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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336935/preservation-of-organic-matter-in-marine-sediments-by-inner-sphere-interactions-with-reactive-iron
#1
Andrew Barber, Jay Brandes, Alessandra Leri, Karine Lalonde, Kathryn Balind, Sue Wirick, Jian Wang, Yves Gélinas
Interactions between organic matter and mineral matrices are critical to the preservation of soil and sediment organic matter. In addition to clay minerals, Fe(III) oxides particles have recently been shown to be responsible for the protection and burial of a large fraction of sedimentary organic carbon (OC). Through a combination of synchrotron X-ray techniques and high-resolution images of intact sediment particles, we assessed the mechanism of interaction between OC and iron, as well as the composition of organic matter co-localized with ferric iron...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315772/fractionation-of-the-gulf-toadfish-intestinal-precipitate-organic-matrix-reveals-potential-functions-of-individual-proteins
#2
Kevin L Schauer, Martin Grosell
The regulatory mechanisms behind the production of CaCO3 in the marine teleost intestine are poorly studied despite being essential for osmoregulation and responsible for a conservatively estimated 3-15% of annual oceanic CaCO3 production. It has recently been reported that the intestinally derived precipitates produced by fish as a byproduct of their osmoregulatory strategy form in conjunction with a proteinaceous matrix containing nearly 150 unique proteins. The individual functions of these proteins have not been the subject of investigation until now...
March 16, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290474/abrupt-response-of-chemical-weathering-to-late-quaternary-hydroclimate-changes-in-northeast-africa
#3
Luc Bastian, Marie Revel, Germain Bayon, Aurélie Dufour, Nathalie Vigier
Chemical weathering of silicate rocks on continents acts as a major sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide and has played an important role in the evolution of the Earth's climate. However, the magnitude and the nature of the links between weathering and climate are still under debate. In particular, the timescale over which chemical weathering may respond to climate change is yet to be constrained at the continental scale. Here we reconstruct the relationships between rainfall and chemical weathering in northeast Africa for the last 32,000 years...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279517/recommendations-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-asbestos-related-pleural-and-pulmonary-disease
#4
Carmen Diego Roza, M Jesús Cruz Carmona, Ramón Fernández Álvarez, Jaume Ferrer Sancho, Belén Marín Martínez, Cristina Martínez González, José Antonio Rodríguez Portal, Fernando Romero Valero, Victoria Villena Garrido
Asbestos is the term used for a set of mineral silicates that tend to break up into fibers. Its use has been associated with numerous diseases affecting the lung and pleura in particular, all of which are characterized by their long period of latency. Asbestos, moreover, has been recognized by the WHO as a Group IA carcinogen since 1987 and its use was banned in Spain in 2002. The publication in 2013 of the 3rd edition of the specific asbestos health monitoring protocol, together with the development of new diagnostic techniques, prompted the SEPAR EROM group to sponsor publication of guidelines, which review the clinical, radiological and functional aspects of the different asbestos-related diseases...
March 6, 2017: Archivos de Bronconeumología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278122/cadmium-lead-mercury-and-arsenic-in-animal-feed-and-feed-materials-trend-analysis-of-monitoring-results
#5
Paulien Adamse, H J Ine Van der Fels-Klerx, Jacob de Jong
This study aimed to obtain insights into the presence of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in feed materials and feed over time, for the purpose of guiding national monitoring. Data from the Dutch feed monitoring program and from representatives of the feed industry in the period 2007-2013 were used. Data covered the concentrations of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in a variety of feed materials and compound feeds in The Netherlands. Trends in the percentage of samples that exceeded the maximum limit (ML), set by the European Commission, and trends in average, median and 90(th) percentile concentrations of each of these elements per feed material or compound feed were investigated...
