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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316738/flocculation-effect-of-alkaline-electrolyzed-water-aew-on-harvesting-of-marine-microalgae-tetraselmis-sp
#1
Su-Jin Lee, Woo-Seok Choi, Gun-Hoo Park, Tae-Ho Kim, Chulhong Oh, Soo-Jin Heo, Do-Hyung Kang
Microalgae hold promise as a renewable energy source for the production of biofuel, as they can convert light energy into chemical energy through photosynthesis. However, cost-efficient harvest of microalgae remains a major challenge to commercial-scale algal biofuel production. We firstly investigated the potential of electrolytic water as a flocculantfor harvesting Tetraselmis sp.Alkaline electrolytic water (AEW) is produced at cathode through water electrolysis.It contains mineral ions such as Na⁺, K⁺, Ca²⁺ and Mg²⁺ that can act as flocculant...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228192/quantitative-analysis-of-o2-and-fe2-profiles-in-gradient-tubes-for-cultivation-of-microaerophilic-iron-ii-oxidizing-bacteria
#2
U Lueder, G Druschel, D Emerson, A Kappler, C Schmidt
The classical approach for cultivation of neutrophilic microaerophilic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria are agar-based gradient tubes where these bacteria find optimal growth conditions in opposing gradients of oxygen (O2) and dissolved Fe(II) (Fe2+). The goals of this study were to quantify the temporal development of O2 and Fe2+ concentrations over time, to compare abiotic and microbially-inoculated tubes, and to test the suitability of different Fe(II)-sources for cultivation of freshwater and marine microaerophilic Fe(II)-oxidizers...
December 5, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219420/sio_-2-glass-density-to-lower-mantle-pressures
#3
Sylvain Petitgirard, Wim J Malfait, Baptiste Journaux, Ines E Collings, Eleanor S Jennings, Ingrid Blanchard, Innokenty Kantor, Alexander Kurnosov, Marine Cotte, Thomas Dane, Manfred Burghammer, David C Rubie
The convection or settling of matter in the deep Earth's interior is mostly constrained by density variations between the different reservoirs. Knowledge of the density contrast between solid and molten silicates is thus of prime importance to understand and model the dynamic behavior of the past and present Earth. SiO_{2} is the main constituent of Earth's mantle and is the reference model system for the behavior of silicate melts at high pressure. Here, we apply our recently developed x-ray absorption technique to the density of SiO_{2} glass up to 110 GPa, doubling the pressure range for such measurements...
November 24, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209943/mapping-toxic-mineral-contamination-the-southern-oyster-drill-s-haemastoma-l-1767-as-evaluable-sentinel-species
#4
Giuseppa Di Bella, Gianluca Pizzullo, Giuseppe Daniel Bua, Angela Giorgia Potortì, Antonello Santini, Salvatore Giacobbe
The nickel, chromium, arsenic, cadmium, and lead content have been evaluated, by ICP-MS, in digestive gland of the amphiatlantic gastropod Stramonita haemastoma, sampled along the highly anthropized Gulf of Milazzo (Central Mediterranean). Concentrations notably higher than those reported in literature for other Mediterranean Muricidae have been recorded. The results also indicated a different impact in different sites, according to distribution and typology of human activities, whilst recorded seasonal variations might relate with rapid metabolic response...
