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Kirill D Nadezhdin, Daria D Romanovskaia, Maria Y Sachkova, Peter B Oparin, Sergey I Kovalchuk, Eugene V Grishin, Alexander S Arseniev, Alexander A Vassilevski
We have recently demonstrated that a common phenomenon in evolution of spider venom composition is the emergence of so-called modular toxins consisting of two domains, each corresponding to a "usual" single-domain toxin. In this article, we describe the structure of two domains that build up a modular toxin named spiderine or OtTx1a from the venom of Oxyopes takobius. Both domains were investigated by solution NMR in water and detergent micelles used to mimic membrane environment. The N-terminal spiderine domain OtTx1a-AMP (41 amino acid residues) contains no cysteines...
March 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Georgina Estrada, Anita O Silva, Elba Villegas, Ernesto Ortiz, Paulo S L Beirão, Gerardo Corzo
The genes of the five disulfide-bonded peptide toxins 1 and 2 (named Oxytoxins or Oxotoxins) from the spider Oxyopes lineatus were cloned into the expression vector pQE30 containing a 6His-tag and a Factor Xa proteolytic cleavage region. These two recombinant vectors were transfected into Escherichia coli BL21 cells and expressed under induction with isopropyl thiogalactoside (IPTG). The product of each gene was named HisrOxyTx1 or HisrOxyTx2, and the protein expression was ca 14 and 6 mg/L of culture medium, respectively...
September 1, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Yu Hou, Liyan Zhao, Genai Zhang, Lixiang Ding
Oxytoxin (OT) promotes social behavior and reduces anxiety. A great number of studies suggest that OT plays a role in learning and memory processes in animals and humans. Fear memories are rendered labile and prone to modification after reactivation and a restabilization and reconsolidation process is necessary for future memory conservation. This process is crucial for modulation of an existing memory and forms a promising therapeutic target for pathological memory disorders. In this study, we investigated whether a single systemic injection of OT has effects on reconsolidation of fear memories...
May 6, 2015: Neuroscience Letters
S Jard, J Bourguet, P Favard, N Carasso
Epithelial cells of frog urinary bladders fixed in different physiological states were examined by electron microscopy. It was shown: (1) that when bladders incubated with a hypotonic mucosal medium are water-permeabilized with oxytoxin, arginine-vasotocin, cyclic 3',5'-AMP and theophylline, this leads to a cellular swelling and the opening of intercellular channels; (2) that these effects are not observed when the transepithelial net water flow is suppressed by abolishing the external osmotic driving force; and (3) that modifications in the rate of active sodium transport do not change the morphological appearance of intercellular channels...
December 1971: Journal of Membrane Biology
G E Mann, D C Wathes, R S Robinson
Cyclic ewes were treated with control vehicle or progesterone receptor antagonist (onapristone; 100mg i.m. twice daily) during either early (day 3-5) or late (day 12-14) luteal phase and plasma samples collected for hormone analysis and to determine endogenous and oxytocin induced PGF2α release. On day 14 and 17, ewes were euthanised and reproductive tracts collected for ovarian morphology and endometrium for oxytoxin and steroid hormone receptor analysis. Early treatment increased LH, but not progesterone or oestradiol, while late treatment elevated all three hormones...
August 25, 2013: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Ina A Weissflog, Katharina Grosser, Maximilian Bräutigam, Benjamin Dietzek, Georg Pohnert, Juergen Popp
The invasive unicellular green macroalga Caulerpa taxifolia has spread dramatically in the Mediterranean Sea over the last decades. Its success is based on rapid plug formation after wounding, to prevent the loss of cell content. This quick and efficient process involves the rapid transformation of the secondary metabolite caulerpenyne to the reactive 1,4-dialdehyde oxytoxin 2, which acts as a protein crosslinker. The main metabolites of the wound plug were identified as proteins, caulerpenyne derivatives, and sulfated polysaccharides...
