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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117381/impairment-of-blood-brain-barrier-is-an-early-event-in-r6-2-mouse-model-of-huntington-disease
#1
Alba Di Pardo, Enrico Amico, Francesco Scalabrì, Giuseppe Pepe, Salvatore Castaldo, Francesca Elifani, Luca Capocci, Claudia De Sanctis, Laura Comerci, Francesco Pompeo, Maurizio D'Esposito, Stefania Filosa, Stefania Crispi, Vittorio Maglione
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, due to the concomitant disruption of the tight junctions (TJs), normally required for the maintenance of BBB function, and to the altered transport of molecules between blood and brain and vice-versa, has been suggested to significantly contribute to the development and progression of different brain disorders including Huntington's disease (HD). Although the detrimental consequence the BBB breakdown may have in the clinical settings, the timing of its alteration remains elusive for many neurodegenerative diseases...
January 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092121/hox-functional-diversity-novel-insights-from-flexible-motif-folding-and-plastic-protein-interaction
#2
Miguel Ortiz-Lombardia, Nicolas Foos, Corinne Maurel-Zaffran, Andrew J Saurin, Yacine Graba
How the formidable diversity of forms emerges from developmental and evolutionary processes is one of the most fascinating questions in biology. The homeodomain-containing Hox proteins were recognized early on as major actors in diversifying animal body plans. The molecular mechanisms underlying how this transcription factor family controls a large array of context- and cell-specific biological functions is, however, still poorly understood. Clues to functional diversity have emerged from studies exploring how Hox protein activity is controlled through interactions with PBC class proteins, also evolutionary conserved HD-containing proteins...
January 16, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052124/prevalence-of-atrial-fibrillation-and-antithrombotic-therapy-in-hemodialysis-patients-cross-sectional-results-of-the-vienna-investigation-of-atrial-fibrillation-and-thromboembolism-in-patients-on-hemodialysis-vivaldi
#3
Oliver Königsbrügge, Florian Posch, Marlies Antlanger, Josef Kovarik, Renate Klauser-Braun, Josef Kletzmayr, Sabine Schmaldienst, Martin Auinger, Günther Zuntner, Matthias Lorenz, Ella Grilz, Gerald Stampfel, Stefan Steiner, Ingrid Pabinger, Marcus Säemann, Cihan Ay
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) adds significant risk of stroke and thromboembolism in patients on hemodialysis (HD). The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of AF in a population-based cohort of HD patients and practice patterns of antithrombotic therapy for stroke prevention in AF. METHODS: The Vienna InVestigation of AtriaL fibrillation and thromboembolism in patients on hemodialysis (VIVALDI), an ongoing prospective observational cohort study, investigates the prevalence of AF and the risk of thromboembolic events in HD patients in Vienna, Austria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046421/su-c-bra-02-a-lung-tumor-autocontouring-algorithm-based-on-particle-filter-for-dynamic-magnetic-resonance
#4
A Bourque, S Bedwani, E Filion, J Carrier
PURPOSE: This study proposes a novel autocontouring algorithm for lung tumors based on particle filter. It is developed in the context of MR-linac treatments and is validated on in-vivo dynamic magnetic resonance images. METHODS: A sequential Monte Carlo method called particle filter is combined with Otsu's thresholding technique to contour lung tumors on dynamic MR images. Four non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were imaged with a 1.5 T MR (MAGNETOM Aera, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) for one minute at a rate of 4 images per second...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855710/integrating-technology-into-complex-intervention-trial-processes-a-case-study
#5
Cheney J G Drew, Vincent Poile, Rob Trubey, Gareth Watson, Mark Kelson, Julia Townson, Anne Rosser, Kerenza Hood, Lori Quinn, Monica Busse
BACKGROUND: Trials of complex interventions are associated with high costs and burdens in terms of paperwork, management, data collection, validation, and intervention fidelity assessment occurring across multiple sites. Traditional data collection methods rely on paper-based forms, where processing can be time-consuming and error rates high. Electronic source data collection can potentially address many of these inefficiencies, but has not routinely been used in complex intervention trials...