March 2, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258135/unusual-versatility-revealed-by-a-filamentous-diazotrophic-cyanobacterium-anabaena-torulosa-for-its-survival-under-prolonged-uranium-exposure
#6
Celin Acharya, Pallavi Chandwadkar, Chandrani Nayak
Reports on cyanobacterial interactions with uranyl carbonate are rare. Here, we present an interesting succession of the metabolic responses employed by a marine, filamentous, diazotrophic cyanobacterium, Anabaena torulosa for its survival following prolonged exposure to uranyl carbonate extending up to 384 h at pH 7.8 under phosphate limited conditions. The cells sequestered uranium (U) in their polyphosphates on initial exposure to 100 μM uranyl carbonate for 24-28 h. Further incubation until 120 h resulted in (a) significant degradation of cellular polyphosphates causing extensive chlorosis and cell lysis, (b) akinete differentiation followed by (c) extracellular uranyl precipitation...
March 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188680/experimental-fossilization-of-mat-forming-cyanobacteria-in-coarse-grained-siliciclastic-sediments
#7
S A Newman, V Klepac-Ceraj, G Mariotti, S B Pruss, N Watson, T Bosak
Microbial fossils and textures are commonly preserved in Ediacaran and early Cambrian coarse-grained siliciclastic sediments that were deposited in tidal and intertidal marine settings. In contrast, the fossilization of micro-organisms in similar marine environments of post-Cambrian age is less frequently reported. Thus, temporal discrepancies in microbial preservation may have resulted from the opening and closing of a unique taphonomic window during the terminal Proterozoic and early Phanerozoic, respectively...
February 11, 2017: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185932/isolation-and-identification-of-chitin-from-heavy-mineralized-skeleton-of-suberea-clavata-verongida-demospongiae-porifera-marine-demosponge
#8
Hermann Ehrlich, Vasilii V Bazhenov, Cecile Debitus, Nicole de Voogd, Roberta Galli, Mikhail V Tsurkan, Marcin Wysokowski, Heike Meissner, Esra Bulut, Murat Kaya, Teofil Jesionowski
Since the discovery of chitin in skeletal structures of sponges (Porifera) in 2007, studies on search of novel species which possess this structural aminopolysaccharide continue up today. The most potential source of chitin is suggested to be localized in the four families of sponges related to the order Verongida (Demospongiae) which nevertheless require further clarification. Here, we report for the first time the isolation and identification of α-chitin from the Suberea clavata demosponge (Aplysinidae: Verongida)...
February 7, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182645/between-a-rock-and-a-soft-place-using-optical-ages-to-date-ancient-clam-gardens-on-the-pacific-northwest
#9
Christina M Neudorf, Nicole Smith, Dana Lepofsky, Ginevra Toniello, Olav B Lian
Rock-walled archaeological features are notoriously hard to date, largely because of the absence of suitable organic material for radiocarbon dating. This study demonstrates the efficacy of dating clam garden wall construction using optical dating, and uses optical ages to determine how sedimentation rates in the intertidal zone are affected by clam garden construction. Clam gardens are rock-walled, intertidal terraces that were constructed and maintained by coastal First Nation peoples to increase bivalve habitat and productivity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159791/microaerophilic-fe-ii-oxidizing-zetaproteobacteria-isolated-from-low-fe-marine-coastal-sediments-physiology-and-characterization-of-their-twisted-stalks
#10
K Laufer, M Nordhoff, M Halama, R E Martinez, M Obst, M Nowak, H Stryhanyuk, H H Richnow, A Kappler
Microaerophilic Fe(II)-oxidizers are commonly found in habitats containing elevated Fe(II) and low O2 concentrations and often produce characteristic Fe mineral structures, so-called twisted stalks or tubular sheaths. Isolates originating from freshwater habitats are all members of the Betaproteobacteria, while isolates from marine habitats belong almost exclusively to the Zetaproteobacteria So far only few isolates of marine microaerophilic Fe(II)-oxidizers have been described, all of which are obligate microaerophilic Fe(II)-oxidizers and have been thought to be restricted to Fe-rich systems...
