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Allotransplantation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211139/scabies-in-a-bilateral-hand-allograft-recipient-an-additional-mimicker-of-acute-skin-rejection-in-vascularized-composite-allotransplantation
#1
Jean Kanitakis, Emmanuel Morelon
Vascularized composite tissue allografts include skin, which frequently undergoes, in the early post-graft period, acute rejections. The diagnosis of acute rejection may be difficult as it can be mimicked by several dermatoses. We present a bilateral hand allograft recipient who developed, 16.5 years post-graft, cutaneous lesions raising suspicion about rejection. Physical examination and skin biopsy were diagnostic of scabies. This ectoparasitosis should be added in the list of dermatoses that can mimic allograft rejection in vascular composite allografts...
February 17, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194440/transient-antibody-targeting-of-cd45rc-induces-transplant-tolerance-and-potent-antigen-specific-regulatory-t-cells
#2
Elodie Picarda, Séverine Bézie, Laetitia Boucault, Elodie Autrusseau, Stéphanie Kilens, Dimitri Meistermann, Bernard Martinet, Véronique Daguin, Audrey Donnart, Eric Charpentier, Laurent David, Ignacio Anegon, Carole Guillonneau
Rat and human CD4(+) and CD8(+) Tregs expressing low levels of CD45RC have strong immunoregulatory properties. We describe here that human CD45 isoforms are nonredundant and identify distinct subsets of cells. We show that CD45RC is not expressed by CD4(+) and CD8(+) Foxp3(+) Tregs, while CD45RA/RB/RO are. Transient administration of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) targeting CD45RC in a rat cardiac allotransplantation model induced transplant tolerance associated with inhibition of allogeneic humoral responses but maintained primary and memory responses against cognate antigens...
February 9, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174392/-heart-transplantation-allograft-and-xenograft
#3
Norihide Fukushima
Prior to starting clinical cardiac allotransplantation, cardiac xenotransplantation was performed in human in 1960s. In 1964, Hardy performed cardiac transplantation using a chimpanzee heart and Bailey performed cardiac transplantation using a baboon heart to an infant with hypoplastic left heart. The use of cyclosporine has greatly improved the outcome of clinical cardiac transplantation and cardiac allotransplantation became an established treatment strategy for the patients with end-stage heart failure. Although concordant cardiac xenotransplantation from a primate to a human may be successfully performed using current immunosuppressive regimen, a primate heart is not a good candidate for cardiac xenograft due to animal light issues and its size...
January 2017: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160460/the-timing-of-immunomodulation-induced-by-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-determines-the-outcome-of-the-graft-in-experimental-renal-allotransplantation
#4
Ana Merino, Elia Ripoll, Laura de Ramon, Nuria Bolaños, Montserrat Goma, Oriol Bestard, Nuria Lloberas, Josep M Grinyo, Juan Torras
<p>The immunomodulatory characteristics of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) may lead to multifaceted strategies in rejection of organ transplantation. This study was designed to investigate the effect of the donor-type MSCs from Wistar rats firstly on the immune system of immunocompetent Lewis rats and secondly the rejection responses in a renal transplantation model of Wistar to Lewis.</p><p>In the first experimental model, MSCs from bone marrow induced a systemic immune response in the immunocompetent Lewis rats, characterized by two different phases...
February 3, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155815/pig-to-primate-islet-xenotransplantation-past-present-and-future
#5
Zhengzhao Liu, Wenbao Hu, Tian He, Yifan Dai, Hidetaka Hara, Rita Bottino, David K C Cooper, Zhiming Cai, Lisha Mou
Islet allotransplantation results in increasing success in treating type 1 diabetes, but the shortage of deceased humandonor pancreata limits progress. Islet xenotransplantation, using pigs as sources of islet is a promising approach to overcome this limitation. The greatest obstacle is the primate immune/ inflammatory response to the pig islets, which may take the form of rapid early graft destruction (the instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction) or T cell-mediated rejection. These problems are being resolved by the genetic engineering of the source pigs combined with improved immunosuppressive therapy...
February 3, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149214/robust-axonal-regeneration-in-a-mouse-vascularized-composite-allotransplant-model-undergoing-delayed-tissue-rejection
#6
Ying Yan, Matthew D Wood, Amy M Moore, Alison K Snyder-Warwick, Daniel A Hunter, Piyaraj Newton, Louis Poppler, Thomas H Tung, Philip J Johnson, Susan E Mackinnon
Background: Nerve regeneration in vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) is not well understood. Allogeneic transplant models experience complete loss of nerve tissue and axonal regeneration without immunosuppressive therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of incomplete immunosuppression on nerve regeneration. Methods: In this study, transgenic mice (4 groups in total) with endogenous fluorescent protein expression in axons (Thy1-YFP) and Schwann cells (S100-GFP) were used to evaluate axonal regeneration and Schwann cell (SC) migration in orthotopic-limb VCA models with incomplete immunosuppression using Tacrolimus (FK506)...
