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Enzyme degradable polymers

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885938/genomic-analysis-of-bacillus-subtilis-lytic-bacteriophage-%C3%AF-nit1-capable-of-obstructing-natto-fermentation-carrying-genes-for-the-capsule-lytic-soluble-enzymes-poly-%C3%AE-glutamate-hydrolase-and-levanase
#1
Tatsuro Ozaki, Naoki Abe, Keitarou Kimura, Atsuto Suzuki, Jun Kaneko
Bacillus subtilis strains including the fermented soybean (natto) starter produce capsular polymers consisting of poly-γ-glutamate and levan. Capsular polymers may protect the cells from phage infection. However, bacteriophage ϕNIT1 carries a γ-PGA hydrolase gene (pghP) that help it to counteract the host cell's protection strategy. ϕNIT had a linear double stranded DNA genome of 155,631-bp with a terminal redundancy of 5,103-bp, containing a gene encoding an active levan hydrolase. These capsule-lytic enzyme genes were located in the possible foreign gene cluster regions between central core and terminal redundant regions, and were expressed at the late phase of the phage lytic cycle...
January 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883045/acidic-mammalian-chitinase-is-a-proteases-resistant-glycosidase-in-mouse-digestive-system
#2
Misa Ohno, Masahiro Kimura, Haruko Miyazaki, Kazuaki Okawa, Riho Onuki, Chiyuki Nemoto, Eri Tabata, Satoshi Wakita, Akinori Kashimura, Masayoshi Sakaguchi, Yasusato Sugahara, Nobuyuki Nukina, Peter O Bauer, Fumitaka Oyama
Chitinases are enzymes that hydrolyze chitin, a polymer of β-1, 4-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc). Chitin has long been considered as a source of dietary fiber that is not digested in the mammalian digestive system. Here, we provide evidence that acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) can function as a major digestive enzyme that constitutively degrades chitin substrates and produces (GlcNAc)2 fragments in the mouse gastrointestinal environment. AMCase was resistant to endogenous pepsin C digestion and remained active in the mouse stomach extract at pH 2...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878786/enhancing-poly-3-hydroxyalkanoate-production-in-escherichia-coli-by-the-removal-of-the-regulatory-gene-arca
#3
Ryan A Scheel, Liyuan Ji, Benjamin R Lundgren, Christopher T Nomura
Recombinant Escherichia coli is a desirable platform for the production of many biological compounds including poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates), a class of naturally occurring biodegradable polyesters with promising biomedical and material applications. Although the controlled production of desirable polymers is possible with the utilization of fatty acid feedstocks, a central challenge to this biosynthetic route is the improvement of the relatively low polymer yield, a necessary factor of decreasing the production costs...
December 2016: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872999/laccase-catalysis-for-the-synthesis-of-bioactive-compounds
#4
REVIEW
Tukayi Kudanga, Blessing Nemadziva, Marilize Le Roes-Hill
The demand for compounds of therapeutic value is increasing mainly because of new applications of bioactive compounds in medicine, pharmaceutical, agricultural, and food industries. This has necessitated the search for cost-effective methods for producing bioactive compounds and therefore the intensification of the search for enzymatic approaches in organic synthesis. Laccase is one of the enzymes that have shown encouraging potential as biocatalysts in the synthesis of bioactive compounds. Laccases are multicopper oxidases with a diverse range of catalytic activities revolving around synthesis and degradative reactions...
November 21, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872998/ppest-is-a-novel-pbat-degrading-polyesterase-identified-by-proteomic-screening-of-pseudomonas-pseudoalcaligenes
#5
Paal W Wallace, Karolina Haernvall, Doris Ribitsch, Sabine Zitzenbacher, Matthias Schittmayer, Georg Steinkellner, Karl Gruber, Georg M Guebitz, Ruth Birner-Gruenberger
A novel esterase, PpEst, that hydrolyses the co-aromatic-aliphatic polyester poly(1,4-butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) was identified by proteomic screening of the Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes secretome. PpEst was induced by the presence of PBAT in the growth media and had predicted arylesterase (EC 3.1.1.2) activity. PpEst showed polyesterase activity on both whole and milled PBAT film releasing terephthalic acid and 4-(4-hydroxybutoxycarbonyl)benzoic acid while end product inhibition by 4-(4-hydroxybutoxycarbonyl)benzoic acid was observed...
