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Enzyme degradable polymers

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923606/actinomycetes-benefaction-role-in-soil-and-plant-health
#1
REVIEW
Asma Absar Bhatti, Shamsul Haq, Rouf Ahmad Bhat
Actinomycetes are aerobic, spore forming gram-positive bacteria, belonging to the order actinomycetales characterized with substrate and aerial mycelium growth. They are the most abundant organisms that form thread-like filaments in the soil and are responsible for characteristically "earthy" smell of freshly turned healthy soil. They play major roles in the cycling of organic matter; inhibit the growth of several plant pathogens in the rhizosphere and decompose complex mixtures of polymer in dead plant, animal and fungal material results in production of many extracellular enzymes which are conductive to crop production...
September 16, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918449/immunochemical-study-of-the-effect-of-f2glc-on-glycogen-synthase-translocation-and-glycogen-synthesis-in-isolated-rat-hepatocytes
#2
J M Fernández-Novell, M Díaz-Lobo
The compound 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-α-D-glucopyranosyl fluoride (F2Glc), which is a nonmetabolized superior glucose analogue, is a potent inhibitor of glycogen phosphorylase and pharmacological properties are reported. Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) and glycogen synthase (GS) are responsible of the degradation and synthesis, respectively, of glycogen which is a polymer of glucose units that provides a readily available source of energy in mammals. GP and GS are two key enzymes that modulate cellular glucose and glycogen levels; therefore, these proteins are suggested as potential targets for the treatment of diseases related to glycogen metabolism disorders...
September 16, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900776/haloarchaea-worth-exploring-for-their-biotechnological-potential
#3
REVIEW
Aparna Singh, Anil K Singh
Halophilic archaea are unique microorganisms adapted to survive under high salt conditions and biomolecules produced by them may possess unusual properties. Haloarchaeal metabolites are stable at high salt and temperature conditions that are useful for industrial applications. Proteins and enzymes of this group of archaea are functional under salt concentrations at which bacterial counterparts fail to be active. Such properties makes haloarchaeal enzymes suitable for salt-based applications and their use under dehydrating conditions...
September 12, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887133/potential-of-insulin-nanoparticle-formulations-for-oral-delivery-and-diabetes-treatment
#4
REVIEW
Chun Y Wong, Hani Al-Salami, Crispin R Dass
Nanoparticles have demonstrated significant advancements in potential oral delivery of insulin. In this publication, we review the current status of polymeric, inorganic and solid-lipid nanoparticles designed for oral administration of insulin. Firstly, the structure and physiological function of insulin are examined. Then, the efficiency and shortcomings of insulin nanoparticle are discussed. These include the susceptibility to digestive enzyme degradation, instability in the acidic pH environment, poor mucus diffusion and inadequate permeation through the gastrointestinal epithelium...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882824/a-physics-based-model-for-maintenance-of-the-ph-gradient-in-the-gastric-mucus-layer
#5
Owen L Lewis, James P Keener, Aaron L Fogelson
It is generally accepted that the gastric mucus layer provides a protective barrier between the lumen and the mucosa, shielding the mucosa from acid and digestive enzymes and preventing auto-digestion of the stomach epithelium. However, the precise mechanisms that contribute to this protective function are still up for debate. In particular, it is not clear what physical processes are responsible for transporting hydrogen protons, secreted within the gastric pits, across the mucus layer to the lumen without acidifying the environment adjacent to the epithelium...
September 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858720/fret-enabled-monitoring-of-the-thermosensitive-nanoscale-assembly-of-polymeric-micelles-into-macroscale-hydrogel-and-sequential-cognate-micelles-release
#6
Pingsheng Huang, Huijuan Song, Yumin Zhang, Jinjian Liu, Zhen Cheng, Xing-Jie Liang, Weiwei Wang, Deling Kong, Jianfeng Liu
Thermosensitive "micellar hydrogel" is prepared based on poly(ε-caprolactone-co- 1,4,8-trioxa[4.6]spiro-9-undecanone)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)- b-poly(ε-caprolactone- co-1,4,8-trioxa[4.6]spiro-9-undecanone) (PECT) triblock copolymer. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is adopted to explore its assembly (formation) and disassembly (degradation) mechanism within the range of 10 nm. Results prove that the thermosensitive non-covalent aggregation of micelles facilitates the hydrogel formation and the sustained shedding of cognate micelles induces the hydrogel degradation, during which polymers are steadily incorporated in micelles without any micelle disassembly or reassembly...
