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Cancer biomaterials

Stephen J Assinder, Vanitha Bhoopalan
It has been estimated that globally there is a death attributable to prostate cancer every four minutes. As life expectancy in all world regions increases, so too incidence of this disease of the ageing male will increase. For many men diagnosis occurs after presentation with symptoms of altered urinary dynamics. Unfortunately, these changes, whilst also associated with benign disease, are evident quite late in the aetiology of prostate cancer. Early detection provides for better management and prognosis. This Special Issue provides an up to date view of the advances made towards early diagnosis and prognosis...
January 17, 2017: Diagnostics
Benjamin W Fischer-Valuck, Anupama Chundury, Hiram Gay, Walter Bosch, Jeff Michalski
PURPOSE: Hydrogel prostate-rectum spacers, biomaterials placed between the prostate and rectum, continue to gain interest as a method to reduce or limit rectal dose during dose escalated prostate cancer radiation therapy. Because the spacer is initially injected into the perirectal space as a liquid, the final distribution can vary. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hydrogel spacer (SpaceOAR system) implantation and distribution from a recent prospective randomized control trial and correlate spacer symmetry with rectal dose reduction as well as rectal wall infiltration (RWI) to acute and late toxicity...
October 17, 2016: Practical Radiation Oncology
Zhiwen Jiang, Baoqin Han, Wanshun Liu, Yanfei Peng
Carboxymethyl-chitosan, a water-soluble derivative of chitosan, has emerged as a promising candidate for biomedical applications due to its excellent water solubility, biodegradation, biocompatibility, hydrating, antimicrobial, and nontoxicity. In this paper, the antitumor proliferation and metastasis was studied in vitro and in vivo to evaluate biocompatibility of carboxymethyl-chitosan as biomaterials for antitumor drug delivery. The results showed that carboxymethyl-chitosan could significantly reduce the clone formation and tumor migration of human cancer cells including kidney cancer cell line OS-RC-2, gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901, colon cancer cell line HT-29, and nonsmall cell lung cancer cell line NCI-H1650 in vitro...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
David Schrama, Cathrin Ritter, Jürgen C Becker
Characterizing the interaction of cancer cells with the host adaptive immune system is critical for understanding tumor immunology and the modus operandi of immunotherapeutic interventions to treat cancer. As the key cellular effectors of adaptive immunity, T cells are endowed with specialized receptors (the T cell receptor; TCR), to recognize and to eliminate cancer cells. The diversity of the TCR repertoire results from specialized genetic diversification mechanisms that generate an incredible variability allowing recognizing extensive collections of antigens...
January 10, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
Jacob L Albritton, Jordan S Miller
Even with many advances in treatment over the past decades, cancer still remains a leading cause of death worldwide. Despite the recognized relationship between metastasis and increased mortality rate, surprisingly little is known about the exact mechanism of metastatic progression. Currently available in vitro models cannot replicate the three-dimensionality and heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment sufficiently to recapitulate many of the known characteristics of tumors in vivo Our understanding of metastatic progression would thus be boosted by the development of in vitro models that could more completely capture the salient features of cancer biology...
January 1, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Rajendra Aluri, Manickam Jayakannan
New classes of enzymatic-biodegradable amphiphilic poly(ester-urethane)s were designed and developed from l-tyrosine amino acid resources and their self-assembled nanoparticles were employed as multiple drug delivery vehicles in cancer therapy. The amine and carboxylic acid functional groups in l-tyrosine were converted into dual functional ester-urethane monomers and they were subjected to solvent free melt polycondensation with hydrophilic polyethylene glycols to produce comb-type poly(ester-urethane)s. The phenolic unit in the l-tyrosine was anchored with hydrophobic alkyl side chain to bring appropriate amphiphilicity in the polymer geometry to self-assemble them as stable nanoscaffolds in aqueous medium...
January 9, 2017: Biomacromolecules
Z Ouyang, B Liu, S Yasmin-Karim, E Sajo, W Ngwa
PURPOSE: This study investigates the feasibility of exploiting the Cerenkov radiation (CR) present during external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for significant therapeutic gain, using titanium dioxide nanoparticles (titania) delivered via a new design of radiotherapy biomaterials. METHODS: Recently published work has shown that CR generated by radionuclides during PET imaging could substantially enhance damage to cancer cells in the presence of 0.625 µg/g titania. We hypothesize that equal or greater damage can be achieved during EBRT...