November 17, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590140/comparative-mitochondrial-based-protective-effects-of-resveratrol-and-nicotinamide-in-huntington-s-disease-models
#6
Luana Naia, Tatiana R Rosenstock, Ana M Oliveira, Sofia I Oliveira-Sousa, Gladys L Caldeira, Catarina Carmo, Mário N Laço, Michael R Hayden, Catarina R Oliveira, A Cristina Rego
Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent lysine deacetylase that regulates longevity and enhances mitochondrial metabolism. Both activation and inhibition of SIRT1 were previously shown to ameliorate neuropathological mechanisms in Huntington's disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disease that selectively affects the striatum and cortex and is commonly linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, in this study, we tested the influence of resveratrol (RESV, a SIRT1 activator) versus nicotinamide (NAM, a SIRT1 inhibitor) in counteracting mitochondrial dysfunction in HD models, namely striatal and cortical neurons isolated from YAC128 transgenic mice embryos, HD human lymphoblasts, and an in vivo HD model...
September 2, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423394/striatal-synaptic-dysfunction-and-altered-calcium-regulation-in-huntington-disease
#7
REVIEW
Lynn A Raymond
Synaptic dysfunction and altered calcium homeostasis in the brain is common to many neurodegenerative disorders. Among these, Huntington disease (HD), which is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, can serve as a model for investigating these mechanisms. HD generally manifests in middle age as a disorder of movement, mood and cognition. An expanded polymorphic CAG repeat in the HTT gene results in progressive neurodegeneration that impacts striatal spiny projection neurons (SPNs) earliest and most severely...
February 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27335083/does-wearable-medical-technology-with-video-recording-capability-add-value-to-on-call-surgical-evaluations
#8
Sameer Gupta, Jacqueline Boehme, Kelly Manser, Jannine Dewar, Amie Miller, Gina Siddiqui, Steven D Schwaitzberg
Background Google Glass has been used in a variety of medical settings with promising results. We explored the use and potential value of an asynchronous, near-real time protocol-which avoids transmission issues associated with real-time applications-for recording, uploading, and viewing of high-definition (HD) visual media in the emergency department (ED) to facilitate remote surgical consults. Study Design First-responder physician assistants captured pertinent aspects of the physical examination and diagnostic imaging using Google Glass' HD video or high-resolution photographs...
October 2016: Surgical Innovation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27276502/neutron-scattering-of-residual-hydrogen-in-1-4-dioxane-d8-liquid-understanding-measurements-with-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#9
Valmor F de Almeida, Hongjun Liu, Kenneth W Herwig, Michelle K Kidder
That incoherent scattering from protiated molecular liquids adds a constant background to the measured scattering intensity is well-known, but less appreciated is the fact that coherent scattering is also induced by the presence of hydrogen in a deuterated liquid. In fact, the scattering intensity can be very sensitive, in the small-q region, with respect to the amounts and distribution of residual H in the system. We used 1,4-dioxane liquid to demonstrate that the partial structure factors of the HD and DD atom pairs contribute significantly to intermolecular scattering and that uncertainty in the extent of deuteration account for discrepancies between simulations and measurements...
June 23, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27181166/impaired-nitric-oxide-mediated-vasodilation-in-the-peripheral-circulation-in-the-r6-2-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#10
Andrew D Kane, Youguo Niu, Emilio A Herrera, A Jennifer Morton, Dino A Giussani
Recent evidence shows that the Huntington's disease (HD) extends beyond the nervous system to other sites, including the cardiovascular system. Further, the cardiovascular pathology pre-dates neurological decline, however the mechanisms involved remain unclear. We investigated in the R6/2 mouse model of HD nitric oxide (NO) dependent and independent endothelial mechanisms. Femoral artery reactivity was determined by wire myography in wild type (WT) and R6/2 mice at 12 and 16 weeks of adulthood. WT mice showed increased endothelial relaxation between 12 and 16 weeks (Rmax: 72 ± 7% vs...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26691659/the-cost-effectiveness-of-high-dose-versus-conventional-haemodialysis-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
S Laplante, F X Liu, B Culleton, A Bernardo, Denise King, P Hudson
BACKGROUND: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is fatal if untreated. In the absence of transplant, approximately 50 % of dialysis patients die within 5 years. Although more frequent and/or longer haemodialysis (high-dose HD) improves survival, this regimen may add to the burden on dialysis services and healthcare costs. This systematic review summarised the cost effectiveness of high-dose HD compared with conventional HD. METHODS: English language publications reporting the cost-utility/effectiveness of high-dose HD in adults with ESRD were identified via a search of MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library...
