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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053125/-ultrastructural-pathology-of-oligodendrocytes-in-the-white-matter-in-continuous-paranoid-schizophrenia-a-role-for-microglia
#1
N A Uranova, O V Vikhreva, V I Rakhmanova, D D Orlovskaya
AIM: Previously the authors have reported the ultrastructural pathology and deficit of oligodendrocytes in gray and white matter of the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to determine of the effects of microglia on the ultrastructure of oligodendrocytes in the white matter underlying the prefrontal cortex in continuous schizophrenia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Postmortem morphometric electron microscopic study of oligodendrocytes in close apposition to microglia was performed in white matter underlying the prefrontal cortex (BA10)...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049381/a-structural-equation-model-of-the-relationship-between-insomnia-negative-affect-and-paranoid-thinking
#2
Alexander J Scott, Georgina Rowse, Thomas L Webb
BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence points to relationships between insomnia, negative affect, and paranoid thinking. However, studies are needed to examine (i) whether negative affect mediates the relation between insomnia and paranoid thinking, (ii) whether different types of insomnia exert different effects on paranoia, and (iii) to compare the impact of objective and self-reported sleeping difficulties. METHOD: Structural equation modelling was therefore used to test competing models of the relationships between self-reported insomnia, negative affect, and paranoia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043155/catatonia-as-a-putative-nosological-entity-a-historical-sketch
#3
REVIEW
Gábor Gazdag, Rozalia Takács, Gabor S Ungvari
Kahlbaum was the first to propose catatonia as a separate disease following the example of general paresis of the insane, which served as a model for establishing a nosological entity. However, Kahlbaum was uncertain about the nosological position of catatonia and considered it a syndrome, or "a temporary stage or a part of a complex picture of various disease forms". Until recently, the issue of catatonia as a separate diagnostic category was not entertained, mainly due to a misinterpretation of Kraepelin's influential views on catatonia as a subtype of schizophrenia...
September 22, 2017: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040776/self-reported-cognitive-biases-moderate-the-associations-between-social-stress-and-paranoid-ideation-in-a-virtual-reality-experimental-study
#4
Roos Pot-Kolder, Wim Veling, Jacqueline Counotte, Mark van der Gaag
Introduction: Cognitive biases are associated with psychosis liability and paranoid ideation. This study investigated the moderating relationship between pre-existing self-reported cognitive biases and the occurrence of paranoid ideation in response to different levels of social stress in a virtual reality environment. Methods: This study included 170 participants with different levels of psychosis liability (55 recent onset psychosis, 20 ultrahigh risk for psychosis, 42 siblings of psychotic patients, and 53 controls)...
October 10, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039293/conflict-and-cooperation-in-paranoia-a-large-scale-behavioural-experiment
#5
N J Raihani, V Bell
BACKGROUND: Paranoia involves thoughts and beliefs about the harmful intent of others but the social consequences have been much less studied. We investigated whether paranoia predicts maladaptive social behaviour in terms of cooperative and punitive behaviour using experimental game theory paradigms, and examined whether reduced cooperation is best explained in terms of distrust as previous studies have claimed. METHODS: We recruited a large population sample (N = 2132) online...
October 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038156/human-toxicity-caused-by-indole-and-indazole-carboxylate-synthetic-cannabinoid-receptor-agonists-from-horizon-scanning-to-notification
#6
Simon L Hill, Michael Dunn, Céline Cano, Suzannah J Harnor, Ian R Hardcastle, Johann Grundlingh, Paul I Dargan, David M Wood, Simon Tucker, Thomas Bartram, Simon H L Thomas
BACKGROUND: The emergence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS), particularly synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRA), has involved hundreds of potentially harmful chemicals in a highly dynamic international market challenging users', clinicians', and regulators' understanding of what circulating substances are causing harm. We describe a toxicovigilance system for NPS that predicted the UK emergence and identified the clinical toxicity caused by novel indole and indazole carboxylate SCRA...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036587/latent-profile-analysis-and-conversion-to-psychosis-characterizing-subgroups-to-enhance-risk-prediction
#7
Kristin M Healey, David L Penn, Diana Perkins, Scott W Woods, Richard S E Keefe, Jean Addington
BACKGROUND: Groups at clinical high risk (CHR) of developing psychosis are heterogeneous, composed of individuals with different clusters of symptoms. It is likely that there exist subgroups, each associated with different symptom constellations and probabilities of conversion. METHOD: Present study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to ascertain subgroups in a combined sample of CHR (n = 171) and help-seeking controls (HSCs; n = 100; PREDICT study). Indicators in the LPA model included baseline Scale of Prodromal Symptoms (SOPS), Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS), and neurocognitive performance as measured by multiple instruments, including category instances (CAT)...