June 2016: Medical Physics
D Toomeh, W Ngwa, E Sajo, Y Hao, S Gadoue
PURPOSE: An increasing number of studies show that cancer stem cells (CSCs) become more invasive (metastatic) and may escape into the blood stream and lymph nodes during radiotherapy (RT), before they have received a lethal dose during RT. Other Studies have shown that Graphene oxide (GO) can selectively inhibit the proliferative expansion of CSCs across multiplicative tumor types. In this study we investigate the feasibility of using GO during radiotherapy (RT) to minimize the escape of CSCs towards preventing cancer metastasis or recurrence...
June 2016: Medical Physics
Z Ouyang, S Yasmin-Karim, G Strack, E Sajo, W Ngwa
PURPOSE: Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) have unique pH dependent properties such that they act as a radical modulator. These properties may be used in radiation therapy (RT) to protect normal tissue. This work investigates the selective radioprotection of CONPs in-vitro and potential for in-situ delivery of CONPs in prostate cancer RT. METHODS: i) Normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human prostate cancer cells (PC-3) were treated with 0 or 2 ng/mL CONPs (NP size: 5 nm)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
Sebastián L Vega, Er Liu, Varun Arvind, Jared Bushman, Hak-Joon Sung, Matthew L Becker, Sophie Lelièvre, Joachim Kohn, Pierre-Alexandre Vidi, Prabhas V Moghe
Stem and progenitor cells that exhibit significant regenerative potential and critical roles in cancer initiation and progression remain difficult to characterize. Cell fates are determined by reciprocal signaling between the cell microenvironment and the nucleus; hence parameters derived from nuclear remodeling are ideal candidates for stem/progenitor cell characterization. Here we applied high-content, single cell analysis of nuclear shape and organization to examine stem and progenitor cells destined to distinct differentiation endpoints, yet undistinguishable by conventional methods...
December 27, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
Kavita Beri
Kavita Beri speaks to Francesca Lake, Managing Editor. Kavita Beri is a board certified Internal Medicine physician in the United States, and is an active member of the American Society of Laser Medicine and Surgery. She is the medical director and owner of BE Skin & Laser Med Spa, an aesthetic medicine practice in NJ, USA. She holds a position as a Visiting Scientist at the Department of Biomaterials and Center for Dermal Research at Rutgers University (NJ, USA) and is an active staff member in the Department of Medicine at Jersey Shore University Medical Center (NJ, USA)...
June 2016: Future Science OA
Udesh Dhawan, Hsu-An Pan, Ying Hao Chu, Guewha S Huang, Po Chun Chen, Wen-Liang Chen
Biomaterial design involves assessment of cellular response to nanotopography parameters such as shape, dimension of nanotopography features. Here, the effect of nanotopography alongside the in vivo factor, shear stress, on osteoblast cell behavior, is reported. Tantalum oxide nanodots of 50 or 100 nm diameter were engineered using anodized aluminum oxide as a template. Bare tantalum nitride coated silicon substrates were taken as control (flat). MG63 (osteoblast) cells were seeded for 72 hours on flat, 50 or 100 nm nanodots and modulation in cell morphology, cell viability and expression of integrins was studied...
October 2016: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
Han Lin, Xingang Wang, Luodan Yu, Yu Chen, Jianlin Shi
Ceramic biomaterials have been investigated for several decades, but their potential biomedical applications in cancer therapy have been paid much less attentions, mainly due to their lack of related material functionality for combating the cancer. In this work, we report, for the first time, that MAX ceramic biomaterials exhibit the unique functionality for the photothermal ablation of cancer upon being exfoliated into ultrathin nanosheets within atomic thickness (MXene). As a paradigm, biocompatible Ti3C2 nanosheets (MXenes) were successfully synthesized based on a two-step exfoliation strategy of MAX phase Ti3AlC2 by the combined HF etching and TPAOH intercalation...
