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marine minerals

Ana C Henriques, Rui M S Azevedo, Paolo De Marco
Methanesulfonic acid (MSA) is a relevant intermediate of the biogeochemical cycle of sulfur and environmental microorganisms assume an important role in the mineralization of this compound. Several methylotrophic bacterial strains able to grow on MSA have been isolated from soil or marine water and two conserved operons, msmABCD coding for MSA monooxygenase and msmEFGH coding for a transport system, have been repeatedly encountered in most of these strains. Homologous sequences have also been amplified directly from the environment or observed in marine metagenomic data, but these showed a base composition (G + C content) very different from their counterparts from cultivated bacteria...
2016: PeerJ
Clemens Glombitza, Rishi R Adhikari, Natascha Riedinger, William P Gilhooly, Kai-Uwe Hinrichs, Fumio Inagaki
Sulfate reduction is the predominant anaerobic microbial process of organic matter mineralization in marine sediments, with recent studies revealing that sulfate reduction not only occurs in sulfate-rich sediments, but even extends to deeper, methanogenic sediments at very low background concentrations of sulfate. Using samples retrieved off the Shimokita Peninsula, Japan, during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 337, we measured potential sulfate reduction rates by slurry incubations with (35)S-labeled sulfate in deep methanogenic sediments between 1276...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Spyridon Ntougias, Żaneta Polkowska, Sofia Nikolaki, Eva Dionyssopoulou, Panagiota Stathopoulou, Vangelis Doudoumis, Marek Ruman, Katarzyna Kozak, Jacek Namieśnik, George Tsiamis
Two thirds of Svalbard archipelago islands in the High Arctic are permanently covered with glacial ice and snow. Polar bacterial communities in the southern part of Svalbard were characterized using an amplicon sequencing approach. A total of 52,928 pyrosequencing reads were analyzed in order to reveal bacterial community structures in stream and lake surface water samples from the Fuglebekken and Revvatnet basins of southern Svalbard. Depending on the samples examined, bacterial communities at a higher taxonomic level mainly consisted either of Bacteroidetes, Betaproteobacteria, and Microgenomates (OP11) or Planctomycetes, Betaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes members, whereas a population of Microgenomates was prominent in 2 samples...
September 30, 2016: Microbes and Environments
C Hurel, M Taneez, A Volpi Ghirardini, G Libralato
Bauxite extraction by-products (red mud) were used to evaluate their potential ability to stabilize trace elements from dredged and aerated/humidified marine sediment. The investigated by-products were: bauxaline(®)(BX) that is a press-filtered red mud; bauxsol™(BS) that is a press-filtered red mud previously washed with excess of seawater, and gypsum neutralized bauxaline(®) (GBX). These materials were separately mixed to dredged composted sediment sample considering 5% and 20% sediment: stabilizer ratios...
October 1, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Kevin L Schauer, Christophe M R LeMoine, Adrian Pelin, Nicolas Corradi, Wesley C Warren, Martin Grosell
Marine teleost fish produce CaCO3 in their intestine as part of their osmoregulatory strategy. This precipitation is critical for rehydration and survival of the largest vertebrate group on earth, yet the molecular mechanisms that regulate this reaction are unknown. Here, we isolate and characterize an organic matrix associated with the intestinal precipitates produced by Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta). Toadfish precipitates were purified using two different methods, and the associated organic matrix was extracted...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Luke Bridgestock, Tina van de Flierdt, Mark Rehkämper, Maxence Paul, Rob Middag, Angela Milne, Maeve C Lohan, Alex R Baker, Rosie Chance, Roulin Khondoker, Stanislav Strekopytov, Emma Humphreys-Williams, Eric P Achterberg, Micha J A Rijkenberg, Loes J A Gerringa, Hein J W de Baar
Anthropogenic emissions completely overwhelmed natural marine lead (Pb) sources during the past century, predominantly due to leaded petrol usage. Here, based on Pb isotope measurements, we reassess the importance of natural and anthropogenic Pb sources to the tropical North Atlantic following the nearly complete global cessation of leaded petrol use. Significant proportions of up to 30-50% of natural Pb, derived from mineral dust, are observed in Atlantic surface waters, reflecting the success of the global effort to reduce anthropogenic Pb emissions...
2016: Nature Communications
Alexander J Reisinger, Peter M Groffman, Emma J Rosi-Marshall
Nitrogen (N) pollution of freshwater, estuarine, and marine ecosystems is widespread and has numerous environmental and economic impacts. A portion of this excess N comes from urban watersheds comprised of natural and engineered ecosystems which can alter downstream N export. Studies of urban N cycling have focused on either specific ecosystems or on watershed-scale mass balances. Comparisons of specific N transformations across ecosystems are required to contextualize rates from individual studies. Here we reviewed urban N cycling in terrestrial, aquatic, and engineered ecosystems, and compared N processing in these urban ecosystem types to native reference ecosystems...
