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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802269/removal-of-soluble-strontium-into-biogenic-carbonate-minerals-from-a-highly-saline-solution-using-halophilic-bacterium-bacillus-sp-tk2d
#1
Takumi Horiike, Yuma Dotsuta, Yuriko Nakano, Asumi Ochiai, Satoshi Utsunomiya, Toshihiko Ohnuki, Mitsuo Yamashita
Radioactive strontium ((90)Sr) leaked into saline environments, including the ocean, from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant after a nuclear accident. Since the removal of (90)Sr using general adsorbents (e.g., zeolite) is not efficient at high salinity, a suitable alternative immobilization method is necessary. Therefore, we incorporated soluble Sr into biogenic carbonate minerals generated by urease-producing microorganisms from a saline solution. An isolate, Bacillus sp. strain TK2d, from marine sediment removed > 99% Sr after contact for four days in a saline solution (1...
August 11, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798082/long-dsrnas-promote-an-anti-viral-response-in-pacific-oyster-hampering-ostreid-herpesvirus-1-replication
#2
Marianna Pauletto, Amélie Segarra, Caroline Montagnani, Virgile Quillien, Nicole Faury, Jacqueline Le Grand, Philippe Miner, Bruno Petton, Yannick Labreuche, Elodie Fleury, Caroline Fabioux, Luca Bargelloni, Tristan Renault, Arnaud Huvet
Double stranded RNA-mediated genetic interference (RNAi) is a widely used reverse genetic tool for determining the loss-of-function phenotype of a gene. Here, the possible induction of an immune response by long dsRNA was tested in a marine bivalve, i.e. Crassostrea gigas, as well as the specific role of the subunit 2 of the nuclear factor κB inhibitor (IκB2). This gene is a candidate of particular interest for functional investigations in the context of massive mortality oyster events as Cg-IκB2 mRNA levels exhibited significant variation depending on the amount of ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) DNA detected...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783518/synthesis-of-silica-nanoparticles-using-biomimetic-mineralization-with-polyallylamine-hydrochloride
#3
Kyoung-Ku Kang, Hyun-Seok Oh, Dong-Young Kim, Gyurak Shim, Chang-Soo Lee
To synthesize silica particles under mild conditions, we proposed a biomimetic synthesis method. The synthesis process was carried out based on a biphasic sol-gel synthesis method using TEOS (tetraethyl orthosilicate) as a silica source and PAH (polyallylamine) as a substitute for proteins of marine microorganisms for biosilicification. The function and activity of the PAH, used as a replacement for bioactive substances, were confirmed through comparisons between control experiments and designed experiments...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755011/impact-of-chiropractic-manipulation-on-bone-and-skeletal-muscle-of-ovariectomized-rats
#4
A López-Herradón, R Fujikawa, M Gómez-Marín, J P Stedile-Lovatel, F Mulero, J A Ardura, P Ruiz, I Muñoz, P Esbrit, I Mahíllo-Fernández, A Ortega-de Mues
Evidence suggests that chiropractic manipulation might exert positive effects in osteoporotic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chiropractic manipulation on bone structure and skeletal muscle in rats with bone loss caused by ovariectomy (OVX). The 6-month old Sprague-Dawley rats at 10 weeks following OVX or sham operation (Sh) did not suffer chiropractic manipulation (NM group) or were submitted to true chiropractic manipulation using the chiropractic adjusting instrument Activator V(®) three times/week for 6 weeks as follows: Force 1 setting was applied onto the tibial tubercle of the rat right hind limb (TM group), whereas the corresponding left hind limb received a false manipulation (FM group) consisting of ActivatorV(®) firing in the air and slightly touching the tibial tubercle...