July 10, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846821/polymer-based-surfaces-designed-to-reduce-biofilm-formation-from-antimicrobial-polymers-to-strategies-for-long-term-applications
#7
REVIEW
Esther K Riga, Maria Vöhringer, Vania Tanda Widyaya, Karen Lienkamp
Contact-active antimicrobial polymer surfaces bear cationic charges and kill or deactivate bacteria by interaction with the negatively charged parts of their cell envelope (lipopolysaccharides, peptidoglycan, and membrane lipids). The exact mechanism of this interaction is still under debate. While cationic antimicrobial polymer surfaces can be very useful for short-term applications, they lose their activity once they are contaminated by a sufficiently thick layer of adhering biomolecules or bacterial cell debris...
August 28, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834764/metal-carbenicillin-framework-based-nanoantibiotics-with-enhanced-penetration-and-highly-efficient-inhibition-of-mrsa
#8
Fei Duan, Xiaochen Feng, Yan Jin, Dawei Liu, Xinjian Yang, Guoqiang Zhou, Dandan Liu, Zhenhua Li, Xing-Jie Liang, Jinchao Zhang
The development of effective therapies to control methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections is challenging because antibiotics can be degraded by the production of certain enzymes, for example, β-lactamases. Additionally, the antibiotics themselves fail to penetrate the full depth of biofilms formed from extracellular polymers. Nanoparticle-based carriers can deliver antibiotics with better biofilm penetration, thus combating bacterial resistance. In this study, we describe a general approach for the construction of β-lactam antibiotics and β-lactamase inhibitors co-delivery of nanoantibiotics based on metal-carbenicillin framework-coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) to overcome MRSA...
August 17, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827094/injectable-hydrogels-for-sustained-release-of-therapeutic-agents
#9
Thavasyappan Thambi, Yi Li, Doo Sung Lee
Hydrogels are natural or synthetic polymer networks that exhibit high water absorbent capacities and have been used as scaffolds for tissue engineering or as delivery carriers for therapeutic agents and cells. Owing to their tunable physicochemical properties, hydrogels can provide spatial and temporal control over the release of loaded therapeutic agents, including chemotherapeutic drugs, proteins or cells. In particular, in situ-forming injectable hydrogels, the state-of-the-art clear free flowing polymer solutions that transform to viscoelastic gels upon exposure to stimuli including pH, temperature, light, enzymes and magnetic field, have been widely studied as delivery carriers for therapeutic agents...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818724/enzyme-sensitive-smart-inulin-dehydropeptide-conjugate-self-assembles-into-nanostructures-useful-for-targeted-delivery-of-ornidazole
#10
Kriti Shivhare, Charu Garg, Ayushi Priyam, Alka Gupta, Ashwani Kumar Sharma, Pradeep Kumar
Molecular self-assembly of biodegradable amphiphilic polymers allows rational design of biocompatible nanomaterials for drug delivery. Use of substituted polysaccharides for such applications offers the ease of design and synthesis, and provides higher biofunctionality and biocompatibility to nanomaterials. The present work focuses on the synthesis, characterization and potential biomedical applications of self-assembled polysaccharide-based materials. We demonstrated that the synthesized amphiphilic inulin self-assembled in aqueous medium into nanostructures with average size in the range of 146-486nm and encapsulated hydrophobic therapeutic molecule, ornidazole...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802264/crystal-structure-and-substrate-specificity-modification-of-acetyl-xylan-esterase-from-aspergillus-luchuensis
#11
Dai Komiya, Akane Hori, Takuya Ishida, Kiyohiko Igarashi, Masahiro Samejima, Takuya Koseki, Shinya Fushinobu
Acetyl xylan esterase (AXE) catalyzes the hydrolysis of the acetyl bonds present in plant cell wall polysaccharides. Here, we determined the crystal structure of AXE from Aspergillus luchuensis (AlAXEA), providing the three-dimensional structure of an enzyme in the Esterase_phb family. AlAXEA shares its core α/β-hydrolase fold structure with esterases in other families, but it has an extended central β-sheet at both its ends and an extra loop. Structural comparison with a ferulic acid esterase (FAE) from Aspergillus niger indicated that AlAXEA has conserved catalytic machinery: a catalytic triad (Ser119, His259, and Asp202) and an oxyanion hole (Cys40 and Ser120)...