September 21, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
I Marín, S Nunes, E D Sánchez-Pérez, F L Aparicio, M Estrada, C Marrasé, T Moreno, T Wagener, X Querol, F Peters
The atmosphere of the northwestern (NW) Mediterranean Sea is affected by continuous inputs of anthropogenic aerosols and episodic Saharan dust events. These atmospheric inputs deliver to the surface waters high amounts of macronutrients and trace metals that can constitute their main source at certain times of the year. The effect of both anthropogenic and crustal particles over the autotrophic and heterotrophic planktonic community assembles was evaluated through three microcosm experiments carried out in the summer of 2013 and in the winter and spring of 2014 at an urban coastal location of the NW Mediterranean (Barcelona, Spain)...
September 17, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Paul K Strother, Charles H Wellman
A new chroococcalean cyanobacterium is described from approximately 1-billion-year-old non-marine deposits of the Torridonian Group of Scotland and the Nonesuch Formation of Michigan, USA. Individual cells of the new microfossil, Eohalothece lacustrina gen. et sp. nov., are associated with benthic microbial biofilms, but the majority of samples are recovered in palynological preparations in the form of large, apparently planktonic colonies, similar to extant species of Microcystis. In the Torridonian, Eohalothece is associated with phosphatic nodules, and we have developed a novel hypothesis linking Eohalothece to phosphate deposition in ancient freshwater settings...
January 2016: Palaeontology
Giuseppe Pezzotti, Alfredo Rondinella, Elia Marin, Wenliang Zhu, Nicolò Nicoli Aldini, Gianfranco Ulian, Giovanni Valdrè
This study employed highly spectrally resolved Raman spectroscopy to examine the molecular composition of cortical bone tissue obtained from murine females in their healthy and ovariectomy- (OVX-) induced osteoporotic states. The aim of the study was to identify structural differences at the molecular scale both in apatite mineral and collagen fibrils between the two groups of samples. Raman spectroscopy was used to determine the chemical composition of cortical bone in regions including characteristic bands of both bone mineral and bone matrix...
August 26, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Allen P Nutman, Vickie C Bennett, Clark R L Friend, Martin J Van Kranendonk, Allan R Chivas
Biological activity is a major factor in Earth's chemical cycles, including facilitating CO2 sequestration and providing climate feedbacks. Thus a key question in Earth's evolution is when did life arise and impact hydrosphere-atmosphere-lithosphere chemical cycles? Until now, evidence for the oldest life on Earth focused on debated stable isotopic signatures of 3,800-3,700 million year (Myr)-old metamorphosed sedimentary rocks and minerals from the Isua supracrustal belt (ISB), southwest Greenland. Here we report evidence for ancient life from a newly exposed outcrop of 3,700-Myr-old metacarbonate rocks in the ISB that contain 1-4-cm-high stromatolites-macroscopically layered structures produced by microbial communities...
August 31, 2016: Nature
S Santoni, F Huneau, E Garel, L Aquilina, V Vergnaud-Ayraud, T Labasque, H Celle-Jeanton
This study aims at identifying the water-rock interactions and mixing rates within a complex granite-carbonate coastal aquifer under high touristic pressure. Investigations have been carried out within the coastal aquifer of Bonifacio (southern Corsica, France) mainly composed of continental granitic weathering products and marine calcarenite sediments filling a granitic depression. A multi-tracer approach combining physico-chemical parameters, major ions, selected trace elements, stable isotopes of the water molecule and (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios measurements is undertaken for 20 groundwater samples during the low water period in November 2014...
August 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Mauro Mecozzi, Marco Pietroletti
In this study, we collected the ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Fourier transform near-infrared (FTNIR) spectra of marine foams from different sites and foams produced by marine living organisms (i.e. algae and molluscs) to retrieve information about their molecular and structural composition. UV-vis spectra gave information concerning the lipid and pigment contents of foams. FTIR spectroscopy gave a more detailed qualitative information regarding carbohydrates, lipids and proteins in addition with information about the mineral contents of foams...