July 28, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752088/electron-transfer-between-electrically-conductive-minerals-and-quinones
#5
Olga Taran
Long-distance electron transfer in marine environments couples physically separated redox half-reactions, impacting biogeochemical cycles of iron, sulfur and carbon. Bacterial bio-electrochemical systems that facilitate electron transfer via conductive filaments or across man-made electrodes are well-known, but the impact of abiotic currents across naturally occurring conductive and semiconductive minerals is poorly understood. In this paper I use cyclic voltammetry to explore electron transfer between electrodes made of common iron minerals (magnetite, hematite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, mackinawite, and greigite), and hydroquinones-a class of organic molecules found in carbon-rich sediments...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751791/the-development-of-contemporary-european-sea-bass-larvae-dicentrarchus-labrax-is-not-affected-by-projected-ocean-acidification-scenarios
#6
Amélie Crespel, José-Luis Zambonino-Infante, David Mazurais, George Koumoundouros, Stefanos Fragkoulis, Patrick Quazuguel, Christine Huelvan, Laurianne Madec, Arianna Servili, Guy Claireaux
Ocean acidification is a recognized consequence of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emission in the atmosphere. Despite its threat to marine ecosystems, little is presently known about the capacity for fish to respond efficiently to this acidification. In adult fish, acid-base regulatory capacities are believed to be relatively competent to respond to hypercapnic conditions. However, fish in early life stage could be particularly sensitive to environmental factors as organs and important physiological functions become progressively operational during this period...
2017: Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738503/integration-of-protein-extraction-with-a-stream-of-byproducts-from-marine-macroalgae-a-model-forms-the-basis-for-marine-bioeconomy
#7
Tejal K Gajaria, Poornima Suthar, Ravi S Baghel, Nikunj B Balar, Preeti Sharnagat, Vaibhav A Mantri, C R K Reddy
The present study describes an advanced biorefinery model for marine macroalgae that assumes significant importance in the context of marine bio-economy. The method investigated in this study integrates the extraction of crude proteins with recovery of minerals rich sap, lipids, ulvan and cellulose from fresh biomass of Ulva lactuca. The protein content extracted was 11±2.12% on dry weight basis with recovery efficiency of 68.75±4.01%. The amino acid composition of crude protein fraction showed iso-leucine as the most abundant amino acid with 16...
July 5, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720832/deep-ocean-dissolved-organic-matter-reactivity-along-the-mediterranean-sea-does-size-matter
#8
Alba María Martínez-Pérez, Xosé Antón Álvarez-Salgado, Javier Arístegui, Mar Nieto-Cid
Despite of the major role ascribed to marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the global carbon cycle, the reactivity of this pool in the dark ocean is still poorly understood. Present hypotheses, posed within the size-reactivity continuum (SRC) and the microbial carbon pump (MCP) conceptual frameworks, need further empirical support. Here, we provide field evidence of the soundness of the SRC model. We sampled the high salinity core-of-flow of the Levantine Intermediate Water along its westward route through the entire Mediterranean Sea...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713339/concurrent-methane-production-and-oxidation-in-surface-sediment-from-aarhus-bay-denmark
#9
Ke-Qing Xiao, Felix Beulig, Kasper U Kjeldsen, Bo B Jørgensen, Nils Risgaard-Petersen
Marine surface sediments, which are replete with sulfate, are typically considered to be devoid of endogenous methanogenesis. Yet, methanogenic archaea are present in those sediments, suggesting a potential for methanogenesis. We used an isotope dilution method based on sediment bag incubation and spiking with (13)C-CH4 to quantify CH4 turnover rates in sediment from Aarhus Bay, Denmark. In two independent experiments, highest CH4 production and oxidation rates (>200 pmol cm(-3) d(-1)) were found in the top 0-2 cm, below which rates dropped below 100 pmol cm(-3) d(-1) in all other segments down to 16 cm...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688458/dating-the-middle-paleolithic-deposits-of-la-quina-amont-charente-%C3%A2-france-using-luminescence-methods
#10
Marine Frouin, Christelle Lahaye, Hélène Valladas, Thomas Higham, André Debénath, Anne Delagnes, Norbert Mercier
The site of La Quina Amont, located in the Charente region, is one of the most important sites in southwestern France for studying major changes in human behaviors from the Middle Paleolithic (MP) to the Early Upper Paleolithic (EUP). Extensively excavated over the past 50 years, numerous dating studies have been focused on the Upper Paleolithic deposits using radiocarbon on bone collagen and thermoluminescence (TL) on heated flints; however, the Mousterian levels remain undated due to the scarcity of suitable materials...