April 15, 2013: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Seung Pil Yun, Su Shin Park, Jung Min Ryu, Jae Hong Park, Mi Ok Kim, Jang-Hern Lee, Ho Jae Han
Previous studies shows that connexins appear very early during murine embryo development, the gap junctional intercellular communication found in the inner cell mass of early embryo is also maintained in embryonic stem cells (ESC), and expression of oxytocin receptor (OTR) is developmentally regulated at early embryonic development. However, effect of oxytocin (OT) on the regulation of the connexin43 (Cx43) and maintenance of undifferentiation is not fully understood in stem cells. Therefore, we investigated the effect of OT on Cx43 expression and related signaling cascades in mouse ESC...
July 2012: Molecular Endocrinology
Rachelle Kornhauser, Andrew J Hart, Shane Reeve, A Ian Smith, Bryan G Fry, Wayne C Hodgson
Based on murine LD(50) values, the taipans (i.e. Oxyuranus microlepidotus, Oxyuranus scutellatus and Oxyuranus scutellatus canni) are the most venomous snake genus in the world. Despite this, little is known about the toxins contained in their venoms. The aim of the present study was to isolate and characterise post-synaptic neurotoxins from the venoms of the Papuan taipan (O. s. canni) and coastal taipan (O. scutellatus), and to compare their pharmacology. A 6770Da toxin (i.e. alpha-oxytoxin 1) and a 6781Da toxin (i...
March 2010: Neurotoxicology
Elba Villegas, Satomi Adachi-Akahane, Frank Bosmans, Jan Tytgat, Terumi Nakajima, Gerardo Corzo
Oxytoxins (OxyTx1 and OxyTx2) are disulfide-rich peptides isolated from the venom of the spider Oxyopes lineatus that block voltage-sensitive calcium ion channels (VSCCs). OxyTx1 was identified previously and isolated from the related spider Oxyopes kitabensis; however, its pharmacology was unknown. OxyTx1 and OxyTx2 contain 69 and 55 amino acid residues with molecular masses of 8058.2 and 6175.2Da, respectively. Oxytoxins contain five disulfide bridges, are amidated at their C-terminus, antagonize P/Q-, N- or L-type VSCCs, and have low amino acid identity to known VSCC blockers from arthropod venoms...
August 1, 2008: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
H Rodriguez-Martinez, D McKenna, P G Weston, B K Gustafsson, H L Whitmore
Intrauterine pressure (IUP) was recorded in nonlactating dairy cows using an intraluminal catheter with two micropressure transducers located 15 cm apart at the distal end. There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in IUP following administration of xylazine and oxytocin at all four stages of the estrous cycle. The most significant increase in IUP occurred during proestrus for both drugs. The effect of pretreatment with adrenoceptor-blocking agents on IUP changes induced by xylazine and oxytoxin was evaluated...
February 1987: Theriogenology
C Welp, W Jöchle, W Holtz
The purpose of this experiment was to compare a range of oxytocin doses in order to find the most suitable dose to improve predictability and precision of timing of PGF-induced parturition in sows. Sows randomly allotted to 6 groups - group size varying between 28 and 39 - were either untreated controls (group 1) or received an IM injection of 2 mg of the PGF-analog Alfaprostol (Vetem) on day 111 of pregnancy (day 0 = last day of standing heat), followed 20 h later by 0, 5, 10, 20 or 30 IU oxytocin, respectively (groups 2 - 6)...
November 1984: Theriogenology
Adele Cutignano, Valentina Notti, Giuliana d'Ippolito, Anna Domenech Coll, Guido Cimino, Angelo Fontana
Metabolites related to caulerpenyne (1), a toxic sesquiterpene featured by two enol-acetate residues, play a major role in the chemical defence of both algae of the genus Caulerpa and a few molluscs of the order Sacoglossa. Here we report the direct evidence that cell-free preparations of Oxynoe olivacea, a Mediterranean sacoglossan, transform efficiently the algal metabolite 1 to oxytoxin-2 (3), the main defensive metabolite of the mollusc. The process implies two distinct hydrolytic activities, here named LIP-1 and LIP-2, able to operate either hydrolysis of the acetyl residue at C-1 or concerted elimination of the acetyl groups at C-4 and C-13...
