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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533378/pyrite-sulfur-isotopes-reveal-glacial-interglacial-environmental-changes
#1
Virgil Pasquier, Pierre Sansjofre, Marina Rabineau, Sidonie Revillon, Jennifer Houghton, David A Fike
The sulfur biogeochemical cycle plays a key role in regulating Earth's surface redox through diverse abiotic and biological reactions that have distinctive stable isotopic fractionations. As such, variations in the sulfur isotopic composition (δ(34)S) of sedimentary sulfate and sulfide phases over Earth history can be used to infer substantive changes to the Earth's surface environment, including the rise of atmospheric oxygen. Such inferences assume that individual δ(34)S records reflect temporal changes in the global sulfur cycle; this assumption may be well grounded for sulfate-bearing minerals but is less well established for pyrite-based records...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525299/early-diverging-fungi-diversity-and-impact-at-the-dawn-of-terrestrial-life
#2
Mary L Berbee, Timothy Y James, Christine Strullu-Derrien
As decomposers or plant pathogens, fungi deploy invasive growth and powerful carbohydrate active enzymes to reduce multicellular plant tissues to humus and simple sugars. Fungi are perhaps also the most important mutualistic symbionts in modern ecosystems, transporting poorly soluble mineral nutrients to plants and thus enhancing the growth of vegetation. However, at their origin over a billion years ago, fungus-like plants and animals were unicellular marine microbes. Like the other multicellular kingdoms, Fungi evolved increased size, complexity, and metabolic functioning...
May 19, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511936/biotechnologies-for-marine-oil-spill-cleanup-indissoluble-ties-with-microorganisms
#3
REVIEW
Francesca Mapelli, Alberto Scoma, Grégoire Michoud, Federico Aulenta, Nico Boon, Sara Borin, Nicolas Kalogerakis, Daniele Daffonchio
The ubiquitous exploitation of petroleum hydrocarbons (HCs) has been accompanied by accidental spills and chronic pollution in marine ecosystems, including the deep ocean. Physicochemical technologies are available for oil spill cleanup, but HCs must ultimately be mineralized by microorganisms. How environmental factors drive the assembly and activity of HC-degrading microbial communities remains unknown, limiting our capacity to integrate microorganism-based cleanup strategies with current physicochemical remediation technologies...
May 13, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511362/towards-complete-and-harmonized-assessment-of-soil-carbon-stocks-and-balance-in-forests-the-ability-of-the-yasso07-model-across-a-wide-gradient-of-climatic-and-forest-conditions-in-europe
#4
Laura Hernández, Robert Jandl, Viorel N B Blujdea, Aleksi Lehtonen, Kaie Kriiska, Iciar Alberdi, Veiko Adermann, Isabel Cañellas, Gheorghe Marin, Daniel Moreno-Fernández, Ivika Ostonen, Mats Varik, Markus Didion
Accurate carbon-balance accounting in forest soils is necessary for the development of climate change policy. However, changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) occur slowly and these changes may not be captured through repeated soil inventories. Simulation models may be used as alternatives to SOC measurement. The Yasso07 model presents a suitable alternative because most of the data required for the application are readily available in countries with common forest surveys. In this study, we test the suitability of Yasso07 for simulating SOC stocks and stock changes in a variety of European forests affected by different climatic, land use and forest management conditions and we address country-specific cases with differing resources and data availability...
May 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508926/abundance-and-co-distribution-of-widespread-marine-archaeal-lineages-in-surface-sediments-of-freshwater-water-bodies-across-the-iberian-peninsula
#5
Sergi Compte-Port, Jèssica Subirats, Mireia Fillol, Alexandre Sànchez-Melsió, Rafael Marcé, Pedro Rivas-Ruiz, Antoni Rosell-Melé, Carles M Borrego
Archaea inhabiting marine and freshwater sediments have a relevant role in organic carbon mineralization, affecting carbon fluxes at a global scale. Despite current evidences suggesting that freshwater sediments largely contribute to this process, few large-scale surveys have been addressed to uncover archaeal diversity and abundance in freshwater sedimentary habitats. In this work, we quantified and high-throughput sequenced the archaeal 16S rRNA gene from surficial sediments collected in 21 inland waterbodies across the Iberian Peninsula differing in typology and trophic status...