August 11, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754284/temporal-transcriptome-analysis-of-the-white-rot-fungus-obba-rivulosa-shows-expression-of-a-constitutive-set-of-plant-cell-wall-degradation-targeted-genes-during-growth-on-solid-spruce-wood
#12
Mila Marinović, Maria Victoria Aguilar-Pontes, Miaomiao Zhou, Otto Miettinen, Ronald P de Vries, Miia R Mäkelä, Kristiina Hildén
The basidiomycete white-rot fungus Obba rivulosa, a close relative of Gelatoporia (Ceriporiopsis) subvermispora, is an efficient degrader of softwood. The dikaryotic O. rivulosa strain T241i (FBCC949) has been shown to selectively remove lignin from spruce wood prior to depolymerization of plant cell wall polysaccharides, thus possessing potential in biotechnological applications such as pretreatment of wood in pulp and paper industry. In this work, we studied the time-course of the conversion of spruce by the genome-sequenced monokaryotic O...
July 25, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751762/gastric-and-intestinal-proteases-resistance-of-chicken-acidic-chitinase-nominates-chitin-containing-organisms-for-alternative-whole-edible-diets-for-poultry
#13
Eri Tabata, Akinori Kashimura, Satoshi Wakita, Misa Ohno, Masayoshi Sakaguchi, Yasusato Sugahara, Yoshihiro Kino, Vaclav Matoska, Peter O Bauer, Fumitaka Oyama
Chitin, a polymer of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc), functions as a major structural component in crustaceans, insects and fungi and is the second most abundant polysaccharide in the nature. Although these chitin-containing organisms have been suggested as novel animal feed resources, chitin has long been considered as indigestible fibers in the animal body. Recently, we reported that acidic chitinase (Chia) is a protease-resistant major glycosidase in mouse gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and that it digests chitin in the mouse stomach...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749533/charmm-force-field-and-molecular-dynamics-simulations-of-protonated-polyethylenimine
#14
Titus Adrian Beu, Alexandra Farcaş
As a gene delivery vector, polyethylenimine (PEI) shows one of the highest transfection efficiencies, while effectively protecting DNA from enzyme degradation. The distinctive charge pattern of protonated PEI is widely considered responsible for fundamental process such as DNA condensation into PEI/DNA polyplexes (which are able to enter cells via endocytosis), proton sponge effect (which triggers the release of polyplexes from endosome), and release of DNA from polyplexes (to be further processed inside the nucleus)...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732878/cyclodextrin-based-nanosponges-a-critical-review
#15
REVIEW
Atul P Sherje, Bhushan R Dravyakar, Darshana Kadam, Mrunal Jadhav
Cyclodextrin-based nanosponges (CD-NS) are innovative cross-linked cyclodextrin polymers nanostructured within three-dimensional network. CD-NS are highly porous nanoparticles characterized by crystalline or amorphous structure, spherical shape and swelling properties. Different cross-linkers provide variety of nanosponges. The polarity, dimension of the polymer mesh and release of entrapped molecule can be easily tuned by varying the type of cross-linker and degree of cross-linking. The site-specific targeting can be achieved by conjugating various ligands on the surface of nanosponge...