November 7, 2004: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
R Dittrich, T Maltaris, A Müller, C Dragonas, F Scalera, M W Beckmann
The objective of this study was to establish an experimental model for extracorporeal perfusion of swine uterus. In order to validate this model, we examined some biochemical parameters and determined the effect of oxytocic drugs (Oxytoxin, Prostaglandin E (2)) on extracorporeal perfused swine uteri. Thirty swine uteri were perfused with Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate-glucose buffer for a period up to eleven hours with the aim to preserve a viable organ, which should be responsive to hormones. The intrauterine pressure was recorded after administration of various concentrations of oxytocin and prostaglandin E (2)...
September 2003: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 21, 1961: Polski Tygodnik Lekarski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 15, 1955: Experientia
Verena Jung, Thierry Thibaut, Alexandre Meinesz, Georg Pohnert
The invasive green alga, Caulerpa taxifolia, that has spread rapidly after its introduction into the Mediterranean and the North American Pacific, reacts to wounding by transforming its major metabolite caulerpenyne. This wound-activated reaction involves the transformation of the bis-enol acetate moiety of 1, releasing reactive 1,4-dialdehydes. The ability to perform this transformation is found also in both the noninvasive Mediterranean C. prolifera and the invasive C. racemosa. Trapping experiments, as well as transformation of the model substrate geranyl acetate, suggest that all three investigated Caulerpa spp...
October 2002: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Gerardo Corzo, Elba Villegas, Froylan Gómez-Lagunas, Lourival D Possani, Olga S Belokoneva, Terumi Nakajima
Five amphipathic peptides with antimicrobial, hemolytic, and insecticidal activity were isolated from the crude venom of the wolf spider Oxyopes kitabensis. The peptides, named oxyopinins, are the largest linear cationic amphipathic peptides from the venom of a spider that have been chemically characterized at present. According to their primary structure Oxyopinin 1 is composed of 48 amino acid residues showing extended sequence similarity to the ant insecticidal peptide ponericinL2 and to the frog antimicrobial peptide dermaseptin...
June 28, 2002: Journal of Biological Chemistry
T Imaki, H Katsumata, M Miyata, M Naruse, J Imaki, S Minami
We have previously proposed the existence of ultrashort loop-positive feedback regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the hypothalamus. To gain a better understanding of this effect, we performed double-label in situ hybridization to identify the neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) that express CRH type 1 receptor (CRH-R1) following stress. We also conducted immunohistochemistry to determine whether CRH-R1 mRNA was translated to CRH-R1 protein in the PVN. Thirty-minute restraint stress given to male Wistar rats increased c-fos mRNA expression primarily in the CRH-producing neurons of the parvocellular PVN...
May 2001: Neuroendocrinology
A P Somlyo, A V Somlyo
A brief summary of recent studies of pharmacomechanical coupling is presented, with emphasis on the role of GTP-binding proteins and Ca(2+)-independent regulation of contraction (Ca(2+)-sensitization/desensitization) through regulatory myosin light chain (MLC20) phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Pharmacomechanical regulation of cytosolic [Ca2+] is largely, though not solely, controlled by the phosphatidylinositol cascade and Ca(2+)-pumps of the plasma membrane and the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The monomeric GTPase, RhoA, is a major upstream component of Ca(2+)-sensitization...
December 1998: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica
S W Lindow, Z M van der Spuy, M S Hendricks, F A Nugent, T T Dunne
OBJECTIVE: Modification of the inhibitory control of oxytocin secretion by endogenous opiates in late pregnancy may be one of the factors involved in the onset of labour. The interrelationships between exogenously administered opioids and oxytocin may demonstrate activity of this control mechanism. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of an opiate and an opiate antagonist on maternal oxytocin levels in late pregnancy. DESIGN: Patients were randomized to receive either morphine (5 mg), naloxone (2...
December 1993: Clinical Endocrinology
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