April 2016: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26557553/analysis-of-vascular-access-in-haemodialysis-patients-single-center-experience
#12
R Hemachandar
BACKGROUND: Vascular access is the key in successful management of chronic haemodialysis (HD) patients. Though native arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is considered the access of choice, many patients in our country initiate haemodialysis through central venous catheter (CVC). There is paucity of data on vascular access in haemodialysis patients from southern India. AIM: Aim of the present study was to review our experience of vascular access in Haemodialysis patients (both central venous catheters and arteriovenous fistula) and to assess its success rate and common complications...
October 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26524288/predictors-and-outcomes-of-post-hospitalization-dialysis-dependent-acute-kidney-injury
#13
Samir C Gautam, Charles H Brooks, Rasheed A Balogun, Wenjun Xin, Jennie Z Ma, Emaad M Abdel-Rahman
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of hospitalized patients and is associated with poor outcomes. Hospitalized patients with AKI may need prolonged dialysis, necessitating post-hospitalization dialysis (PHD-AKI). Scarce information is available to stratify the risks and predict outcomes. This study aims to assess outcomes and identify predictors of outcomes of PHD-AKI within 90 days. METHODS: All adult AKI patients initiating hemodialysis (HD) at the University of Virginia (UVA) between June 1, 2012, and September 30, 2013 were retrospectively studied...
2015: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26307710/direct-gas-phase-detection-of-nerve-and-blister-warfare-agents-utilizing-active-capillary-plasma-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#14
J-C Wolf, M Schaer, P P Siegenthaler, R Zenobi
Ultrasensitive direct gas-phase detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) is demonstrated utilizing active capillary plasma ionization and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation. Four G- agents, two V-agents and various blistering agents [including sulfur mustard (HD)] were detected directly in the gas phase with limits of detection in the low parts per trillion (ng m(-3)) range. The direct detection of HD was shown for dry carrier gas conditions, but signals vanished when humidity was present, indicating a possible direct detection of HD after sufficient gas phase pretreatment...
2015: European Journal of Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26247199/suppression-of-somatic-expansion-delays-the-onset-of-pathophysiology-in-a-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#15
Helen Budworth, Faye R Harris, Paul Williams, Do Yup Lee, Amy Holt, Jens Pahnke, Bartosz Szczesny, Karina Acevedo-Torres, Sylvette Ayala-Peña, Cynthia T McMurray
Huntington's Disease (HD) is caused by inheritance of a single disease-length allele harboring an expanded CAG repeat, which continues to expand in somatic tissues with age. The inherited disease allele expresses a toxic protein, and whether further somatic expansion adds to toxicity is unknown. We have created an HD mouse model that resolves the effects of the inherited and somatic expansions. We show here that suppressing somatic expansion substantially delays the onset of disease in littermates that inherit the same disease-length allele...
August 2015: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26182958/relationship-of-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-and-serum-albumin-levels-with-c-reactive-protein-in-hemodialysis-patients-results-from-2-international-cohort-studies
#16
Rakesh Malhotra, Daniele Marcelli, Gero von Gersdorff, Aileen Grassmann, Mathias Schaller, Inga Bayh, Laura Scatizzi, Michael Etter, Adrian Guinsburg, Claudia Barth, Cristina Marelli, Paola Carioni, Frank van der Sande, Jeroen P Kooman, Eric Liu, Ted Toffelmire, Yuedong Wang, Stephan Thijssen, Len A Usvyat, Peter Kotanko
BACKGROUND/AIM: The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), defined as the neutrophil count divided by lymphocyte count, is an inexpensive and readily available parameter, which may serve as a surrogate for inflammation markers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP). The aim of this study was to determine the utility of NLR in the prediction of elevated CRP levels in hemodialysis (HD) patients. METHODS: We analyzed 43,272 HD patients from 2 distinct cohorts within the Monitoring Dialysis Outcomes research collaboration in whom contemporaneous measurements of neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, serum albumin and CRP levels were available...