November 21, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865950/lactobacillus-sps-lipase-mediated-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-degradation
#6
Imran Khan, Jayati Ray Dutta, Ramakrishnan Ganesan
Polymer degradation through lipase appears to be an enthralling alternative to bulk chemical routes. Poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) is an artificial polyester that can be degraded by microbes and enzymes like lipases and esterases. The environmental degradation of PCL is dependent on the activity of bacteria that characterization techniques such as thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal are widely present in the ecosystem. In this study, three different lipases derived from Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus plantarum and their co-culture have been utilized to explore their efficiency towards PCL enzymatic degradation...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863665/biodegradable-hydrophilic-carriers-for-the-oral-delivery-of-hematological-factor-ix-for-hemophilia-b-treatment
#7
Sarena D Horava, Katie J Moy, Nicholas A Peppas
Current protein replacement therapies for hemophilia B, a genetic bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency in coagulation factor IX, rely on IV injections and infusions. Oral delivery of factor IX is a desirable needle-free option, especially for prophylaxis. We have developed a biodegradable, pH-responsive hydrogel microcarrier system based on the poly(methacrylic acid)-grafted-poly(ethylene glycol) [P(MAA-g-EG)]. Incorporation of an enzymatically degradable peptide crosslinking agent allows for site-specific degradation by trypsin in the small intestine...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853060/physical-chemical-and-proteomic-evidence-of-potato-suberin-degradation-by-the-plant-pathogenic-bacterium-streptomyces-scabiei
#8
Carole Beaulieu, Amadou Sidibé, Raoudha Jabloune, Anne-Marie Simao-Beaunoir, Sylvain Lerat, Ernest Monga, Mark A Bernards
Potato peels consist of a tissue called phellem, which is formed by suberized cell layers. The degradation of suberin, a lipidic and recalcitrant polymer, is an ecological process attributed to soil fungal populations; however, previous studies have suggested that Streptomyces scabiei, the causal agent of potato common scab, possesses the ability to degrade suberin. In the present study, S. scabiei was grown in medium containing suberin-enriched potato phellem as the sole carbon source and its secretome was analyzed periodically (10- to 60-d-old cultures) with a special focus on proteins potentially involved in cell wall degradation...
November 17, 2016: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849068/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-mri-visualization-of-nanocomposite-biodegradable-microcapsules-with-tunable-contrast
#9
Sergey V German, Daniil N Bratashov, Nikita A Navolokin, Anastasia A Kozlova, Maria V Lomova, Marina V Novoselova, Evgeniya A Burilova, Victor V Zyev, Boris N Khlebtsov, Alla B Bucharskaya, Georgy S Terentyuk, Rustem R Amirov, Galina N Maslyakova, Gleb B Sukhorukov, Dmitry A Gorin
Microcapsules, made of biodegradable polymers, containing magnetite nanoparticles with tunable contrast in both the T1 and T2 MRI modes, were successfully prepared using a layer-by-layer approach. The MRI contrast of the microcapsules was shown to depend on the distance between magnetite nanoparticles in the polymeric layers, which is controlled by their concentration in the microcapsule shell. A fivefold increase in the average distance between the nanoparticles in the microcapsule shell led to a change in the intensity of the MR signal of 100% for both the T1 and T2 modes...
November 30, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847224/tetraiodothyroacetic-acid-conjugated-polyethylenimine-for-integrin-receptor-mediated-delivery-of-the-plasmid-encoding-il-12-gene
#10
Fatemeh Sheikhsaran, Hossein Sadeghpour, Bahman Khalvati, Elaheh Entezar-Almahdi, Ali Dehshahri
Targeted delivery by polymer-based nanoparticles has been considered as an efficient approach to transfer genetic materials into cells. Considering the over expression of integrin αVβ3 receptor on tumor cells and the presence of the binding site for tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac) on integrin receptor, we hypothesized that the conjugation of tetrac to polyethylenimine (PEI) might be an effective strategy for pDNA delivery into the cells over-expressing integrins on their surfaces. In order to test the hypothesis, tetrac conjugated PEI/plasmid DNA complexes were prepared and their ability in the delivery of plasmid encoding IL-12 gene was investigated...
