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Luana Naia, Tatiana R Rosenstock, Ana M Oliveira, Sofia I Oliveira-Sousa, Gladys L Caldeira, Catarina Carmo, Mário N Laço, Michael R Hayden, Catarina R Oliveira, A Cristina Rego
Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent lysine deacetylase that regulates longevity and enhances mitochondrial metabolism. Both activation and inhibition of SIRT1 were previously shown to ameliorate neuropathological mechanisms in Huntington's disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disease that selectively affects the striatum and cortex and is commonly linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, in this study, we tested the influence of resveratrol (RESV, a SIRT1 activator) versus nicotinamide (NAM, a SIRT1 inhibitor) in counteracting mitochondrial dysfunction in HD models, namely striatal and cortical neurons isolated from YAC128 transgenic mice embryos, HD human lymphoblasts, and an in vivo HD model...
September 2, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Lynn A Raymond
Synaptic dysfunction and altered calcium homeostasis in the brain is common to many neurodegenerative disorders. Among these, Huntington disease (HD), which is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, can serve as a model for investigating these mechanisms. HD generally manifests in middle age as a disorder of movement, mood and cognition. An expanded polymorphic CAG repeat in the HTT gene results in progressive neurodegeneration that impacts striatal spiny projection neurons (SPNs) earliest and most severely...
July 13, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Sameer Gupta, Jacqueline Boehme, Kelly Manser, Jannine Dewar, Amie Miller, Gina Siddiqui, Steven D Schwaitzberg
Background Google Glass has been used in a variety of medical settings with promising results. We explored the use and potential value of an asynchronous, near-real time protocol-which avoids transmission issues associated with real-time applications-for recording, uploading, and viewing of high-definition (HD) visual media in the emergency department (ED) to facilitate remote surgical consults. Study Design First-responder physician assistants captured pertinent aspects of the physical examination and diagnostic imaging using Google Glass' HD video or high-resolution photographs...
October 2016: Surgical Innovation
Valmor F de Almeida, Hongjun Liu, Kenneth W Herwig, Michelle K Kidder
That incoherent scattering from protiated molecular liquids adds a constant background to the measured scattering intensity is well-known, but less appreciated is the fact that coherent scattering is also induced by the presence of hydrogen in a deuterated liquid. In fact, the scattering intensity can be very sensitive, in the small-q region, with respect to the amounts and distribution of residual H in the system. We used 1,4-dioxane liquid to demonstrate that the partial structure factors of the HD and DD atom pairs contribute significantly to intermolecular scattering and that uncertainty in the extent of deuteration account for discrepancies between simulations and measurements...
June 23, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Andrew D Kane, Youguo Niu, Emilio A Herrera, A Jennifer Morton, Dino A Giussani
Recent evidence shows that the Huntington's disease (HD) extends beyond the nervous system to other sites, including the cardiovascular system. Further, the cardiovascular pathology pre-dates neurological decline, however the mechanisms involved remain unclear. We investigated in the R6/2 mouse model of HD nitric oxide (NO) dependent and independent endothelial mechanisms. Femoral artery reactivity was determined by wire myography in wild type (WT) and R6/2 mice at 12 and 16 weeks of adulthood. WT mice showed increased endothelial relaxation between 12 and 16 weeks (Rmax: 72 ± 7% vs...
2016: Scientific Reports
S Laplante, F X Liu, B Culleton, A Bernardo, Denise King, P Hudson
BACKGROUND: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is fatal if untreated. In the absence of transplant, approximately 50 % of dialysis patients die within 5 years. Although more frequent and/or longer haemodialysis (high-dose HD) improves survival, this regimen may add to the burden on dialysis services and healthcare costs. This systematic review summarised the cost effectiveness of high-dose HD compared with conventional HD. METHODS: English language publications reporting the cost-utility/effectiveness of high-dose HD in adults with ESRD were identified via a search of MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library...
April 2016: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
R Hemachandar
BACKGROUND: Vascular access is the key in successful management of chronic haemodialysis (HD) patients. Though native arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is considered the access of choice, many patients in our country initiate haemodialysis through central venous catheter (CVC). There is paucity of data on vascular access in haemodialysis patients from southern India. AIM: Aim of the present study was to review our experience of vascular access in Haemodialysis patients (both central venous catheters and arteriovenous fistula) and to assess its success rate and common complications...
October 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Samir C Gautam, Charles H Brooks, Rasheed A Balogun, Wenjun Xin, Jennie Z Ma, Emaad M Abdel-Rahman
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of hospitalized patients and is associated with poor outcomes. Hospitalized patients with AKI may need prolonged dialysis, necessitating post-hospitalization dialysis (PHD-AKI). Scarce information is available to stratify the risks and predict outcomes. This study aims to assess outcomes and identify predictors of outcomes of PHD-AKI within 90 days. METHODS: All adult AKI patients initiating hemodialysis (HD) at the University of Virginia (UVA) between June 1, 2012, and September 30, 2013 were retrospectively studied...
