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Allotransplantation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329189/beta-cell-death-by-cell-free-dna-and-outcome-after-clinical-islet-transplantation
#1
Boris L Gala-Lopez, Daniel Neiman, Tatsuya Kin, Doug O'Gorman, Andrew R Pepper, Andrew J Malcolm, Sheina Pianzin, Peter A Senior, Patricia Campbell, Benjamin Glaser, Yuval Dor, Ruth Shemer, A M James Shapiro
BACKGROUND: Optimizing engraftment and early survival after clinical islet transplantation is critical to long-term function, but there are no reliable, quantifiable measures to assess beta cell death. Circulating cell free DNA (cfDNA) derived from beta cells has been identified as a novel biomarker to detect cell loss, and was recently validated in new-onset type 1 diabetes and in islet transplant patients. METHODS: Herein we report beta cell cfDNA measurements after allotransplantation in 37 subjects and the correlation with clinical outcomes...
January 11, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319572/vascularized-composite-allotransplantation-of-the-elbow-joint-a-cadaveric-study
#2
Mitchell A Pet, Angelo B Lipira, Yusha Liu, Dennis Kao, Jason H Ko
BACKGROUND: Surgical options for the unreconstructable elbow are limited to arthrodesis, total arthroplasty, or osteoarticular allograft reconstruction. Each of these options is limited by severe functional impairment and/or high complication rates. Vascularized allotransplantation of the elbow joint has the potential to mitigate these complications. In this study, we describe our technique for harvesting the elbow for vascularized joint transplantation and demonstrate the flap's vascularity using contrast angiography...
January 9, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307015/therapeutic-approaches-for-induction-of-tolerance-and-immune-quiescence-in-corneal-allotransplantation
#3
REVIEW
Maryam Tahvildari, Afsaneh Amouzegar, William Foulsham, Reza Dana
The cornea is the most commonly transplanted tissue in the body. Corneal grafts in low-risk recipients enjoy high success rates, yet over 50% of high-risk grafts (with inflamed and vascularized host beds) are rejected. As our understanding of the cellular and molecular pathways that mediate rejection has deepened, a number of novel therapeutic strategies have been unveiled. This manuscript reviews therapeutic approaches to promote corneal transplant survival through targeting (1) corneal lymphangiogenesis and hemangiogenesis, (2) antigen presenting cells, (3) effector and regulatory T cells, and (4) mesenchymal stem cells...
January 6, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305755/creation-of-dystrophin-expressing-chimeric-cells-of-myoblast-origin-as-a-novel-stem-cell-based-therapy-for-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#4
M Siemionow, J Cwykiel, A Heydemann, J Garcia-Martinez, K Siemionow, E Szilagyi
Over the past decade different stem cell (SC) based approaches were tested to treat Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), a lethal X-linked disorder caused by mutations in dystrophin gene. Despite research efforts, there is no curative therapy for DMD. Allogeneic SC therapies aim to restore dystrophin in the affected muscles; however, they are challenged by rejection and limited engraftment. Thus, there is a need to develop new more efficacious SC therapies. Chimeric Cells (CC), created via ex vivo fusion of donor and recipient cells, represent a promising therapeutic option for tissue regeneration and Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation (VCA) due to tolerogenic properties that eliminate the need for lifelong immunosuppression...
January 5, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298238/desensitization-and-prevention-of-antibody-mediated-rejection-in-vascularized-composite-allotransplantation-by-syngeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#5
Howard D Wang, Samuel A J Fidder, Devin T Miller, Georg J Furtmüller, Ali Reza Ahmadi, Felix Nägele, Joseph Lopez, Amy Quan, Joshua Budihardjo, Denver M Lough, Burcu Akpinarli, Joanna Etra, Dalibor Vasilic, Giorgio Raimondi, W P Andrew Lee, Robert A Montgomery, Zhaoli Sun, Gerald Brandacher
BACKGROUND: Candidates for vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) are frequently sensitized, putting them at risk for antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). Current desensitization strategies are imperfect and require a living-donor setting. Here we investigated the impact of sensitization on and the efficacy of a desensitization protocol utilizing syngeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to prevent AMR in VCA. METHODS: Skin transplants from Dark Agouti (DA) to Lewis rats were performed for sensitization...
