak Gwon, Eunsol Kim, Giyoong Tae
: We have developed stem cell-responsive, heparin-hyaluronic acid (Hep-HA) hydrogel, crosslinked by thiolated heparin (Hep-SH) and methacrylated hyaluronic acid (HA-MA) via visible light mediated, thiol-ene reaction. Physical properties of the hydrogel (gelation time, storage modulus, and swelling ratio) were tunable by adjusting light intensity, initiator/polymer concentration, and precursor pH. Culture of human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) using this hydrogel was characterized and compared with the control hydrogels including Hep-PEG hydrogel, PEG-HA hydrogel...
December 5, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885938/genomic-analysis-of-bacillus-subtilis-lytic-bacteriophage-%C3%AF-nit1-capable-of-obstructing-natto-fermentation-carrying-genes-for-the-capsule-lytic-soluble-enzymes-poly-%C3%AE-glutamate-hydrolase-and-levanase
#16
Tatsuro Ozaki, Naoki Abe, Keitarou Kimura, Atsuto Suzuki, Jun Kaneko
Bacillus subtilis strains including the fermented soybean (natto) starter produce capsular polymers consisting of poly-γ-glutamate and levan. Capsular polymers may protect the cells from phage infection. However, bacteriophage ϕNIT1 carries a γ-PGA hydrolase gene (pghP) that help it to counteract the host cell's protection strategy. ϕNIT had a linear double stranded DNA genome of 155,631-bp with a terminal redundancy of 5,103-bp, containing a gene encoding an active levan hydrolase. These capsule-lytic enzyme genes were located in the possible foreign gene cluster regions between central core and terminal redundant regions, and were expressed at the late phase of the phage lytic cycle...
January 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883045/acidic-mammalian-chitinase-is-a-proteases-resistant-glycosidase-in-mouse-digestive-system
#17
Misa Ohno, Masahiro Kimura, Haruko Miyazaki, Kazuaki Okawa, Riho Onuki, Chiyuki Nemoto, Eri Tabata, Satoshi Wakita, Akinori Kashimura, Masayoshi Sakaguchi, Yasusato Sugahara, Nobuyuki Nukina, Peter O Bauer, Fumitaka Oyama
Chitinases are enzymes that hydrolyze chitin, a polymer of β-1, 4-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc). Chitin has long been considered as a source of dietary fiber that is not digested in the mammalian digestive system. Here, we provide evidence that acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) can function as a major digestive enzyme that constitutively degrades chitin substrates and produces (GlcNAc)2 fragments in the mouse gastrointestinal environment. AMCase was resistant to endogenous pepsin C digestion and remained active in the mouse stomach extract at pH 2...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878786/enhancing-poly-3-hydroxyalkanoate-production-in-escherichia-coli-by-the-removal-of-the-regulatory-gene-arca
#18
Ryan A Scheel, Liyuan Ji, Benjamin R Lundgren, Christopher T Nomura
Recombinant Escherichia coli is a desirable platform for the production of many biological compounds including poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates), a class of naturally occurring biodegradable polyesters with promising biomedical and material applications. Although the controlled production of desirable polymers is possible with the utilization of fatty acid feedstocks, a central challenge to this biosynthetic route is the improvement of the relatively low polymer yield, a necessary factor of decreasing the production costs...
December 2016: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872999/laccase-catalysis-for-the-synthesis-of-bioactive-compounds
#19
REVIEW
Tukayi Kudanga, Blessing Nemadziva, Marilize Le Roes-Hill
The demand for compounds of therapeutic value is increasing mainly because of new applications of bioactive compounds in medicine, pharmaceutical, agricultural, and food industries. This has necessitated the search for cost-effective methods for producing bioactive compounds and therefore the intensification of the search for enzymatic approaches in organic synthesis. Laccase is one of the enzymes that have shown encouraging potential as biocatalysts in the synthesis of bioactive compounds. Laccases are multicopper oxidases with a diverse range of catalytic activities revolving around synthesis and degradative reactions...
January 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872998/ppest-is-a-novel-pbat-degrading-polyesterase-identified-by-proteomic-screening-of-pseudomonas-pseudoalcaligenes
#20
Paal W Wallace, Karolina Haernvall, Doris Ribitsch, Sabine Zitzenbacher, Matthias Schittmayer, Georg Steinkellner, Karl Gruber, Georg M Guebitz, Ruth Birner-Gruenberger
A novel esterase, PpEst, that hydrolyses the co-aromatic-aliphatic polyester poly(1,4-butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) was identified by proteomic screening of the Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes secretome. PpEst was induced by the presence of PBAT in the growth media and had predicted arylesterase (EC 3.1.1.2) activity. PpEst showed polyesterase activity on both whole and milled PBAT film releasing terephthalic acid and 4-(4-hydroxybutoxycarbonyl)benzoic acid while end product inhibition by 4-(4-hydroxybutoxycarbonyl)benzoic acid was observed...
November 21, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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