December 30, 2016: Nano Letters
Ni Hui, Xiaotian Sun, Shuyan Niu, Xiliang Luo
Biofouling arising from nonspecific adsorption is a substantial outstanding challenge in diagnostics and disease monitoring, and antifouling sensing interfaces capable of reducing the nonspecific adsorption of proteins from biological complex samples are highly desirable. We present herein, the preparation of novel composite nanofibers through the grafting of polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymer onto polyaniline (PANI) nanofibers, and their application in the development of antifouling electrochemical biosensors...
December 27, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hui-Min Qin, Takuya Miyakawa, Akira Inoue, Ryuji Nishiyama, Akira Nakamura, Atsuko Asano, Yoriko Sawano, Takao Ojima, Masaru Tanokura
Alginate is an abundant algal polysaccharide, composed of β-D-mannuronate and its C5 epimer α-L-guluronate, that is a useful biomaterial in cell biology and tissue engineering, with applications in cancer and aging research. The alginate lyase (EC from Aplysia kurodai, AkAly30, is a eukaryotic member of the polysaccharide lyase 14 (PL-14) family and degrades alginate by cleaving the glycosidic bond through a β-elimination reaction. Here, we present the structural basis for the substrate specificity, with a preference for polymannuronate, of AkAly30...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Andrew Davenport
Although haemodialysis is an established treatment for patients with end-stage kidney disease, sustaining life for more than 2 million patients world-wide, the mortality of dialysis patients remains high and is greater than that for some of the more common solid organ cancers. As such, the question arises as to whether more efficient clearance of the waste products of metabolism which accumulate would improve outcomes. Recent reports of an association between improved patient survivals with higher-volume on-line haemodiafiltration exchanges would support this hypothesis...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
Dutsadee Suttho, Samlee Mankhetkorn, Delphine Binda, Lionel Pazart, Philippe Humbert, Gwenaël Rolin
Keloids are pathologic scars defined as dermal fibrotic tumors resulting from a disturbance of skin wound healing process. Treatments against keloids are multiple, sometimes empirical and none of them really provides an effective tool for physicians. The lack of effective treatments is correlated with the poor understanding of keloid pathogenesis. To fill this gap, researchers need strong models mimicking keloids as closely as possible. The objective of this study was to establish in vitro a new reconstructed keloid model (RKM), by combining fibroblasts extracted from the three major area of a keloid (center, periphery, non-lesional) in a three-dimensional biomaterial...
January 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
A K Kosmides, R A Meyer, J W Hickey, K Aje, K N Cheung, J J Green, J P Schneck
Biomimetic materials that target the immune system and generate an anti-tumor responses hold promise in augmenting cancer immunotherapy. These synthetic materials can be engineered and optimized for their biodegradability, physical parameters such as shape and size, and controlled release of immune-modulators. As these new platforms enter the playing field, it is imperative to understand their interaction with existing immunotherapies since single-targeted approaches have limited efficacy. Here, we investigate the synergy between a PLGA-based artificial antigen presenting cell (aAPC) and a checkpoint blockade molecule, anti-PD1 monoclonal antibody (mAb)...
February 2017: Biomaterials
James A Vassie, John M Whitelock, Megan S Lord
: Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) are widely reported to be cytocompatible and modulate intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a range of different cell types. In this study, nanoceria (d=7 and 94nm) synthesised by flame spray pyrolysis did not affect the proliferation of SKOV3 human ovarian and WiDr human colon cancer cell lines over a 72h treatment period. The cellular accumulation of nanoceria was uniform and increased up to 24h post-treatment before decreasing. The uptake of nanoceria in both cell lines was energy-dependent and was found to occur via non-specific pathways as well as clathrin-coated vesicles and caveolae...
December 8, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Carla Garcia-Mazas, Noemi Csaba, Marcos Garcia-Fuentes
Lack of improvement in the treatment options of several types of cancer can largely be attributed to the presence of a subpopulation of cancer cells with stem cell signatures and to the tumoral niche that supports and protects these cells. This review analyses the main strategies that specifically modulate or suppress cancer stem cells (CSCs) and the tumoral niche (TN), focusing on the role of biomaterials (i.e. implants, nanomedicines, etc.) in these therapies. In the case of CSCs, we discuss differentiation therapies and the disruption of critical cellular signaling networks...
December 8, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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