January 2, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280882/the-best-of-abdominal-wall-reconstruction
#6
REVIEW
Nakul Gamanlal Patel, Imran Ratanshi, Edward W Buchel
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After reviewing this article, the participant should be able to: 1. List major risk factors for hernia formation and for failure of primary repair. 2. Outline an algorithmic approach to anterior abdominal wall reconstruction based on the degree of contamination, components involved in the deficit, and width of the hernia defect. 3. Describe appropriate indications for synthetic and biological mesh products. 4. List common flaps used in anterior abdominal wall reconstruction, including functional restoration strategies...
January 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262323/extracellular-atp-activates-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-and-is-an-early-danger-signal-of-skin-allograft-rejection
#7
Joaquín Amores-Iniesta, Maria Barberà-Cremades, Carlos M Martínez, José A Pons, Beatriz Revilla-Nuin, Laura Martínez-Alarcón, Francesco Di Virgilio, Pascual Parrilla, Alberto Baroja-Mazo, Pablo Pelegrín
Immune cells are equipped with a number of receptors that recognize sterile injury and pathogens. We find that host immune cells release ATP as an inflammatory signal in response to allogeneic transplantation. ATP then acts via a feedback mechanism on the P2X7 channel to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome and subsequently process and release interleukin (IL)-18. This process is a necessary stage in the deleterious Th1 response against allotransplantation via interferon-γ production. Lack of IL-18 resulted in a decrease in graft-infiltrating CD8 cells but an increase in regulatory T cells...
December 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229149/transfusion-of-ethylene-carbodiimide-fixed-donor-splenocytes-prolongs-survival-of-vascularized-skin-allografts
#8
Jianke Ding, Shiqiang Liu, Dongliang Zhang, Yajuan Song, Xianjie Ma, Chenggang Yi, Baoqiang Song, Bo Xiao, Yingjun Su, Shuzhong Guo
BACKGROUND: Allograft rejection is a major obstacle to the widespread clinical application of vascularized composite allotransplantation. Recent studies revealed a noncytoreductive strategy to protect allografts by the transfusion of ethylene carbodiimide-fixed donor splenocytes (ECDI-SPs). To determine whether this approach offers advantages in protecting skin allografts, we examined the immunological protection of infusing ECDI-SPs with a 30-d administration of rapamycin on the skin allografts of mice...
January 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218834/comparative-evaluation-of-simple-indices-using-a-single-fasting-blood-sample-to-estimate-beta-cell-function-after-islet-transplantation
#9
Justyna E Gołębiewska, Julia Solomina, Celeste Thomas, Mark Kijek, Piotr Bachul, Lindsay Basto, Karolina Golab, Ling-Jia Wang, Natalie Fillman, Martin Tibudan, Kamil Cieply, Luis Philipson, Alicja Dębska-Ślizień, J Michael Millis, John Fung, Piotr Witkowski
Six single fasting blood sample based indices: Secretory Unit of Islet Transplant Objects (SUITO), Transplant Estimated Function (TEF), Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA)2-B%, C-peptide/glucose ratio (CP/G), C-peptide/glucose creatinine ratio (CP/GCr) and BETA-2 score, were compared against commonly used 90-min mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT) serum glucose and beta-score to assess which of them best recognizes the state of acceptable blood glucose control without insulin supplementation after islet allotransplantation (ITx)...