December 2016: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139472/microsurgical-tunica-albuginea-transplantation-in-an-animal-model
#7
Salvatore Sansalone, Carla Loreto, Rosario Leonardi, Giuseppe Vespasiani, Giuseppe Musumeci, Claudia Lombardo, Sergio Castorina, Venera Cardile, Rosario Caltabiano
Several andrological diseases require surgical repair or reconstruction of tunica albuginea, which envelops the corpora cavernosa penis. Despite intense research efforts involving a variety of biological materials, such as skin, muscle aponeurosis, human dura mater, tunica vaginalis, and pericardium, engineered tunica albuginea suitable for graft use is yet to be obtained. The study investigates microsurgical tunica albuginea allotransplantation in an animal model with the purpose of creation of an organ-specific tissue bank to store penile tissue, from cadaveric donors and male-to-female trans-sexual surgery, for allogeneic transplantation...
January 24, 2017: Asian Journal of Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138125/face-transplant-in-an-advanced-neurofibromatosis-type-1-patient
#8
Łukasz Krakowczyk, Adam Maciejewski, Cezary Szymczyk, Krzysztof Oleś, Stanisław Półtorak
BACKGROUND The human face is a one-of-a-kind structure with unique morphology, complexity, and function, in which different subunits are not even similar to other parts of the body. Therefore, extended complex deficits of the face are usually difficult to reconstruct, and autologous tissue restoration is generally not able to give a satisfactory aesthetic and functional outcome. The main goal of face allotransplantation is to restore symmetry, contour, and appearance as well as function of the face, especially control of orbicularis oculi and oris muscle physiology...
January 31, 2017: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126621/differentially-expressed-immune-related-genes-in-hemocytes-of-the-pearl-oyster-pinctada-fucata-against-allograft-identified-by-transcriptome-analysis
#9
Jinfen Wei, Baosuo Liu, Sigang Fan, Haimei Li, Mingqiang Chen, Bo Zhang, Jiaqi Su, Zihao Meng, Dahui Yu
The pearl oyster Pinctada fucata is commonly cultured for marine pearls in China. To culture pearls, a mantle piece from a donor pearl oyster is grafted with a nucleus into a receptor. This transplanted mantle piece may be rejected by the immune system of the recipient oyster, thus reducing the success of transplantation. However, there have been limited studies about the oyster's immune defense against allograft. In this study, hemocyte transcriptome analysis was performed to detect the immune responses to allograft in P...
January 23, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121868/single-implantable-fk506-disk-prevents-rejection-in-vascularized-composite-allotransplantation
#10
Jignesh V Unadkat, Jonas T Schnider, Firuz G Feturi, Wakako Tsuji, Jacqueline M Bliley, Raman Venkataramanan, Mario G Solari, Kacey G Marra, Vijay S Gorantla, Alexander M Spiess
BACKGROUND: In vascularized composite allotransplantation, medication nonadherence leads to increased acute rejections. Improving medication adherence would improve overall allograft survival. Regionally delivered immunosuppression, targeted to sites of allorecognition, may reduce or eliminate the need for daily systemic immunosuppression. METHODS: The authors developed biodegradable FK disks containing FK506-loaded double-walled microspheres and tested their efficacy at preventing rejection in a Brown-Norway-to-Lewis rat hindlimb transplantation model...
February 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118227/a-mouse-model-of-vascularized-skin-transplantation
#11
Jianke Ding, Yingjun Su, Shiqiang Liu, Yang Yang, Bo Zhou, Zhou Yu, Bo Xiao, Shuzhong Guo
BACKGROUND: Allogeneic skin tissues are highly antigenic and induce intensive immune rejection after composite tissue allotransplantation. Mouse models have advantages in mechanistic studies of immune rejection. However, due to technical challenge in vascular anastomosis with suture technique, mouse vascularized skin allotransplantation models are not widely used in studies of immune rejection. Therefore, the authors propose vascular anastomosis through cuff technique during allotransplantation of mouse donor free groin skin flaps to either recipient inguinal or cervical site...
January 23, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088961/-the-clinical-and-prognostic-significance-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia-with-flt3-itd
#12
D Lin, H Wei, Y Wang, C L Zhou, B C Liu, K Q Liu, B F Gong, S N Wei, G J Zhang, Y T Liu, X Y Gong, S W Qiu, Y C Mi, J X Wang
Objective: To investigate the clinical significance and prognosis factors of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with FLT3 mutation-internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) and provide more evidence for prognosis evaluation in AML with FLT3-ITD. Methods: The clinical characteristics and outcomes of 98 AML with FLT3-ITD were analyzed. Results: In patients with FLT3-ITD positive AML, the median of WBC and peripheral blood blast at initial diagnosis were 58.2 (0.3-461.8) ×10(9)/L and 42.2 (0-397.1) ×10(9)/L, respectively...