October 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714209/biotransporting-self-assembled-nanofactories-using-polymer-vesicles-with-molecular-permeability-for-enzyme-prodrug-cancer-therapy
#16
Tomoki Nishimura, Yoshihiro Sasaki, Kazunari Akiyoshi
As "biotransporting nanofactories", in vivo therapeutic biocatalyst nanoreactors would enable encapsulated enzymes to transform inert prodrugs or neutralize toxic compounds at target disease sites. This would offer outstanding potential for next-generation therapeutic platforms, such as enzyme prodrug therapy. Designing such advanced materials has, however, proven challenging. Here, it is shown that self-assembled nanofactories formulate with polymeric vesicles with an intrinsically permeable membrane. The vesicles, CAPsomes, are composed of carbohydrate-b-poly(propylene glycol) and show molecular-weight-depended permeability...
July 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695652/production-of-functionalized-oligo-isoprenoids-by-enzymatic-cleavage-of-rubber
#17
Wolf Röther, Jakob Birke, Stephanie Grond, Jose Manuel Beltran, Dieter Jendrossek
In this study, we show the proof of concept for the production of defined oligo-isoprenoids with terminal functional groups that can be used as starting materials for various purposes including the synthesis of isoprenoid-based plastics. To this end, we used three types of rubber oxygenases for the enzymatic cleavage of rubber [poly(cis-1,4-isoprene)]. Two enzymes, rubber oxygenase RoxAXsp and rubber oxygenase RoxBXsp , originate from Xanthomonas sp. 35Y; the third rubber oxygenase, latex-clearing protein (LcpK30 ), is derived from Gram-positive rubber degraders such as Streptomyces sp...
July 11, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676827/isolation-and-characterization-of-yeasts-able-to-assimilate-sugarcane-bagasse-hemicellulosic-hydrolysate-and-produce-xylitol-associated-with-veturius-transversus-passalidae-coleoptera-and-insecta
#18
Italo Thiago Silveira Rocha Matos, Enedina Nogueira Assunção, Edson Junior do Carmo, Verena Makaren Soares, Spartaco Astolfi-Filho
Yeasts are an important component of insect gut microbial content, playing roles such as degradation of polymers and toxic compounds, biological control, and hormone, vitamin, and digestive enzyme production. The xylophagous beetle gut is a hyperdiverse habitat and a potential source of new species with industrial abilities such as enzyme production, pentose fermentation, and biodetoxification. In this work, samples of Veturius transversus (Passalidae, Coleoptera, and Insecta) were collected from the Central Amazon Rainforest...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666163/macroporous-monoliths-for-biodegradation-study-of-polymer-particles-considered-as-drug-delivery-systems
#19
M V Volokitina, V A Korzhikov-Vlakh, T B Tennikova, E G Korzhikova-Vlakh
Nanostructures based on biodegradable polymers are often considered as drug delivery systems. The properties of these nanomaterails towards in vitro biodegradation are very important and usually are studied using the model physiological conditions. In this work the novel approach based on application of monolithic immobilized enzyme reactors (IMERs) as the systems for biodegradation study of the nanoobjects of different nature and morphology was suggested. Rigid nanospheres based on poly(lactic acid) and self-assembled nanoobjects formed from block-copolymer of glutamic acid and phenylalanine were applied as model nanomaterials...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664519/poly-%C3%AE-glutamic-acid-productivity-of-bacillus-subtilis-bse1-has-positive-function-in-motility-and-biocontrol-against-fusarium-graminearum
#20
Luyao Wang, Ning Wang, Dandan Mi, Yuming Luo, Jianhua Guo
In this study, we investigate the relationship between γ-PGA productivity and biocontrol capacity of Bacillus subtilis BsE1; one bacterial isolate displayed 62.14% biocontrol efficacy against Fusarium root rot. The γ-PGA yield assay, motility assay, wheat root colonization assay, and biological control assay were analysed in different γ-PGA yield mutants of BsE1. The pgsB (PGA-synthase-CapB gene) deleted mutant of BsE1 reduced γ-PGA yield and exhibited apparent decline of in vitro motile ability. Deletion of pgsB impaired colonizing capacity of BsE1 on wheat root in 30 days, also lowered biocontrol efficacies from 62...
July 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
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