2015: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26178967/evolution-of-mating-systems-in-basidiomycetes-and-the-genetic-architecture-underlying-mating-type-determination-in-the-yeast-leucosporidium-scottii
#17
Teresa M Maia, Susana T Lopes, João M G C F Almeida, Luiz H Rosa, José Paulo Sampaio, Paula Gonçalves, Marco A Coelho
In most fungi, sexual reproduction is bipolar; that is, two alternate sets of genes at a single mating-type (MAT) locus determine two mating types. However, in the Basidiomycota, a unique (tetrapolar) reproductive system emerged in which sexual identity is governed by two unlinked MAT loci, each of which controls independent mechanisms of self/nonself recognition. Tetrapolar-to-bipolar transitions have occurred on multiple occasions in the Basidiomycota, resulting, for example, from linkage of the two MAT loci into a single inheritable unit...
September 2015: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26089698/changes-in-skeletal-muscle-microcirculation-after-a-hemodialysis-session-correlates-with-adequacy-of-dialysis
#18
Chrysoula Pipili, Eirini Grapsa, Elli-Sophia Tripodaki, Sophia Ioannidou, Christos Manetos, Maria Parisi, Serafim Nanas
BACKGROUND: Monitoring of the microcirculation may add additional information in terms of improving the adequacy of hemodialysis (HD) for patients. Withdrawal of liquid and complement activation during a HD session reduces the external pressure on the microcirculation and leads to an increased dilatation of the peripheral capillaries. The purposes of this study were to assess the effect of a single HD or hemodiafiltration session on the thenar microcirculation in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) with or without diabetes, investigate the possible relationship between changes in the microcirculation and adequacy of dialysis (including Kt/V and parameters indicating secondary hyperparathyroidism), and compare microcirculation measurements obtained from patients with ESRD and those from healthy controls...
2015: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26030651/short-and-long-term-effects-of-the-angiotensin-ii-receptor-blocker-irbesartan-on-intradialytic-central-hemodynamics-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-one-year-intervention-trial-the-safir-study
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Christian Daugaard Peters, Krista Dybtved Kjaergaard, Jens Dam Jensen, Kent Lodberg Christensen, Charlotte Strandhave, Ida Noerager Tietze, Marija Kristina Novosel, Bo Martin Bibby, Bente Jespersen
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Little is known about the tolerability of antihypertensive drugs during hemodialysis treatment. The present study evaluated the use of the angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) irbesartan. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, one-year intervention trial. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-two hemodialysis patients with urine output >300 mL/day and dialysis vintage <1 year. INTERVENTION: Irbesartan/placebo 300 mg/day for 12 months administered as add-on to antihypertensive treatment using a predialytic systolic blood pressure target of 140 mmHg in all patients...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25965145/the-glycemic-indices-in-dialysis-evaluation-gide-study-comparative-measures-of-glycemic-control-in-diabetic-dialysis-patients
#20
Mark E Williams, Neal Mittman, Lin Ma, Julia I Brennan, Ann Mooney, Curtis D Johnson, Chinu M Jani, Franklin W Maddux, Eduardo Lacson
The validity of hemoglobin A1c (HgbA1c) is undergoing increasing scrutiny in the advanced CKD/ESRD (chronic kidney disease/end-stage renal disease) population, where it appears to be discordant from other glycemic indices. In the Glycemic Indices in Dialysis Evaluation (GIDE) Study, we sought to assess correlation of HgbA1c with casual glucose, glycated albumin, and serum fructosamine in a large group of diabetic patients on dialysis. From 26 dialysis facilities in the United States, 1758 diabetic patients (hemodialysis = 1476, peritoneal dialysis = 282) were enrolled in the first quarter of 2013...
October 2015: Hemodialysis International
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