May 16, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500553/characterization-of-rainwater-chemical-composition-after-a-southeast-asia-haze-event-insight-of-transboundary-pollutant-transport-during-the-northeast-monsoon
#6
Mohd Shahrul Mohd Nadzir, Chin Yik Lin, Md Firoz Khan, Mohd Talib Latif, Doreena Dominick, Haris Hafizal Abdul Hamid, Noorlin Mohamad, Khairul Nizam Abdul Maulud, Muhammad Ikram Abdul Wahab, Nurul Farahana Kamaludin, Mohamad Azwani Shah Mat Lazim
Open biomass burning in Peninsula Malaysia, Sumatra, and parts of the Indochinese region is a major source of transboundary haze pollution in the Southeast Asia. To study the influence of haze on rainwater chemistry, a short-term investigation was carried out during the occurrence of a severe haze episode from March to April 2014. Rainwater samples were collected after a prolonged drought and analyzed for heavy metals and major ion concentrations using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography (IC), respectively...
May 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485089/materials-nanoarchitecturing-via-cation-mediated-protein-assembly-making-limpet-teeth-without-mineral
#7
Tina Ukmar-Godec, Luca Bertinetti, John W C Dunlop, Aljaž Godec, Michal A Grabiger, Admir Masic, Huynh Nguyen, Igor Zlotnikov, Paul Zaslansky, Damien Faivre
Teeth are designed to deliver high forces while withstanding the generated stresses. Aside from isolated mineral-free exception (e.g., marine polychaetes and squids), minerals are thought to be indispensable for tooth-hardening and durability. Here, the unmineralized teeth of the giant keyhole limpet (Megathura crenulata) are shown to attain a stiffness, which is twofold higher than any known organic biogenic structures. In these teeth, protein and chitin fibers establish a stiff compact outer shell enclosing a less compact core...
May 9, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480145/insights-of-the-dental-calculi-microbiome-of-pre-columbian-inhabitants-from-puerto-rico
#8
Tasha M Santiago-Rodriguez, Yvonne Narganes-Storde, Luis Chanlatte-Baik, Gary A Toranzos, Raul J Cano
BACKGROUND: The study of ancient microorganisms in mineralized dental plaque or calculi is providing insights into microbial evolution, as well as lifestyles and disease states of extinct cultures; yet, little is still known about the oral microbial community structure and function of pre-Columbian Caribbean cultures. In the present study, we investigated the dental calculi microbiome and predicted function of one of these cultures, known as the Saladoid. The Saladoids were horticulturalists that emphasized root-crop production...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431154/physiological-characterization-of-a-halotolerant-anoxygenic-phototrophic-fe-ii-oxidizing-green-sulfur-bacterium-isolated-from-a-marine-sediment
#9
Katja Laufer, Annika Niemeyer, Verena Nikeleit, Maximilian Halama, James M Byrne, Andreas Kappler
Anoxygenic photoautotrophic bacteria which use light energy and electrons from Fe(II) for growth, so-called photoferrotrophs, are suggested to have been amongst the first phototrophic microorganisms on Earth and to have contributed to the deposition of sedimentary iron mineral deposits, i.e. banded iron formations. To date only two isolates of marine photoferrotrophic bacteria exist, both of which are closely related purple non-sulfur bacteria. Here we present a novel green-sulfur photoautotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizer isolated from a marine coastal sediment, Chlorobium sp...
April 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423077/early-devonian-late-emsian-shark-fin-remains-chondrichthyes-from-the-paran%C3%A3-basin-southern-brazil
#10
Martha Richter, Elvio P Bosetti, Rodrigo S Horodyski
We report on the pioneering discovery of Devonian fish remains in the Paraná Basin, which represents the southernmost record of fishes from that period in mainland South America. The material comes from an outcrop at the lower portion of the São Domingos Formation, within Sequence C of the Paraná-Apucarana sub-basin in Tibagi, State of Paraná. Marine invertebrates are abundant in the same strata. The dark colored fish remains were collected in situ and represent natural moulds of partially articulated shark fin rays (radials)...