December 6, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202032/biomass-recycling-and-earth-s-early-phosphorus-cycle
#5
Michael A Kipp, Eva E Stüeken
Phosphorus sets the pace of marine biological productivity on geological time scales. Recent estimates of Precambrian phosphorus levels suggest a severe deficit of this macronutrient, with the depletion attributed to scavenging by iron minerals. We propose that the size of the marine phosphorus reservoir was instead constrained by muted liberation of phosphorus during the remineralization of biomass. In the modern ocean, most biomass-bound phosphorus gets aerobically recycled; but a dearth of oxidizing power in Earth's early oceans would have limited the stoichiometric capacity for remineralization, particularly during the Archean...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187835/coastal-bacterioplankton-metabolism-is-stimulated-stronger-by-anthropogenic-aerosols-than-saharan-dust
#6
Isabel Marín, Sdena Nunes, Elvia D Sánchez-Pérez, Estibalitz Txurruka, Carolina Antequera, Maria M Sala, Cèlia Marrasé, Francesc Peters
In oligotrophic regions, such as the Mediterranean Sea, atmospheric deposition has the potential to stimulate heterotrophic prokaryote growth and production in surface waters, especially during the summer stratification period. Previous studies focused on the role of leaching nutrients from mineral particles of Saharan (S) origin, and were restricted to single locations at given times of the year. In this study, we evaluate the effect of atmospheric particles from diverse sources and with a markedly different chemical composition [S dust and anthropogenic (A) aerosols] on marine planktonic communities from three locations of the northwestern Mediterranean with contrasted anthropogenic footprint...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159878/arsenobetaine-an-ecophysiologically-important-organoarsenical-confers-cytoprotection-against-osmotic-stress-and-growth-temperature-extremes
#7
Tamara Hoffmann, Bianca Warmbold, Sander H J Smits, Britta Tschapek, Stefanie Ronzheimer, Abdallah Bashir, Chiliang Chen, Anne Rolbetzki, Marco Pittelkow, Mohamed Jebbar, Andreas Seubert, Lutz Schmitt, Erhard Bremer
Arsenic, a highly cytotoxic and cancerogenic metalloid, is brought into the biosphere through geochemical sources and anthropogenic activities. A global biogeochemical arsenic biotransformation cycle exists in which inorganic arsenic species are transformed into organoarsenicals, which are subsequently mineralized again into inorganic arsenic compounds. Microorganisms contribute to this biotransformation process greatly and one of the organoarsenicals synthesized and degraded in this cycle is arsenobetaine...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159455/plant-available-phosphorus-in-soil-as-predictor-for-the-leaching-potential-insights-from-long-term-lysimeter-studies
#8
Holger Rupp, Ralph Meissner, Peter Leinweber
This study aimed to demonstrate the impact of phosphorus (P) mineral fertilization on topsoil P content and P leaching. We evaluated 83 datasets from 25 years from lysimeter experiments involving different cropping systems (winter crop, summer crop and autumn tillage, harvested grass) or unfertilized fallow, four types of soil texture, and three levels of applied mineral P fertilizer. A positive monotonic and significant correlation was indicated between P in the topsoil determined by the double lactate method (P DL) and the yearly flow-weight total (TP) concentrations in leachates with Spearman rank correlations r s (r s > 0...
November 20, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151838/observation-and-model-based-estimates-of-particulate-dry-nitrogen-deposition-to-the-oceans
#9
Alex R Baker, Maria Kanakidou, Katye E Altieri, Nikos Daskalakis, Gregory S Okin, Stelios Myriokefalitakis, Frank Dentener, Mitsuo Uematsu, Manmohan M Sarin, Robert A Duce, James N Galloway, William C Keene, Arvind Singh, Lauren Zamora, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Shih-Chieh Hsu, Shital S Rohekar, Joseph M Prospero
Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) emissions to the atmosphere have increased significantly the deposition of nitrate (NO3(-)) and ammonium (NH4(+)) to the surface waters of the open ocean, with potential impacts on marine productivity and the global carbon cycle. Global-scale understanding of the impacts of N deposition to the oceans is reliant on our ability to produce and validate models of nitrogen emission, atmospheric chemistry, transport and deposition. In this work, ~2900 observations of aerosol NO3(-) and NH4(+) concentrations, acquired from sampling aboard ships in the period 1995 - 2012, are used to assess the performance of modelled N concentration and deposition fields over the remote ocean...
2017: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129436/effects-of-teriparatide-and-risedronate-on-new-fractures-in-post-menopausal-women-with-severe-osteoporosis-vero-a-multicentre-double-blind-double-dummy-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
David L Kendler, Fernando Marin, Cristiano A F Zerbini, Luis A Russo, Susan L Greenspan, Vit Zikan, Alicia Bagur, Jorge Malouf-Sierra, Péter Lakatos, Astrid Fahrleitner-Pammer, Eric Lespessailles, Salvatore Minisola, Jean Jacques Body, Piet Geusens, Rüdiger Möricke, Pedro López-Romero
BACKGROUND: No clinical trials have compared osteoporosis drugs with incident fractures as the primary outcome. We compared the anti-fracture efficacy of teriparatide with risedronate in patients with severe osteoporosis. METHODS: In this double-blind, double-dummy trial, we enrolled post-menopausal women with at least two moderate or one severe vertebral fracture and a bone mineral density T score of less than or equal to -1·50. Participants were randomly assigned to receive 20 μg of teriparatide once daily plus oral weekly placebo or 35 mg of oral risedronate once weekly plus daily injections of placebo for 24 months...