November 5, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830993/comparison-of-chitooligosaccharides-production-from-three-different-colloidal-chitosan-using-the-endochitonsanolytic-system-of-bacillus-thuringiensis
#11
Dario Rafael Olicón-Hernández, Pedro Alberto Vázquez-Landaverde, Ramón Cruz-Camarillo, Luz Irene Rojas-Avelizapa
Bacillus thuringiensis is a non-human pathogen bacterium that is used as a fungal and insect biocontrol agent. Because of its environmental interaction, it possesses several extracellular enzymes that are able to degrade chitin and chitosan, two of the most important polymers because of their application in numerous fields. However, in recent years, it has been observed that oligosaccharides from the enzymatic degradation of chitosan have important benefits for human health. Compare and explore the production of chitooligosaccharides from different sources of chitosan will improve the process parameters and expand the biotechnology based in this molecules...
November 10, 2016: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824067/biological-function-of-a-polysaccharide-degrading-enzyme-in-the-periplasm
#12
Yajie Wang, M Fata Moradali, Ali Goudarztalejerdi, Ian M Sims, Bernd H A Rehm
Carbohydrate polymers are industrially and medically important. For instance, a polysaccharide, alginate (from seaweed), is widely used in food, textile and pharmaceutical industries. Certain bacteria also produce alginate through membrane spanning multi-protein complexes. Using Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a model organism, we investigated the biological function of an alginate degrading enzyme, AlgL, in alginate production and biofilm formation. We showed that AlgL negatively impacts alginate production through its enzymatic activity...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819009/chitin-and-chitosan-production-and-application-of-versatile-biomedical-nanomaterials
#13
Daniel Elieh-Ali-Komi, Michael R Hamblin
Chitin is the most abundant aminopolysaccharide polymer occurring in nature, and is the building material that gives strength to the exoskeletons of crustaceans, insects, and the cell walls of fungi. Through enzymatic or chemical deacetylation, chitin can be converted to its most well-known derivative, chitosan. The main natural sources of chitin are shrimp and crab shells, which are an abundant byproduct of the food-processing industry, that provides large quantities of this biopolymer to be used in biomedical applications...
March 2016: International Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817743/new-insights-into-the-roles-of-nad-poly-adp-ribose-metabolism-and-poly-adp-ribose-glycohydrolase
#14
Seiichi Tanuma, Akira Sato, Takahiro Oyama, Atsushi Yoshimori, Hideaki Abe, Fumiaki Uchiumi
Accumulating evidence has suggested the fundamental functions of NAD+-poly(ADP-ribose) metabolism in cellular and physiological processes, including energy homeostasis, signal transduction, DNA transaction, genomic stability and cell death or survival. The NAD+ biosynthesis and poly(ADP-ribose) [(ADP-R)n] turnover are tightly controlled by several key enzymes, such as nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NmPRT), nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferases (NMNATs), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) and ADP-ribose pyrophosphorylase (ADPRPPL)...
2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808470/stable-production-of-cyanophycinase-in-nicotiana-benthamiana-and-its-functionality-to-hydrolyse-cyanophycin-in-the-murine-intestine
#15
Daniel Ponndorf, Sven Ehmke, Benjamin Walliser, Kerstin Thoss, Christoph Unger, Solvig Görs, Gürbüz Daş, Cornelia C Metges, Inge Broer, Henrik Nausch
Food supplementation with the conditionally essential amino acid arginine (Arg) has been shown to have nutritional benefits. Degradation of cyanophycin (CGP), a peptide polymer used for nitrogen storage by cyanobacteria, requires cyanophycinase (CGPase) and results in the release of β-aspartic acid (Asp)-(Arg) dipeptides. The simultaneous production of CGP and CGPase in plants could be a convenient source of Arg dipeptides. Different variants of the cphB coding region from Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 were transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana plants...