January 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419718/shifting-microbial-communities-sustain-multiyear-iron-reduction-and-methanogenesis-in-ferruginous-sediment-incubations
#11
M S Bray, J Wu, B C Reed, C B Kretz, K M Belli, R L Simister, C Henny, F J Stewart, T J DiChristina, J A Brandes, D A Fowle, S A Crowe, J B Glass
Reactive Fe(III) minerals can influence methane (CH4 ) emissions by inhibiting microbial methanogenesis or by stimulating anaerobic CH4 oxidation. The balance between Fe(III) reduction, methanogenesis, and CH4 oxidation in ferruginous Archean and Paleoproterozoic oceans would have controlled CH4 fluxes to the atmosphere, thereby regulating the capacity for CH4 to warm the early Earth under the Faint Young Sun. We studied CH4 and Fe cycling in anoxic incubations of ferruginous sediment from the ancient ocean analogue Lake Matano, Indonesia, over three successive transfers (500 days in total)...
April 17, 2017: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411302/common-and-species-specific-effects-of-phosphate-on-marine-microalgae-fatty-acids-shape-their-function-in-phytoplankton-trophic-ecology
#12
José Pedro Cañavate, Isabel Armada, Ismael Hachero-Cruzado
The use of fatty acids (FA) to infer structure of phytoplankton assemblages and as indicators of microalgae nutritional value is acquiring relevance in modern phytoplankton ecology and new advances concerning factors influencing FA variability among microalgae are demanded. In this regard, the relationship between phosphorus and FA remains particularly little studied in marine phytoplankton. In the present study, we focus on phosphate effects on FA from a diversified set of marine microalgae and provide new insights into the applicability of FA in phytoplankton trophic ecology...
April 14, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406143/chiral-acidic-amino-acids-induce-chiral-hierarchical-structure-in-calcium-carbonate
#13
Wenge Jiang, Michael S Pacella, Dimitra Athanasiadou, Valentin Nelea, Hojatollah Vali, Robert M Hazen, Jeffrey J Gray, Marc D McKee
Chirality is ubiquitous in biology, including in biomineralization, where it is found in many hardened structures of invertebrate marine and terrestrial organisms (for example, spiralling gastropod shells). Here we show that chiral, hierarchically organized architectures for calcium carbonate (vaterite) can be controlled simply by adding chiral acidic amino acids (Asp and Glu). Chiral, vaterite toroidal suprastructure having a 'right-handed' (counterclockwise) spiralling morphology is induced by L-enantiomers of Asp and Glu, whereas 'left-handed' (clockwise) morphology is induced by D-enantiomers, and sequentially switching between amino-acid enantiomers causes a switch in chirality...
April 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402123/iron-isotope-fractionation-during-fe-ii-oxidation-mediated-by-the-oxygen-producing-marine-cyanobacterium-synechococcus-pcc-7002
#14
E D Swanner, T Bayer, W Wu, L Hao, M Obst, A Sundman, J M Byrne, F M Michel, I C Kleinhanns, A Kappler, R Schoenberg
In this study, we couple iron isotope analysis to microscopic and mineralogical investigation of iron speciation during circumneutral Fe(II) oxidation and Fe(III) precipitation with photosynthetically produced oxygen. In the presence of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 7002, aqueous Fe(II) (Fe(II)aq) is oxidized and precipitated as amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxide minerals (iron precipitates, Feppt), with distinct isotopic fractionation (ε(56)Fe) values determined from fitting the δ(56)Fe(II)aq (1.79‰ and 2...