August 21, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
N E Carlozzi, S G Schilling, J-S Lai, J S Paulsen, E A Hahn, J S Perlmutter, C A Ross, N R Downing, A L Kratz, M K McCormack, M A Nance, K A Quaid, J C Stout, R C Gershon, R E Ready, J A Miner, S K Barton, S L Perlman, S M Rao, S Frank, I Shoulson, H Marin, M D Geschwind, P Dayalu, S M Goodnight, D Cella
PURPOSE: Huntington disease (HD) is a chronic, debilitating genetic disease that affects physical, emotional, cognitive, and social health. Existing patient-reported outcomes (PROs) of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) used in HD are neither comprehensive, nor do they adequately account for clinically meaningful changes in function. While new PROs examining HRQOL (i.e., Neuro-QoL-Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders and PROMIS-Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System) offer solutions to many of these shortcomings, they do not include HD-specific content, nor have they been validated in HD...
October 2016: Quality of Life Research
Markus Maisch, Wenfang Wu, Andreas Kappler, Elizabeth D Swanner
A conventional concept for the deposition of some Precambrian Banded Iron Formations (BIF) proceeds on the assumption that ferrous iron [Fe(II)] upwelling from hydrothermal sources in the Precambrian ocean was oxidized by molecular oxygen [O2] produced by cyanobacteria. The oldest BIFs, deposited prior to the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) at about 2.4 billion years (Gy) ago, could have formed by direct oxidation of Fe(II) by anoxygenic photoferrotrophs under anoxic conditions. As a method for testing the geochemical and mineralogical patterns that develop under different biological scenarios, we designed a 40 cm long vertical flow-through column to simulate an anoxic Fe(II)-rich marine upwelling system representative of an ancient ocean on a lab scale...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Assaf Gal, Richard Wirth, Joachim Kopka, Peter Fratzl, Damien Faivre, André Scheffel
Many organisms form elaborate mineralized structures, constituted of highly organized arrangements of crystals and organic macromolecules. The localization of crystals within these structures is presumably determined by the interaction of nucleating macromolecules with the mineral phase. Here we show that, preceding nucleation, a specific interaction between soluble organic molecules and an organic backbone structure directs mineral components to specific sites. This strategy underlies the formation of coccoliths, which are highly ordered arrangements of calcite crystals produced by marine microalgae...
August 5, 2016: Science
Miriam López-Álvarez, Eva Vigo, Cosme Rodríguez-Valencia, Verónica Outeiriño-Iglesias, Pío González, Julia Serra
OBJECTIVE: The present work proposes the shark teeth as a new source of bioapatites for bone filler applications in maxillary sinus elevation, periodontal regeneration or implants placement. This abundant fishing by-product provides an improved hydroxyapatite (HA) with fluorine contributions. The in vivo evaluation of osteointegration and bone mineral density levels promoted by these marine bioapatites was the main objective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Marine bioapatite granules of two sizes (1 mm, <20 μm) were obtained and characterized (XRD, SEM, ICP-OES) to determine morphology and composition...
August 5, 2016: Clinical Oral Implants Research
F K Pappa, C Tsabaris, A Ioannidou, D L Patiris, H Kaberi, I Pashalidis, G Eleftheriou, E G Androulakaki, R Vlastou
Marine sediment samples were collected from Ierissos Gulf, N Aegean Sea, close to the coastal mining facilities. Measurements of radionuclide and metal concentrations, mineral composition and grain size distribution were performed. The concentrations of (226)Ra, (235)U and trace metals showed enhanced values in the port of Stratoni compared with those obtained near to Ierissos port. The dose rates received by marine biota were also calculated by the ERICA Assessment Tool and the results indicated no significant radiological risk...
October 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Karl J Wittmann, Antonio P Ariani, Mikhail Daneliya
A census of Mysidae yielded a total of twelve species plus two non-nominotypical subspecies found so far in fresh and oligohaline waters of the Mediterranean, all belonging to the subfamily Mysinae. Among the nine species in fresh-waters, three are stenoendemics, namely of a single lake (Diamysis lacustris), of two neighbouring river systems (Paramysis kosswigi) or of karstic cave waters (Troglomysis vjetrenicensis). Four species-T. vjetrenicensis, D. lacustris, D. fluviatilis, and Paramysis adriatica sp. nov...
2016: Zootaxa
Nitin Trivedi, Ravi S Baghel, John Bothwell, Vishal Gupta, C R K Reddy, Arvind M Lali, Bhavanath Jha
We describe an integrated process that can be applied to biomass of the green seaweed, Ulva fasciata, to allow the sequential recovery of four economically important fractions; mineral rich liquid extract (MRLE), lipid, ulvan, and cellulose. The main benefits of our process are: a) its simplicity and b) the consistent yields obtained from the residual biomass after each successive extraction step. For example, dry Ulva biomass yields ~26% of its starting mass as MRLE, ~3% as lipid, ~25% as ulvan, and ~11% as cellulose, with the enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of the final cellulose fraction under optimized conditions producing ethanol at a competitive 0...
2016: Scientific Reports
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