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Jake M Najman, Fairlie McIlwraith, Robert Kemp, Andrew Smirnov
: With recent increases in overdose deaths in Australia, there is renewed interest in understanding the factors that contribute to overdose. We examine the experiences of persons who report a nonfatal drug overdose. Fifty people who inject drugs (PWID) and who had accidently overdosed in the past 12 months were recruited and interviewed at 1 of 4 Needle and Syringe Program sites during September and October 2013.Participants were typically male, middle-aged, with long injecting histories. Half of the participants reported mainly injecting pharmaceutical opioids...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Michael D Stein, Mitika Kanabar, Bradley J Anderson, Anna Lembke, Genie L Bailey
BACKGROUND: Over the past decade, patients admitted to addiction treatment programs have reported increasing rates of concurrent opioid and benzodiazepine (BZD) use. This drug combination places individuals at high risk for accidental overdose. Little is known about reasons for BZD use among individuals seeking treatment for opioid use disorders. METHODS: We surveyed consecutive persons initiating inpatient opioid detoxification and identified 176 out of 438 who reported BZD use in the past 30 days and/or had a positive toxicology...
September 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Ty S Schepis, Brady T West, Christian J Teter, Sean Esteban McCabe
INTRODUCTION: Nonmedical tranquilizer use (NMTU) is a concerning and understudied phenomenon in adolescents, despite being the second most prevalent form of nonmedical use in this population. Thus, this work aimed to examine the sociodemographic and substance use correlates of past-year co-ingestion of a prescription tranquilizer and another substance among adolescents. METHODS: Data were from the Monitoring the Future study, a nationally representative survey of U...
January 2016: Addictive Behaviors
Thomas Kampfrath, Penny Peng, Valli Vairavan, Dayong Lee
CLINICAL HISTORY: HASH(0x3c2d608) PATIENT: 41-year-old Hispanic woman. Chief Complaint: Pain in the neck, joints, and shoulders that started in August 2013. History of Present Illness: The patient has a history of psychiatric illness. Her primary care physician from an outside facility had prescribed alprazolam (Xanax) to treat her depression. The patient reported that in 2011 she experienced pain in the right side of her back and was diagnosed with sciatica. In addition, she was diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) based on a positive finding for antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA)...
2015: Laboratory Medicine
F J B Mendonça Júnior, L Scotti, H Ishiki, S P S Botelho, M S Da Silva, M T Scotti
Benzodiazepines (BZ or BZD) are a class of gabaminergic psychoactive chemicals used in hypnotics, sedation, in the treatment of anxiety, and in other CNS disorders. These drugs include alprazolam (Xanax), diazepam (Valium), clonazepam (Klonopin), and others. There are two distinct types of pharmacological binding sites for benzodiazepines in the brain (BZ1 and BZ2), these sites are on GABA-A receptors, and are classified as short, intermediate, or long-acting. From the thienobenzodiazepine class (TBZ), Olanzapine (2-methyl-4-(4-methyl-l-piperazinyl)-10H-thieno[2,3-b][1,5]benzodiazepine) (Zyprexa) was used as an example to demonstrate the antagonism of this class of compounds for multiples receptors including: dopamine D1-D5, α-adrenoreceptor, histamine H1, muscarinic M1-M5 and 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, 5-HT2C, 5-HT3 and 5-HT6 receptors...
2015: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Sara A Brandt, Elise C Taverna, Robert M Hallock
BACKGROUND: This study examined lifetime non-medical prescription drug use among college students at a small liberal arts college in the Northeast. We assessed the motives, frequency of use, sources, and perceived emotional/physical risks of nonmedical prescription drugs. Specifically, we examined the non-medical use of prescription pain relievers, stimulants, and anti-anxiety medication. METHODS: We sent an internet-based survey to 1/3 of the student body and 303 students completed the survey...
October 1, 2014: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Albert L Briggs, Lisa L Deal
BACKGROUND: Hyperkalemia is a potentially life-threatening electrolyte abnormality commonly seen in the emergency department (ED). Intentional overdose of potassium supplements is an uncommon occurrence. OBJECTIVE: This case illustrates a novel approach to treatment of pharmacobezoar with esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and demonstrates its effectiveness in the setting of extended-release potassium chloride overdose. CASE REPORT: A 44-year-old female presented to the ED with intentional ingestion of an unknown amount of extended-release potassium chloride (K-Dur®) tablets and alprazolam (Xanax®)...
March 2014: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Alan Hainsworth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2012: Australian Nursing Journal: ANJ
Ashley Ogle, Kathleen Moore, Blake Barrett, M Scott Young, Julia Pearson
AIMS: To analyze toxicological findings of accidental deaths involving oxycodone to determine demographic characteristics and clinical histories. METHODS: Accidental deaths in which oxycodone was mentioned as a cause of death were analyzed. The sample included all persons deceased in Hillsborough County in 2009 where oxycodone was present. The entire sample was divided into two subgroups listing oxycodone as the primary/contributory cause of death (n=117) or oxycodone as the incidental cause of death (n=38)...
November 30, 2012: Forensic Science International
(no author information available yet)
UNLABELLED: Kava beverages, made from dried roots of the shrub Piper methysticum, have been used ceremonially and socially in the South Pacific and in Europe since the 1700s. The drink is reported to have pleasant mild psychoactive effects, similar to alcoholic beverages. In the United States, kava kava is an herbal product used extensively as an alternative to anti-anxiety drugs such as Xanax and Valium. It has also been reported as being used to help children with hyperactivity and as a skin-conditioning agent in cosmetics...