November 9, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127639/reactivation-and-reuse-of-tio2-sns2-composite-catalyst-for-solar-driven-water-treatment
#11
Marin Kovacic, Nina Kopcic, Hrvoje Kusic, Urska Lavrencic Stangar, Dionysios D Dionysiou, Ana Loncaric Bozic
One of the most important features of photocatalytic materials intended to be used for water treatment is their long-term stability. The study is focused on the application of thermal and chemical treatments for the reactivation of TiO2-SnS2 composite photocatalyst, prepared by hydrothermal synthesis and immobilized on the glass support using titania/silica binder. Such a catalytic system was applied in solar-driven treatment, solar/TiO2-SnS2/H2O2, for the purification of water contaminated with diclofenac (DCF)...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120499/evolution-of-the-subsurface-k-rich-brines-in-the-triassic-carbonates-in-the-sichuan-basin-of-china
#12
Xun Zhou, Xiaocui Wang, Jiajun Han, Qin Cao, Changlong Jiang, Juan Guo, Haiyan Zhou
Subsurface K-rich brines are important mineral resources for fertilizer production while the evolution of such brines is poorly documented. In the Sichuan Basin in southwest China, they are found mainly in the Middle and Lower Triassic marine carbonate aquifers. Total dissolved solids of the brines range from 176 to 378 g/L and K concentrations, from 1.9 to 53.3 g/L. We found that the brines are mainly of Cl-Na type, while Ba is absent in the brines. Comparison of the brine samples with both the trajectories of ions and the newly proposed trajectories of ion ratios of evaporated seawater suggests that the brines are enriched in Ca, Sr, Li, and I, depleted in SO4 and Mg, and neither enriched nor depleted in Cl and Na...
November 9, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093992/inorganic-organic-and-encapsulated-minerals-in-vegetable-meal-based-diets-for-sparus-aurata-linnaeus-1758
#13
David Domínguez, Simona Rimoldi, Lidia E Robaina, Silvia Torrecillas, Genciana Terova, María J Zamorano, Vasileios Karalazos, Kristin Hamre, Marisol Izquierdo
Substituting fishmeal (FM) with vegetable meal (VM) can markedly affect the mineral composition of feeds, and may require additional mineral supplementation. Their bioavailability and optimal supplementation levels depend also on the form of delivery of minerals. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of different delivery forms of three major trace elements (Zn, Mn and Se) in a marine teleost. Gilthead sea bream juveniles of 22.5 g were fed a VM-based diet for 12 weeks that was either not supplemented with these minerals or supplemented with inorganic, organic, or encapsulated inorganic forms of minerals in triplicate and compared to a FM-based diet...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092105/formation-and-mosaicity-of-coccolith-segment-calcite-of-the-marine-algae-emiliania-huxleyi
#14
Xiaofei Yin, Andreas Ziegler, Klemens Kelm, Ramona Hoffmann, Philipp Watermeyer, Patrick Alexa, Clarissa Villinger, Ulrich Rupp, Lothar Schlüter, Thorsten B H Reusch, Erika Griesshaber, Paul Walther, Wolfgang W Schmahl
Coccolithophores belong to the most abundant calcium carbonate mineralizing organisms. Coccolithophore biomineralization is a complex and highly regulated process, resulting in a product that strongly differs in its intricate morphology from the abiogenically produced mineral equivalent. Moreover, unlike extracellularly formed biological carbonate hard tissues, coccolith calcite is neither a hybrid composite, nor is it distinguished by a hierarchical microstructure. This is remarkable as the key to optimizing crystalline biomaterials for mechanical strength and toughness lies in the composite nature of the biological hard tissue and the utilization of specific microstructures...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057968/mid-troposphere-transport-of-middle-east-dust-over-the-arabian-sea-and-its-effect-on-rainwater-composition-and-sensitive-ecosystems-over-india
#15
V Ramaswamy, P M Muraleedharan, C Prakash Babu