2015: Nephron
J-C Wolf, M Schaer, P P Siegenthaler, R Zenobi
Ultrasensitive direct gas-phase detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) is demonstrated utilizing active capillary plasma ionization and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation. Four G- agents, two V-agents and various blistering agents [including sulfur mustard (HD)] were detected directly in the gas phase with limits of detection in the low parts per trillion (ng m(-3)) range. The direct detection of HD was shown for dry carrier gas conditions, but signals vanished when humidity was present, indicating a possible direct detection of HD after sufficient gas phase pretreatment...
2015: European Journal of Mass Spectrometry
Helen Budworth, Faye R Harris, Paul Williams, Do Yup Lee, Amy Holt, Jens Pahnke, Bartosz Szczesny, Karina Acevedo-Torres, Sylvette Ayala-Peña, Cynthia T McMurray
Huntington's Disease (HD) is caused by inheritance of a single disease-length allele harboring an expanded CAG repeat, which continues to expand in somatic tissues with age. The inherited disease allele expresses a toxic protein, and whether further somatic expansion adds to toxicity is unknown. We have created an HD mouse model that resolves the effects of the inherited and somatic expansions. We show here that suppressing somatic expansion substantially delays the onset of disease in littermates that inherit the same disease-length allele...
August 2015: PLoS Genetics
Rakesh Malhotra, Daniele Marcelli, Gero von Gersdorff, Aileen Grassmann, Mathias Schaller, Inga Bayh, Laura Scatizzi, Michael Etter, Adrian Guinsburg, Claudia Barth, Cristina Marelli, Paola Carioni, Frank van der Sande, Jeroen P Kooman, Eric Liu, Ted Toffelmire, Yuedong Wang, Stephan Thijssen, Len A Usvyat, Peter Kotanko
BACKGROUND/AIM: The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), defined as the neutrophil count divided by lymphocyte count, is an inexpensive and readily available parameter, which may serve as a surrogate for inflammation markers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP). The aim of this study was to determine the utility of NLR in the prediction of elevated CRP levels in hemodialysis (HD) patients. METHODS: We analyzed 43,272 HD patients from 2 distinct cohorts within the Monitoring Dialysis Outcomes research collaboration in whom contemporaneous measurements of neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, serum albumin and CRP levels were available...
2015: Nephron
Teresa M Maia, Susana T Lopes, João M G C F Almeida, Luiz H Rosa, José Paulo Sampaio, Paula Gonçalves, Marco A Coelho
In most fungi, sexual reproduction is bipolar; that is, two alternate sets of genes at a single mating-type (MAT) locus determine two mating types. However, in the Basidiomycota, a unique (tetrapolar) reproductive system emerged in which sexual identity is governed by two unlinked MAT loci, each of which controls independent mechanisms of self/nonself recognition. Tetrapolar-to-bipolar transitions have occurred on multiple occasions in the Basidiomycota, resulting, for example, from linkage of the two MAT loci into a single inheritable unit...
September 2015: Genetics
Chrysoula Pipili, Eirini Grapsa, Elli-Sophia Tripodaki, Sophia Ioannidou, Christos Manetos, Maria Parisi, Serafim Nanas
BACKGROUND: Monitoring of the microcirculation may add additional information in terms of improving the adequacy of hemodialysis (HD) for patients. Withdrawal of liquid and complement activation during a HD session reduces the external pressure on the microcirculation and leads to an increased dilatation of the peripheral capillaries. The purposes of this study were to assess the effect of a single HD or hemodiafiltration session on the thenar microcirculation in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) with or without diabetes, investigate the possible relationship between changes in the microcirculation and adequacy of dialysis (including Kt/V and parameters indicating secondary hyperparathyroidism), and compare microcirculation measurements obtained from patients with ESRD and those from healthy controls...
2015: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
Christian Daugaard Peters, Krista Dybtved Kjaergaard, Jens Dam Jensen, Kent Lodberg Christensen, Charlotte Strandhave, Ida Noerager Tietze, Marija Kristina Novosel, Bo Martin Bibby, Bente Jespersen
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Little is known about the tolerability of antihypertensive drugs during hemodialysis treatment. The present study evaluated the use of the angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) irbesartan. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, one-year intervention trial. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-two hemodialysis patients with urine output >300 mL/day and dialysis vintage <1 year. INTERVENTION: Irbesartan/placebo 300 mg/day for 12 months administered as add-on to antihypertensive treatment using a predialytic systolic blood pressure target of 140 mmHg in all patients...