March 2012: National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series
Bethan L Richards, Samuel L Whittle, Rachelle Buchbinder
BACKGROUND: Pain management is a high priority for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Muscle relaxants include drugs that reduce muscle spasm (for example benzodiazepines such as diazepam (Valium), alprazolam (Xanax), lorazepam (Ativan) and non-benzodiazepines such as metaxalone (Skelaxin) or a combination of paracetamol and orphenadrine (Muscol)) and drugs that prevent increased muscle tone (baclofen and dantrolene). Despite a paucity of evidence supporting their use, antispasmodic and antispasticity muscle relaxants have gained widespread clinical acceptance as adjuvants in the management of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain...
2012: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Shawn P Vorce, Barry Levine, Pamela C McDonough, Marilyn R Past
Two cases are reported involving the abuse of extended-release oxymorphone hydrochloride tablets (Opana® ER) in combination with alprazolam (Xanax®). Two juvenile females were discovered unresponsive and hypoxic by a male acquaintance. The trio had reportedly crushed and snorted Opana ER tablets and consumed Xanax for recreational purposes. Emergency personnel were able to stabilize one female. The second female was pronounced dead at the scene. Blood and urine samples from the surviving female were collected at the trauma center between 48 and 96 h post incident...
October 2010: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
A Stefănescu, Maria Voroneanu
UNLABELLED: Surgical area--as a precursor of negative emotions, is the threshold between the two areas of anxiety and anxiety among the general and specific stimuli. By dominant color, noise, odors and environmental factors in complex anxiety these elements define the specific treatment of dental medicine better. The emotional stress on the patient child which undergoes a surgical dento-alveolar therapy is negative and consists of the combination of three important elements, in close relationship: score of dental anxiety, the anticipation and experience of pain and phobic stimuli which is implicitly true precursor of pain...
April 2010: Revista Medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti Din Iaş̧i
Jeff R Temple, Daniel H Freeman
Teen dating violence is a serious public health concern with numerous and long-lasting consequences. Although alcohol and drug use have been associated with dating violence, little is known about the role of specific substances, especially the use of club drugs and the nonmedical use of prescription drugs. Thus, the authors examined the association between dating violence victimization and the use of a variety of licit and illicit substances among 1,565 ethnically diverse and economically disadvantaged high school students in southeast Texas...
March 2011: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
C Oros, Maria Voroneanu
UNLABELLED: General and practical training, knowing of safe methods of preanesthesia, pain and anxiety control and establishing a good relation with the patient are some of the most important methods of patient management in the dental office. The final goals of the methods are to obtain a calm patient, haemodinamic equilibrated and safely prepared for the surgery. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Our study was performed on 448 patients. Different methods of preanesthesia were used by administrating per oral, intravenous, intramuscular, according with DAS score: Midazolam, Diazepam + Algocalmin, Xanax...
October 2009: Revista Medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti Din Iaş̧i
Flutura Bardhi, Stephen J Sifaneck, Bruce D Johnson, Eloise Dunlap
Recent survey research has documented important increases during the 2000s in the misuse and abuse of several prescription drugs (Vicodin, Percocet, Codeine, Dilaudid, Xanax, Klonopin, Valium, Ativan, Adderall, Ritalin, among others). This article focuses upon the patterns of pill use and misuse among young women who are middle-class white and college-educated, and they are also experienced marijuana users who report recreational consumption of other illegal drugs. The ethnographic data provides insights about various ways and reasons that such prescription pill misuse occurs among 12 college-educated, (upper) middle-class, white/Asian women in their 20s who were involved in a major ethnographic study of marijuana and blunts...
2007: Contemporary Drug Problems
A Koçak, S L Berets
This investigation examines the feasibility of detecting changes in intact human hair upon drug exposure using diamond attenuated total reflection (ATR) infrared spectroscopy. Prior work on microtomed hair has reported spectra changes in the medulla of the hair resulting from drug exposure. This study focuses on examining the hair intact, eliminating sample preparation and thereby reducing the possibility of sample contamination. Several hair samples were first examined to determine whether the lipids in the medulla could be detected from intact hair...
July 2008: Applied Spectroscopy
Ronald J Peters, Angela F Meshack, Steven H Kelder, Patrick Webb, Dexter Smith, Kevin Garner
While the epidemiologic trends concerning alprazolam (Xanax) are unknown, the use of benzodiazepines, in general, has increased in popularity among youth within recent years. To shed light on the drug problem, the current pilot study used a qualitative approach to investigate relevant beliefs, norms, and perceived addiction associated with alprazolam initiation among 46 youth who were attending an inpatient drug treatment program during the spring of 2004. Overwhelmingly, most participants stated that addiction to alprazolam occurs as early as initial consumption...
2007: Journal of Drug Education
Héctor Novoa de Armas, Oswald M Peeters, Guy Van den Mooter, Norbert Blaton
A new polymorphic form of Alprazolam (Xanax), 8-chloro-1-methyl-6-phenyl-4H-[1,2,4]triazolo-[4,3-alpha][1,4]benzodiazepine, C(17)H(13)ClN(4), has been investigated by means of X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), single crystal X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). This polymorphic form (form III) was obtained during DSC experiments after the exothermic recrystallization of the melt of form I. The crystal unit cell dimensions for form III were determined from diffractometer methods. The monoclinic unit cell found for this polymorph using XRPD after indexing the powder diffractogram was confirmed by the cell parameters obtained from single crystal X-ray diffractometry on a crystal isolated from the DSC pans...
May 2007: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Slobodan Sasić
PURPOSE: Raman chemical imaging of API was carried out to provide information on whether there is any structural difference between the commercial Xanax and Alprazolam tablets (the API content less than 1% w/w in both cases) in the batches with low and good recovery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Raman mapping spectra were collected from the flattened surfaces of six tablets. The mapping spectra were analyzed by principal component analysis because the Raman signal of the API (Alprazolam) was not reliably detected from the raw spectra...
January 2007: Pharmaceutical Research
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