December 14, 2016: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081294/xenogeneic-bio-root-prompts-the-constructive-process-characterized-by-macrophage-phenotype-polarization-in-rodents-and-nonhuman-primates
#13
Hui Li, Jingjing Sun, Jie Li, Hefeng Yang, Xiangyou Luo, Jinlong Chen, Li Xie, Fangjun Huo, Tian Zhu, Weihua Guo, Weidong Tian
Tissue or organ regeneration using xenogeneic matrices is a promising approach to address the shortage of donor matrices for allotransplantation. Success of such approach has been demonstrated to correlate with macrophage-mediated fibrotic homeostasis and tissue remodeling. The previous studies have demonstrated that treated dentin matrix (TDM) could be a suitable bioactive substrate for allogeneic tooth root regeneration. This study constructed xenogeneic bioengineered tooth root (bio-root) via a combination of porcine TDM (pTDM) with allogeneic dental follicle cells (DFCs)...
January 12, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079700/the-chimera-flap-a-quarter-century-odyssey
#14
Geoffrey G Hallock
Incredibly complicated multidimensional defects have always strained the ingenuity of the reconstructive surgeon. Secondary perhaps to vascularized composite allotransplantation as a solution to this dilemma, the compound flap has been developed to be a more useful and available alternative. Their greatest versatility has been proven by its subtype, the chimera flap. The chimera flap itself consists of multiple flaps, the latter possibly composed of bone, skin, muscle, and so on, where each part has an independent vascular supply, and each part is independent of any physical interconnection whatsoever with the other components, except where joined ultimately only to a common vascular pedicle...
February 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074434/lessons-learned-from-the-world-s-first-successful-penis-allotransplantation
#15
REVIEW
Andre van der Merwe, Amir Zarrabi, Alexander Zühlke, Nicola Barsdorf, Rafique Moosa
We performed a successful penis allotransplantation on 11 December 2014. Sharing the lessons learned might help more patients in need to be treated this way. We divided the project into manageable segments that was each overseen by an expert. The ethical review and conduct paved the way for a publically acceptable and successful project. Screening for a psychological stable recipient is important. The most difficult part of the project was finding a donor penis. This was successfully negotiated with the family of a brain dead donor by creating a neo-phallus for the donor, thereby maintaining the dignity of the donor...
February 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060071/corneal-lenticule-allotransplantation-after-femtosecond-laser-small-incision-lenticule-extraction-in-rabbits
#16
Jing Zhao, Yang Shen, Mi Tian, Ling Sun, Yu Zhao, Xiaoyu Zhang, Xingtao Zhou
PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of allotransplanting extracted lenticules after femtosecond laser-assisted small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) in rabbits and the subsequent healing process. METHODS: Fourteen New Zealand white rabbits were divided evenly into 2 groups. The rabbits in group A received SMILE procedures with a -6.00 D correction. The lenticules from group A were immediately inserted into a femtosecond laser-created corneal stromal pocket in group B...
February 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058213/face-transplantation-anesthetic-challenges
#17
REVIEW
Aparna Dalal
Face transplantation is a complex vascular composite allotransplantation (VCA) surgery. It involves multiple types of tissue, such as bone, muscles, blood vessels, nerves to be transferred from the donor to the recipient as one unit. VCAs were added to the definition of organs covered by the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network Final Rule and National Organ Transplant Act. Prior to harvest of the face from the donor, a tracheostomy is usually performed. The osteotomies and dissection of the midface bony skeleton may involve severe hemorrhagic blood loss often requiring transfusion of blood products...
December 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029476/a-murine-model-of-orthotopic-periorbital-subunit-transplantation
#18
Bowen Gao, Bin Li, Xinxin Li, Jinhong Bae, Kaiyan Xiao, Qingfeng Li, Hainan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Conventional reconstructive methods fail to achieve satisfactory results in total eyelid defect cases. Vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation might provide both good appearance and function for these patients. We developed an orthotopic periorbital transplantation model in rats to facilitate further experimentation in this field. METHODS: In anatomical studies, the vascular distribution to and innervation of the periorbital unit were identified and recorded...
October 28, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024304/nasal-unit-transplantation-a-cadaveric-anatomical-feasibility-study
#19
Amir H Dorafshar, Gerhard S Mundinger, Brent Robinson, Sami Tuffaha, Gerald Brandacher, Patrick Byrne, Robert L Walton
Background The science and technical acumen in the field of vascularized composite allotransplantation has progressed rapidly over the past 15 years, and transplantation of specialized units of the face, such as the nose, appears possible. No study to date has evaluated the technical feasibility of isolated nasal unit transplantation (NUT). In this study, we explore the anatomy and technical specifics of NUT. Methods In this study, four fresh cadaver heads were studied. Bilateral vascular pedicle dissections were performed in each cadaver...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003109/bilateral-hand-transplantation-supporting-the-patient-s-choice
#20
M Dumont, L Sann, A Gazarian
Bilateral hand transplantation, as a fairly new reconstructive option for amputees, raises major ethical questions. This article, which is based on the reflections arising from the rich experience of Lyon's team in this field, addresses the topic of supporting the patient in his choice for or against this procedure. How should autonomy be understood in this particular setting? The developing field of composite tissue allotransplantation needs to establish a common thinking on this subject. The article emphasises that, even if it is their right to decide, patients have to be carefully supported to help them make the most consolidated choice possible in this challenging procedure...
February 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
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