May 2, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397335/proterozoic-microbial-mats-and-their-constraints-on-environments-of-silicification
#15
A R Manning-Berg, L C Kah
The occurrence of microfossiliferous, early diagenetic chert in Proterozoic successions is broadly restricted to peritidal marine environments. Such coastal environments are amongst the most environmentally variable of marine environments, experiencing both enhanced evaporation and potential influx of terrestrial freshwaters. To better understand potential conditions under which silicification occurs, we focus on microfossiliferous early diagenetic chert from the Mesoproterozoic Bylot Supergroup, northern Baffin Island...
April 11, 2017: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396585/phase-heterogeneity-in-carbonate-production-by-marine-fish-influences-their-roles-in-sediment-generation-and-the-inorganic-carbon-cycle
#16
Michael A Salter, Alastair R Harborne, Chris T Perry, Rod W Wilson
Marine teleost fish are important carbonate producers in neritic and oceanic settings. However, the fates of the diverse carbonate phases (i.e., mineral and amorphous forms of CaCO3) they produce, and their roles in sediment production and marine inorganic carbon cycling, remain poorly understood. Here we quantify the carbonate phases produced by 22 Bahamian fish species and integrate these data with regional fish biomass data from The Bahamas to generate a novel platform-scale production model that resolves these phases...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394711/swimming-and-peak-bone-mineral-density-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Alejandro Gomez-Bruton, Jesús Montero-Marín, Alejandro González-Agüero, Alba Gómez-Cabello, Javier García-Campayo, Luis A Moreno, Jose A Casajús, Germán Vicente-Rodríguez
This meta-analysis aims to determine the effects of regular swimming on bone mineral density (BMD) in young adults (18-30 years). A systematic search was performed in Pubmed, SPORTDiscus and the Cochrane Library from the earliest possible year to March 2016. Swimmers were compared to non-athletic controls (CG) and to high-impact athletes (HIGH). Effect sizes with the Hedges g in random effects models were developed. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analyses. Swimmers presented similar BMD values to CG in whole-body (g = -0...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382446/quantification-and-characterization-of-microplastics-in-blue-mussels-mytilus-edulis-protocol-setup-and-preliminary-data-on-the-contamination-of-the-french-atlantic-coast
#18
Nam Ngoc Phuong, Aurore Zalouk-Vergnoux, Abderrahmane Kamari, Catherine Mouneyrac, Frederic Amiard, Laurence Poirier, Fabienne Lagarde
Microplastics (MPs) constitute a main environmental issue due to their threat to marine organisms and so far to humans. The lack of a fast standard protocol in MP isolation and identification from living organisms bring to challenge for the science. In this paper, an optimized protocol using potassium hydroxide 10% (KOH 10%; m/v) for digestion of mussel soft tissues (Mytilus edulis) and multi-steps of sedimentation has been developed. Efficiency higher than 99.9% of organic and mineral matter elimination was shown by application on mussels sampled on the French Atlantic coast...
April 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371727/spreading-properties-of-cosmetic-emollients-use-of-synthetic-skin-surface-to-elucidate-structural-effect
#19
Marine Douguet, Céline Picard, Géraldine Savary, Fabien Merlaud, Nathalie Loubat-Bouleuc, Michel Grisel
The study focuses on the impact of structural and physicochemical properties of emollients on their spreadability. Fifty-three emollients, among which esters, silicones, vegetable and mineral oils, have been characterized. Their viscosity, surface tension, density and spreadability have been measured. Vitro-skin(®), an artificial skin substitute, was used as an artificial porous substrate to measure spreadability. Two different methods have been selected to characterize spreadability, namely contact angle and spreading value...
June 1, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358493/rapid-and-efficient-method-for-the-detection-of-microplastic-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-fishes
#20
Samuel Roch, Alexander Brinker
The rising evidence of microplastic pollution impacts on aquatic organisms in both marine and freshwater ecosystems highlights a pressing need for adequate and comparable detection methods. Available tissue digestion protocols are time-consuming (>10 h) and/or require several procedural steps, during which materials can be lost and contaminants introduced. This novel approach comprises an accelerated digestion step using sodium hydroxide and nitric acid in combination to digest all organic material within 1 h plus an additional separation step using sodium iodide which can be used to reduce mineral residues in samples where necessary...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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