December 8, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198682/case-report-treatment-of-renal-artery-aneurysms-by-ex%C3%A2-vivo-renal-artery-aneurysm-repair-and-transplantation
#10
L S Silski, M L Henry, A Rajab, R P Pelletier
BACKGROUND: Renal artery aneurysms are increasingly being detected incidentally during diagnostic imaging using magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, or angiography performed for evaluation of other diseases. Our understanding of their natural history and surgical management has evolved significantly during the past two decades. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three patients with incidentally identified renal artery aneurysms have been referred to our renal transplantation program in the last 3 years...
December 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191274/ex%C3%A2-vivo-resection-and-autotransplantation-for-pancreatic-neoplasms
#11
REVIEW
Peter Liou, Tomoaki Kato
There are several low-grade pancreatic tumors whose biology permits the use of aggressive surgery to achieve a curative resection. Tumors that are deemed unresectable by conventional techniques due to mesenteric vessel involvement may benefit from ex vivo tumor resection and autotransplantation to allow complete resection while minimizing ischemic organ injury. Despite the excellent oncologic outcomes when used for these neoplasms, the procedure carries substantial morbidity and a high complication rate. But for patients who were otherwise offered total enterectomy and allotransplantation or told that their tumor was unresectable, ex vivo resection may offer them a hope for cure...
February 2018: Surgical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189413/emerging-role-of-exosomes-in-allorecognition-and-allograft-rejection
#12
Bruno Gonzalez-Nolasco, Mengchuan Wang, Aurore Prunevieille, Gilles Benichou
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recent literature on the nature of extracellular vesicles released by allogeneic transplants and examine their role in T-cell alloimmunity involved in rejection and tolerance of these grafts. RECENT FINDINGS: Donor cells release extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, after transplantation of allogeneic organs and tissues. Consequently, recipient APCs take up these exosomes and present donor MHC antigens on their surface (allo-MHC cross-dressing) thus, activating some alloreactive T cells via a mechanism called semi-direct pathway of allorecognition...
November 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189293/mechanisms-of-rejection-in-vascular-composite-allotransplantation
#13
Joanna W Etra, Giorgio Raimondi, Gerald Brandacher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: For patients with devastating injuries in whom standard reconstruction is not an option, vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) has become a viable means of restoring form and function. However, immunological rejection continues to be a problem in VCA and has not yet been fully characterized. As the field is relatively new, much of the data on rejection and immunosuppression have been extrapolated from that of solid organ transplantation. In this review, we cover the basic mechanisms of rejection as they relate specifically to VCA with analysis of recent literature and future directions...
November 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178479/face-allotransplantation-for-various-types-of-facial-disfigurements-a-series-of-five-cases
#14
Ömer Özkan, Özlenen Özkan, Mehmetcan Ubur, Necmiye Hadimioğlu, Melike Cengiz, İsmail Afşar
BACKGROUND: The aim of this report is to present our long-term experiences with a series of 5 face-transplanted patients in terms of surgical aspects and postoperative outcomes, and to describe possible salvage strategies in case of difficulties. METHODS: Five patients, 4 receiving full-face transplantation and 1 undergoing partial transplantation at our institution were included. The patients were aged between 19 and 54 years. Two had extensive burn scars to the face, and 3 had suffered gunshot injuries...
November 27, 2017: Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150964/de-novo-donor-specific-hla-antibodies-after-combined-intestinal-and-vascularised-composite-allotransplantation
#15
Annemarie Weissenbacher, Georgios Vrakas, Mian Chen, Srikanth Reddy, Philip Allan, Henk Giele, Martin Cnm Barnardo, Anil Vaidya, Peter J Friend, Susan V Fuggle
Combining vascularised composite allotransplantation (VCA) with intestinal transplantation to achieve primary abdominal closure has become a feasible procedure. Besides facilitating closure, the abdominal wall can be used to monitor intestinal rejection. As the inclusion of a VCA raises the possibility of an enhanced alloimmune response, we investigated the incidence and clinical effect of de novo donor specific HLA antibodies (dnDSA) in a cohort of patients receiving an intestinal transplant with or without a VCA...