November 3, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802606/-killer-microcapsules-that-can-selectively-destroy-target-microparticles-in-their-vicinity
#16
Chandamany Arya, Hyuntaek Oh, Srinivasa R Raghavan
We have developed microscale polymer capsules that are able to chemically degrade a certain type of polymeric microbead in their immediate vicinity. The inspiration here is from the body's immune system, where killer T cells selectively destroy cancerous cells or cells infected by pathogens while leaving healthy cells alone. The "killer" capsules are made from the cationic biopolymer chitosan by a combination of ionic cross-linking (using multivalent tripolyposphate anions) and subsequent covalent cross-linking (using glutaraldehyde)...
November 2, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795492/proteome-analyses-of-soil-bacteria-grown-in-the-presence-of-potato-suberin-a-recalcitrant-biopolymer
#17
Amadou Sidibé, Anne-Marie Simao-Beaunoir, Sylvain Lerat, Lauriane Giroux, Vicky Toussaint, Carole Beaulieu
Suberin is a complex lipidic plant polymer found in various tissues including the potato periderm. The biological degradation of suberin is attributed to fungi. Soil samples from a potato field were used to inoculate a culture medium containing suberin as the carbon source, and a metaproteomic approach was used to identify bacteria that developed in the presence of suberin over a 60-d incubation period. The normalized spectral counts of predicted extracellular proteins produced by the soil bacterial community markedly decreased from day 5 to day 20 and then slowly increased, revealing a succession of bacteria...
October 28, 2016: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780866/identification-of-two-phosphate-starvation-induced-wall-teichoic-acid-hydrolases-provides-first-insights-into-the-degradative-pathway-of-a-key-bacterial-cell-wall-component
#18
Cullen L Myers, Franco K K Li, Byoung-Mo Koo, Omar M El-Halfawy, Shawn French, Carol A Gross, Natalie C J Strynadka, Eric D Brown
The cell wall of most Gram-positive bacteria contains equal amounts of peptidoglycan and the phosphate-rich glycopolymer wall teichoic acid (WTA). During phosphate-limited growth of the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis 168, WTA is lost from the cell wall in a response mediated by the PhoPR two component system, which regulates genes involved in phosphate conservation and acquisition. It has been thought that WTA provides a phosphate source to sustain growth during starvation conditions, however, WTA degradative pathways have not been described for this, or any condition of bacterial growth...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780560/silica-nanoparticle-based-techniques-for-extraction-detection-and-degradation-of-pesticides
#19
REVIEW
Gandhali Bapat, Chaitali Labade, Amol Chaudhari, Smita Zinjarde
Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) find applications in the fields of drug delivery, catalysis, immobilization and sensing. Their synthesis can be mediated in a facile manner and they display broad range compatibility and stability. Their existence in the form of spheres, wires and sheets renders them suitable for varied purposes. This review summarizes the use of silica nanostructures in developing techniques for extraction, detection and degradation of pesticides. Silica nanostructures on account of their sorbent properties, porous nature and increased surface area allow effective extraction of pesticides...
June 10, 2016: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775869/degradation-of-lignin-%C3%AE-aryl-ether-units-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-expressing-ligd-ligf-and-ligg-from-sphingomonas-paucimobilis-syk-6
#20
Ewelina Mnich, Ruben Vanholme, Paula Oyarce, Sarah Liu, Fachuang Lu, Geert Goeminne, Bodil Jørgensen, Mohammed Saddik Motawie, Wout Boerjan, John Ralph, Peter Ulvskov, Birger Lindberg Møller, Nanna Bjarnholt, Jesper Harholt
Lignin is a major polymer in the secondary plant cell wall and composed of hydrophobic interlinked hydroxyphenylpropanoid units. The presence of lignin hampers conversion of plant biomass into biofuels; plants with modified lignin are therefore being investigated for increased digestibility. The bacterium Sphingomonas paucimobilis produces lignin-degrading enzymes including LigD, LigF and LigG involved in cleaving the most abundant lignin inter-unit linkage, the β-aryl ether bond. In this study, we expressed the LigD, LigF and LigG (LigDFG) genes in Arabidopsis thaliana to introduce post-lignification modifications into the lignin structure...
October 24, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
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