February 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145706/ligand-promoted-photoreductive-dissolution-of-goethite-by-atmospheric-low-molecular-dicarboxylates
#11
Zhenzhen Wang, Hongbo Fu, Liwu Zhang, Weihua Song, Jianmin Chen
Recent evidence suggested that organic ligands in atmosphere water play an important role in the mobilization of iron from mineral aerosol. In this study, the dissolution of goethite (α-FeOOH) was investigated in the presence of three low-molecular dicarboxylates enriched in the atmosphere, as well as a reference organic acid of methanesulfonate (MSA), which is especially abundant in marine atmospheric boundary layer. Iron mobilized from α-FeOOH was promoted under the irradiation and the deaerated condition, and the soluble Fe(II) concentration was enhanced greatly in the ligand-containing suspensions exposed to light...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142089/effects-of-bioactive-extracellular-compounds-and-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-produced-by-alexandrium-minutum-on-growth-and-behaviour-of-juvenile-great-scallops-pecten-maximus
#12
REVIEW
Elodie Borcier, Romain Morvezen, Pierre Boudry, Philippe Miner, Grégory Charrier, Jean Laroche, Hélène Hegaret
Dinoflagellates of the genus Alexandrium are a major cause of harmful algal blooms (HABs) that have increasingly disrupted coastal ecosystems for the last several decades. Microalgae from the genus Alexandrium are known to produce paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) but also bioactive extracellular compounds (BEC) that can display cytotoxic, allelopathic, ichtyotoxic or haemolytic effects upon marine organisms. The objective of this experimental study was to assess the effects of PST and BEC produced by A. minutum upon juvenile great scallops Pecten maximus...
March 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139676/glacier-advance-during-marine-isotope-stage-11-in-the-mcmurdo-dry-valleys-of-antarctica
#13
Kate M Swanger, Jennifer L Lamp, Gisela Winckler, Joerg M Schaefer, David R Marchant
We mapped six distinct glacial moraines alongside Stocking Glacier in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. Stocking Glacier is one of several alpine glaciers in the Dry Valleys fringed by multiple cold-based drop moraines. To determine the age of the outermost moraine, we collected 10 boulders of Ferrar Dolerite along the crest of the moraine and analyzed mineral separates of pyroxene for cosmogenic (3)He. On the basis of these measurements, the exposure age for the outermost moraine is 391 ± 35 ka. This represents the first documented advance of alpine glacier ice in the Dry Valleys during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11...
January 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131452/leaching-of-two-fungicides-in-spent-mushroom-substrate-amended-soil-influence-of-amendment-rate-fungicide-ageing-and-flow-condition
#14
Alba Álvarez-Martín, María J Sánchez-Martín, José M Ordax, Jesús M Marín-Benito, M Sonia Rodríguez-Cruz
A study has been conducted on the leaching of two fungicides, tebuconazole and cymoxanil, in a soil amended with spent mushroom substrate (SMS), with an evaluation of how different factors influence this process. The objective was based on the potential use of SMS as a biosorbent for immobilizing pesticides in vulnerable soils, and the need to know how it could affect the subsequent transport of these retained compounds. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) for (14)C-fungicides, non-incubated and incubated over 30days, were obtained in columns packed with an unamended soil (S), and this soil amended with SMS at rates of 5% (S+SMS5) and 50% (S+SMS50) under saturated and saturated-unsaturated flows...