2015: PloS One
Mark E Williams, Neal Mittman, Lin Ma, Julia I Brennan, Ann Mooney, Curtis D Johnson, Chinu M Jani, Franklin W Maddux, Eduardo Lacson
The validity of hemoglobin A1c (HgbA1c) is undergoing increasing scrutiny in the advanced CKD/ESRD (chronic kidney disease/end-stage renal disease) population, where it appears to be discordant from other glycemic indices. In the Glycemic Indices in Dialysis Evaluation (GIDE) Study, we sought to assess correlation of HgbA1c with casual glucose, glycated albumin, and serum fructosamine in a large group of diabetic patients on dialysis. From 26 dialysis facilities in the United States, 1758 diabetic patients (hemodialysis = 1476, peritoneal dialysis = 282) were enrolled in the first quarter of 2013...
October 2015: Hemodialysis International
Rebeca Jimeno, Javier Leceta, Marina Garín, Ana M Ortiz, Mario Mellado, Jose Miguel Rodríguez-Frade, Carmen Martínez, Selene Pérez-García, Rosa P Gomariz, Yasmina Juarranz
Several studies in humans indicate the implication of Th17 cells in RA. Therapies targeting their pathogenicity, as well as their plasticity to the Th17/1 phenotype, could ameliorate the progression of the pathology. The neuroendocrine environment has a major impact on the differentiation of lymphoid cells. VIP is present in the microenvironment of the joint, and its known therapeutic effects are supported by several studies on RA. We examine the ability of VIP to modulate the differentiation of Th17 cells...
August 2015: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Bodil Sjöberg, Sunna Snaedal, Peter Stenvinkel, Abdul Rashid Qureshi, Olof Heimbürger, Peter Bárány
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory markers vary considerably over time in haemodialysis (HD) patients, yet the variability is poorly defined. The aim of the study was to assess changes of plasma levels of pentraxin-3 (PTX-3), C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin and homocysteine (Hcy) over 3 months and the association between the changes in these biomarkers and mortality. METHODS: In 188 prevalent HD patients, inflammatory markers were measured at inclusion and after 3 months...
August 2014: Clinical Kidney Journal
Stuart S Winter, Kimberly P Dunsmore, Meenakshi Devidas, Nancy Eisenberg, Barbara L Asselin, Brent L Wood, Marcia S Leonard Rn, John Murphy, Julie M Gastier-Foster, Andrew J Carroll, Nyla A Heerema, Mignon L Loh, Elizabeth A Raetz, Naomi J Winick, William L Carroll, Stephen P Hunger
BACKGROUND: Nelarabine has shown impressive single agent clinical activity in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), but has been associated with significant neurotoxicities in heavily pre-treated patients. We showed previously that it was safe to add nelarabine to a BFM-86 chemotherapy backbone (AALL00P2). Children's Oncology Group (COG) AALL0434 is a Phase III study designed to test the safety and efficacy of nelarabine when incorporated into a COG augmented BFM-based regimen, which increases exposure to agents with potential neurotoxicity compared to the historical AALL00P2 regimen...
July 2015: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Ravi C Bakaraju, Cathleen Fedtke, Klaus Ehrmann, Arthur Ho
PURPOSE: To compare the contributions of single vision (SVCL) and multifocal contact lenses (MFCL) to the relative peripheral refraction (RPR) profiles obtained via an autorefractor and an aberrometer in a pilot study. METHODS: Two instruments, Shin-Nippon NVision K5001 (SN) and COAS-HD, were modified to permit open field PR measurements. Two myopic adults (CF, RB) were refracted (cycloplegia) under eight conditions: baseline (no CL); three SVCLs: Focus Dailies(®) (Alcon, USA), PureVision(®) (Bausch & Lomb, USA) and AirOptix(®) (Alcon, USA); and four MFCLs: AirOptix(®) (Alcon, USA), Proclear(®) Distant and Near (Cooper Vision, USA), and PureVision(®) (Bausch & Lomb, USA)...
July 2015: Journal of Optometry
Ata Firouzi, Mohsen Maadani, Reza Kiani, Farshad Shakerian, Hamid Reza Sanati, Ali Zahedmehr, Seyedabbas Nabavi, Mona Heidarali
BACKGROUND: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is an adverse consequence of percutaneous coronary interventions which results in significant morbidity and mortality and adds to the costs of diagnostic and interventional cardiology procedures. Various pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed for CI-AKI and various agents tested for its prevention. There is currently a general agreement that adequate pre-procedural hydration constitutes the cornerstone of prevention, yet there are reports of the use of some other agents with various efficacies...
March 2015: International Urology and Nephrology
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