July 14, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036523/stress-dependent-association-between-polygenic-risk-for-schizophrenia-and-schizotypal-traits-in-young-army-recruits
#8
Alex Hatzimanolis, Dimitrios Avramopoulos, Dan E Arking, Anna Moes, Pallav Bhatnagar, Todd Lencz, Anil K Malhotra, Stella G Giakoumaki, Panos Roussos, Nikolaos Smyrnis, Panos Bitsios, Nicholas C Stefanis
Schizotypal personality traits may increase proneness to psychosis and likely index familial vulnerability to schizophrenia (SZ), implying shared genetic determinants with SZ. Here, we sought to investigate the contribution of common genetic risk variation for SZ on self-reported schizotypy in 2 ethnically homogeneous cohorts of healthy young males during compulsory military service, enrolled in the Athens Study of Proneness and Incidence of Schizophrenia (ASPIS, N = 875) and the Learning on Genetics of Schizophrenia Spectrum study (LOGOS, N = 690)...
June 13, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031378/-terrorism-youth-ideals-and-paranoia
#9
Ariane Bilheran
Adolescence is a period of initiation during which individuals learn to free themselves from the hold of their impulses. Fanaticism prevents this process: the subject regresses into a paranoid-type sectarian and murderous way of functioning. The fanaticism of the adolescent could thereby be related to a distorted spiritual search for his or her purpose.
October 2017: Soins; la Revue de Référence Infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021008/medication-review-and-transitions-of-care-a-case-report-of-a-decade-old-medication-error
#10
Rachel Comer, Mitsi Lizer
A 69-year-old Caucasian male with a 25-year history of paranoid schizophrenia was brought to the emergency department because of violence toward the staff in his nursing facility. He was diagnosed with a urinary tract infection and was admitted to the behavioral health unit for medication stabilization. History included a five-year state psychiatric hospital admission and nursing facility placement. Because of poor cognitive function, the patient was unable to corroborate medication history, so the pharmacy student on rotation performed an in-depth chart review...
October 1, 2017: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018561/disturbed-eeg-sleep-paranoid-cognition-and-somatic-symptoms-identify-veterans-with-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#11
Harvey Moldofsky, Lorne Rothman, Robert Kleinman, Shawn G Rhind, J Donald Richardson
BACKGROUND: Chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) behavioural symptoms and medically unexplainable somatic symptoms are reported to occur following the stressful experience of military combatants in war zones. AIMS: To determine the contribution of disordered EEG sleep physiology in those military combatants who have unexplainable physical symptoms and PTSD behavioural difficulties following war-zone exposure. METHOD: This case-controlled study compared 59 veterans with chronic sleep disturbance with 39 veterans with DSM-IV and clinician-administered PTSD Scale diagnosed PTSD who were unresponsive to pharmacological and psychological treatments...
November 2016: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988046/testing-the-trower-and-chadwick-model-of-paranoia-is-poor-me-and-bad-me-paranoia-acting-as-a-defence
#12
Charles Marley, Jason Jones, Christopher A Jones
The study tested the predicted differences in phenomenology (self-esteem and depression) and insecurity of the subgroups of paranoia proposed by the Trower and Chadwick (1995) model of paranoia. Thirty-two inpatients experiencing persecutory delusions were assigned to either the poor me or bad me paranoid group. Questionnaire assessment of depression and self-esteem were conducted. A Dot Probe task measured detection latency (reaction time) to poor me words, bad me words and neutral words. The poor me and bad me groups displayed the predicted phenomenological differences...
September 28, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987061/evaluation-of-white-matter-structure-changes-as-assessed-in-tractography-and-cognitive-dysfunctions-in-patients-with-early-onset-schizophrenia-and-their-first-degree-relatives
#13
Marta Gawłowska-Sawosz, Agnieszka Pawełczyk, Piotr Gębski, Tomasz Pawełczyk, Dominik Strzelecki, Jolanta Rabe-Jabłońska
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the project was to assess the differences in the white matter (WM) fiber structure between patients with early onset schizophrenia (EOS), their first degree relatives and controls using Fractional Anisotropy (FA), and an independent evaluation of the severity of working memory disturbances in the study groups. METHODS: The study included 20 patients diagnosed with paranoid EOS (diagnosed before the age of 18), a group of 20 parents of patients, matched for gender, and 18 healthy controls...
August 29, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981888/social-identity-and-psychosis-associations-and-psychological-mechanisms
#14
Jason C McIntyre, Sophie Wickham, Ben Barr, Richard P Bentall
Humans possess a basic need to belong and will join groups even when they provide no practical benefit. Paranoid symptoms imply a disruption of the processes involved in belonging and social trust. Past research suggests that joining social groups and incorporating those groups into one's identity (social identification) promotes positive self-views and better physical and mental health. However, no research has investigated whether social identity is associated with paranoia, nor the mechanisms by which this effect may emerge...