April 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129378/intensity-of-african-humid-periods-estimated-from-saharan-dust-fluxes
#15
Werner Ehrmann, Gerhard Schmiedl, Sarah Beuscher, Stefan Krüger
North Africa experienced dramatic changes in hydrology and vegetation during the late Quaternary driven by insolation-induced shifts of the tropical rain belt and further modulated by millennial-scale droughts and vegetation-climate feedbacks. While most past proxy and modelling studies concentrated on the temporal and spatial dynamics of the last African humid period, little is known about the intensities and characteristics of pre-Holocene humid periods. Here we present a high-resolution record of fine-grained eastern Saharan dust from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea spanning the last 180 kyr, which is based on the clay mineral composition of the marine sediments, especially the kaolinite/chlorite ratio...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128836/substrate-specificity-and-copper-loading-of-the-manganese-oxidizing-multicopper-oxidase-mnx-from-bacillus-sp-pl-12
#16
Cristina N Butterfield, Bradley M Tebo
Manganese(ii) oxidation in the environment is thought to be driven by bacteria because enzymatic catalysis is many orders of magnitude faster than the abiotic processes. The heterologously purified Mn oxidase (Mnx) from marine Bacillus sp. PL-12 is made up of the multicopper oxidase (MCO) MnxG and two small Cu and heme-binding proteins of unknown function, MnxE and MnxF. Mnx binds Cu and oxidizes both Mn(ii) and Mn(iii), generating Mn(iv) oxide minerals that resemble those found on the Bacillus spore surface...
January 27, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123096/deep-conservation-of-bivalve-nacre-proteins-highlighted-by-shell-matrix-proteomics-of-the-unionoida-elliptio-complanata-and-villosa-lienosa
#17
Benjamin Marie, Jaison Arivalagan, Lucrèce Mathéron, Gérard Bolbach, Sophie Berland, Arul Marie, Frédéric Marin
The formation of the molluscan shell nacre is regulated to a large extent by a matrix of extracellular macromolecules that are secreted by the shell-forming tissue, the mantle. This so-called 'calcifying matrix' is a complex mixture of proteins, glycoproteins and polysaccharides that is assembled and occluded within the mineral phase during the calcification process. Better molecular-level characterization of the substances that regulate nacre formation is still required. Notable advances in expressed tag sequencing of freshwater mussels, such as Elliptio complanata and Villosa lienosa, provide a pre-requisite to further characterize bivalve nacre proteins by a proteomic approach...
January 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118789/geotechnical-and-mineralogical-characterisations-of-marine-dredged-sediments-before-and-after-stabilisation-to-optimise-their-use-as-a-road-material
#18
L Saussaye, E van Veen, G Rollinson, M Boutouil, J Andersen, J Coggan
Dredging activities to extend, deepen and maintain access to harbours generate significant volumes of waste dredged material. Some ways are investigated to add value to these sediments. One solution described here is their use in road construction following treatment with hydraulic binders. This paper presents the characterisation of four sediments, in their raw state and after 90 days of curing following stabilisation treatment with lime and cement, using a combination of novel and established analytical techniques to investigate subsequent changes in mineralogy...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070312/investigation-of-nutritional-properties-of-three-species-of-marine-turban-snails-for-human-consumption
#19
Roslizawati Ab Lah, Joshua Smith, Dale Savins, Ashley Dowell, Daniel Bucher, Kirsten Benkendorff
Turban snails (family Turbinidae) are gastropod molluscs that are harvested for human consumption yet little is known about the nutritional properties of these snails, particularly from Australian waters. This study compares the proximate composition (ash, moisture, protein, and lipid content), fatty acid profiles, mineral, and trace element content of three species of turbinid snails; Turbo militaris, Lunella undulata, and Lunella torquata from northern New South Wales, Australia. They were all found to have relatively high protein in their flesh (16...
January 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069941/uranium-iv-adsorption-by-natural-organic-matter-in-anoxic-sediments
#20
Sharon E Bone, James J Dynes, John Cliff, John R Bargar
Uranium is an important carbon-free fuel source and environmental contaminant that accumulates in the tetravalent state, U(IV), in anoxic sediments, such as ore deposits, marine basins, and contaminated aquifers. However, little is known about the speciation of U(IV) in low-temperature geochemical environments, inhibiting the development of a conceptual model of U behavior. Until recently, U(IV) was assumed to exist predominantly as the sparingly soluble mineral uraninite (UO2+x) in anoxic sediments; however, studies now show that this is not often the case...
January 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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