November 18, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143761/antibody-cross-reactivity-between-porcine-cytomegalovirus-pcmv-and-human-herpesvirus-6-hhv-6
#16
Uwe Fiebig, Angela Holzer, Daniel Ivanusic, Elena Plotzki, Hartmut Hengel, Frank Neipel, Joachim Denner
Porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) infection is widely prevalent among pigs, and PCMV is one of the viruses which may be transmitted during xenotransplantation using pig cells, tissues, or organs. While human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major risk factor for allotransplantation, it is still unclear whether PCMV is able to infect human cells or pose a risk for xenotransplantation. Previously, it was shown that transmission of PCMV after pig kidney to non-human primate transplantations resulted in a significantly reduced survival time of the transplanted organ...
October 28, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142863/rabbit-submandibular-salivary-gland-replantation
#17
Akram A Almansoori, Namuun Khentii, Wei-Hong Hei, Nari Seo, Sung-Ho Lee, Soung Min Kim, Jong Ho Lee
Objectives: To test the feasibility of submandibular salivary gland (SMG) replantation techniques and the survival of the replanted glands. Such a study can provide a rationale for later allotransplantation procedures, along with implementation of conventional and advanced immunosuppression therapy. Materials and Methods: Six SMG replantations were performed in New Zealand white rabbits. One week postoperatively, (99m)Tc scintigraphy was performed and the uptake ratio and salivary excretion fraction were calculated...
October 2017: Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142845/parathyroid-transplantation-in-thyroid-surgery
#18
REVIEW
Marcin Barczyński, Filip Gołkowski, Ireneusz Nawrot
Permanent hypoparathyroidism following thyroid surgery is rare. Its prevalence is reported to be below 1-2% if surgery is performed by experienced thyroid surgeons. Parathyroid identification and preservation in situ with good vascular supply is the mainstay of safe thyroid surgery. However, if the parathyroid glands are damaged, autotransplantation should be undertaken to preserve their function. Parathyroid transplantation can be considered in three distinct modes of application: (I) fresh parathyroid tissue autotransplantation during thyroidectomy in order to reduce the risk of permanent hypoparathyroidism; (II) cryopreserved parathyroid tissue autotransplantation in patients with permanent hypoparathyroidism; (III) parathyroid allotransplantation in patients with permanent hypoparathyroidism when cryopreserved parathyroid tissue is not available for grafting...
October 2017: Gland Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140979/ginsenoside-rg3-inhibits-angiogenesis-in-a-rat-model-of-endometriosis-through-the-vegfr-2-mediated-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway
#19
Yang Cao, Qing Ye, Mengfei Zhuang, Shuwu Xie, Ruihua Zhong, Jingang Cui, Jieyun Zhou, Yan Zhu, Tingting Zhang, Lin Cao
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the link between the inhibitory effect of ginsenoside Rg3 on the ectopic endometrium growth and the VEGFR-2-mediated PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, a mechanism known to inhibit angiogenesis and induce ectopic endometrial cell apoptosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A model of endometriosis was established by allotransplantation in rats. The rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: the ginsenoside Rg3 low-dose group (group A,5mg/kgBW/d of ginsenoside Rg3), the ginsenoside Rg3 high-dose group (group B, 10mg/kgBW/d of ginsenoside Rg3), the gestrinone group (group C, 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140906/nose-and-lips-graft-variants-a-subunit-anatomical-study
#20
Jérôme Duisit, Louis Maistriaux, Alexander Gerdom, Martial Vergauwen, Pierre Gianello, Catherine Behets, Benoît Lengelé
BACKGROUND: In the field of Vascularized Composite tissue Allotransplantation (VCA), the surgical design of facial subunit grafts is an evolving concept. The purpose of the present paper is to study the possibilities to divide the historical nose and lips face transplant into several morphological and functional subunit grafts, depending on their respective supply. METHODS: Our study was conducted in 20 adult cadavers. The facial artery and its branches were dissected bilaterally in 16 fresh and 4 embalmed heads...
November 11, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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