August 26, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980765/the-role-of-cognitive-and-metacognitive-factors-in-non-clinical-paranoia-and-negative-affect
#15
Rachel Sellers, Richard Emsley, Adrian Wells, Anthony P Morrison
OBJECTIVES: It is increasingly accepted that paranoia lies on a continuum of severity that can be observed in the general population. Several psychological factors have been implicated in the development of more distressing persecutory ideas including negative affect (i.e., anxiety and depression), beliefs about oneself and other people (i.e., schemas), and metacognitive beliefs. This study aimed to explore the combined role of cognition and metacognition in paranoia. Specifically, unhelpful metacognitive beliefs and schematic beliefs were tested as potential moderators of the relationship between non-clinical paranoid ideation and negative affect...
October 5, 2017: Psychology and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979965/concurrent-and-longitudinal-contribution-of-exposure-to-bullying-in-childhood-to-mental-health-the-role-of-vulnerability-and-resilience
#16
Timothy Singham, Essi Viding, Tabea Schoeler, Louise Arseneault, Angelica Ronald, Charlotte M Cecil, Eamon McCrory, Frülhing Rijsdijk, Jean-Baptiste Pingault
Importance: Exposure to bullying is associated with poor mental health. However, the degree to which observed associations reflect direct detrimental contributions of exposure to bullying to mental health remains uncertain, as noncausal relationships may arise from genetic and environmental confounding (eg, preexisting vulnerabilities). Determining to what extent exposure to bullying contributes to mental health is an important concern, with implications for primary and secondary interventions...
October 4, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953804/guidelines-for-individual-and-group-psychodynamic-psychotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-persons-diagnosed-with-psychosis-and-or-schizophrenia
#17
Slađana Štrkalj Ivezić, Branka Restek Petrović, Ivan Urlić, Majda Grah, Nina Mayer, Dubravka Stijačić, Tihana Jendričko, Sanja Martić-Biočina
The hereby presented guidelines for the use of psychodynamic psychotherapy are based on references and research in the field of individual and group therapy and they refer to psychotherapy for patients suffering from the first psychotic episode, schizophrenia, schizoaffective psychosis, bipolar disorder and paranoid psychosis. The aim was to provide an overview of present literature and to give recommendations based on current knowledge. Clinical experience and research of the outcomes of psychodynamic psychotherapy encourage positioning of such treatments among recommendations for treating various mental disorders, as well as in the field of psychotherapy of patients with psychotic disorders (PD)...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953679/neuroleptic-malignant-syndrome-with-thyroid-disorder-an-unusual-case-report
#18
Fan Zhang, Parisa Kanzali, Vadim Rubin, Chris Paras, Joel Goldman
RATIONALE: Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life threatening neurologic emergency associated with neuroleptic or antipsychotic agent use. NMS is rarely related to thyroid disease. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of NMS in a 66-year-old male with past medical history of paranoid schizophrenia on chlorpromazine, diabetes, hypertension and asthma, who presented with a humeral fracture after a fall. Patient developed hyperpyrexia, altered consciousness, autonomic instability, elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) without rigidity...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951142/cognitive-deficit-in-patients-with-paranoid-schizophrenia-its-clinical-and-laboratory-correlates
#19
Mariia Dorofeikova, Nikolay Neznanov, Nataliia Petrova
The aim of this study was to search for correlates of cognitive impairment in patients with paranoid schizophrenia among clinical, demographic, anamnestic and biochemical markers (NSE, S100B protein, BDNF, hs-CRP). Patients with paranoid schizophrenia (n=125) were examined using the Brief Assessment of Cognitive Function in Schizophrenia, the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure task, and a number of clinical scales including the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The majority of patients demonstrated cognitive impairment...
September 20, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950739/are-periodontal-outcomes-affected-by-personality-patterns-a-18-month-follow-up-study
#20
Carlo Bertoldi, Marco Venuta, Gianpaolo Guaraldi, Michele Lalla, Stefania Guaitolini, Luigi Generali, Daniele Monzani, Pierpaolo Cortellini, Davide Zaffe
OBJECTIVES: This research aims to study the relationship between personality traits and periodontal clinical outcomes by taking into account the level of anxiety and depression, periodontal health and oral hygiene behaviour of patients affected with gingivitis or moderate periodontitis requiring periodontal therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The periodontal data of 40 systemically healthy patients affected by gingivitis or moderate periodontitis were collected at baseline and 18 months later...
September 26, 2017: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
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