The importance of mineral dust and aerosols in the transfer of bio-essential elements to terrestrial and marine ecosystems far removed from the source region is well known. Aerosol concentrations measured at the surface over the west coast of India during the SW monsoon period (June to September) are usually very low as pristine maritime air from the Southern Indian Ocean blows over this region. However, we find very high levels of mineral dust and dust derived nutrients in rainwater collected during the SW monsoon period...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057327/shaping-highly-regular-glass-architectures-a-lesson-from-nature
#16
Vanessa Schoeppler, Elke Reich, Jean Vacelet, Martin Rosenthal, Alexandra Pacureanu, Alexander Rack, Paul Zaslansky, Emil Zolotoyabko, Igor Zlotnikov
Demospongiae is a class of marine sponges that mineralize skeletal elements, the glass spicules, made of amorphous silica. The spicules exhibit a diversity of highly regular three-dimensional branched morphologies that are a paradigm example of symmetry in biological systems. Current glass shaping technology requires treatment at high temperatures. In this context, the mechanism by which glass architectures are formed by living organisms remains a mystery. We uncover the principles of spicule morphogenesis...
October 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044115/carbon-fixation-from-mineral-carbonates
#17
Brandon S Guida, Maitrayee Bose, Ferran Garcia-Pichel
Photoautotrophs assimilate oxidized carbon obtained from one of two sources: dissolved or atmospheric. Despite its size, the pool of lithospheric carbonate is not known to be a direct source for autotrophy. Yet, the mechanism that euendolithic cyanobacteria use to excavate solid carbonates suggests that minerals could directly supply CO2 for autotrophy. Here, we use stable isotopes and NanoSIMS to show that the cyanobacterium Mastigocoleus testarum derives most of its carbon from the mineral it excavates, growing preferentially as an endolith when lacking dissolved CO2...
October 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032352/physiological-impacts-of-acute-cu-exposure-on-deep-sea-vent-mussel-bathymodiolus-azoricus-under-a-deep-sea-mining-activity-scenario
#18
Inês Martins, Joana Goulart, Eva Martins, Rosa Morales-Román, Sergio Marín, Virginie Riou, Ana Colaço, Raul Bettencourt
Over the past years, several studies have been dedicated to understanding the physiological ability of the vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus to overcome the high metal concentrations present in their surrounding hydrothermal environment. Potential deep-sea mining activities at Azores Triple junction hydrothermal vent deposits would inevitably lead to the emergence of new fluid sources close to mussel beds, with consequent emission of high metal concentrations and potential resolubilization of Cu from minerals formed during the active phase of the vent field...
October 9, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027954/marine-sponge-natural-products-with-anticancer-potential-an-updated-review
#19
REVIEW
Cinzia Calcabrini, Elena Catanzaro, Anupam Bishayee, Eleonora Turrini, Carmela Fimognari
Despite the huge investment into research and the significant effort and advances made in the search for new anticancer drugs in recent decades, cancer cure and treatment continue to be a formidable challenge. Many sources, including plants, animals, and minerals, have been explored in the oncological field because of the possibility of identifying novel molecular therapeutics. Marine sponges are a prolific source of secondary metabolites, a number of which showed intriguing tumor chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties...
October 13, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018196/cenozoic-global-cooling-and-increased-seawater-mg-ca-via-reduced-reverse-weathering
#20
Ann G Dunlea, Richard W Murray, Danielle P Santiago Ramos, John A Higgins
Authigenic clay minerals formed on or in the seafloor occur in every type of marine sediment. They are recognized to be a major sink of many elements in the ocean but are difficult to study directly due to dilution by detrital clay minerals. The extremely low dust fluxes and marine sedimentation rates in the South Pacific Gyre (SPG) provide a unique opportunity to examine relatively undiluted authigenic clay. Here, using Mg isotopes and element concentrations combined with multivariate statistical modeling, we fingerprint and quantify the abundance of authigenic clay within SPG sediment...
October 10, 2017: Nature Communications
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