August 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680802/lobster-processing-by-products-as-valuable-bioresource-of-marine-functional-ingredients-nutraceuticals-and-pharmaceuticals
#11
REVIEW
Trung T Nguyen, Andrew R Barber, Kendall Corbin, Wei Zhang
The worldwide annual production of lobster was 165,367 tons valued over $3.32 billion in 2004, but this figure rose up to 304,000 tons in 2012. Over half the volume of the worldwide lobster production has been processed to meet the rising global demand in diversified lobster products. Lobster processing generates a large amount of by-products (heads, shells, livers, and eggs) which account for 50-70% of the starting material. Continued production of these lobster processing by-products (LPBs) without corresponding process development for efficient utilization has led to disposal issues associated with costs and pollutions...
2017: Bioresources and Bioprocessing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676799/impact-of-aeolian-dry-deposition-of-reactive-iron-minerals-on-sulfur-cycling-in-sediments-of-the-gulf-of-aqaba
#12
Barak Blonder, Valeria Boyko, Alexandra V Turchyn, Gilad Antler, Uriel Sinichkin, Nadav Knossow, Rotem Klein, Alexey Kamyshny
The Gulf of Aqaba is an oligotrophic marine system with oxygen-rich water column and organic carbon-poor sediments (≤0.6% at sites that are not influenced by anthropogenic impact). Aeolian dust deposition from the Arabian, Sinai, and Sahara Deserts is an important source of sediment, especially at the deep-water sites of the Gulf, which are less affected by sediment transport from the Arava Desert during seasonal flash floods. Microbial sulfate reduction in sediments is inferred from the presence of pyrite (although at relatively low concentrations), the presence of sulfide oxidation intermediates, and by the sulfur isotopic composition of sulfate and solid-phase sulfides...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676652/anaerobic-consortia-of-fungi-and-sulfate-reducing-bacteria-in-deep-granite-fractures
#13
Henrik Drake, Magnus Ivarsson, Stefan Bengtson, Christine Heim, Sandra Siljeström, Martin J Whitehouse, Curt Broman, Veneta Belivanova, Mats E Åström
The deep biosphere is one of the least understood ecosystems on Earth. Although most microbiological studies in this system have focused on prokaryotes and neglected microeukaryotes, recent discoveries have revealed existence of fossil and active fungi in marine sediments and sub-seafloor basalts, with proposed importance for the subsurface energy cycle. However, studies of fungi in deep continental crystalline rocks are surprisingly few. Consequently, the characteristics and processes of fungi and fungus-prokaryote interactions in this vast environment remain enigmatic...
July 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669478/the-marine-sedimentary-record-of-natural-and-anthropogenic-contribution-from-the-sulcis-iglesiente-mining-district-sardinia-italy
#14
Elena Romano, Giovanni De Giudici, Luisa Bergamin, Stefano Andreucci, Chiara Maggi, Giancarlo Pierfranceschi, Maria Celia Magno, Antonella Ausili
Intensive exploitation of base metal deposits in the Sulcis-Iglesiente district (Sardinia, Italy), lasted from the 1850s to the 1990s, determined a high environmental impact on the coastal area, but the effects on marine environment have never been investigated. A marine sediment core, dated with (14)C, was characterized for grain size, chemical and mineralogical composition, in order to reconstruct the sedimentary history of the area and to assess the environmental impact of mining. The comparison of chemical and mineralogical characteristics of recent sediments with those of pre-industrial age allowed discriminating the real anthropogenic impact from the natural metal enrichment...
June 29, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665112/nacre-topography-produces-higher-crystallinity-in-bone-than-chemically-induced-osteogenesis
#15
Enateri V Alakpa, Karl E V Burgess, Peter Chung, Mathis O Riehle, Nikolaj Gadegaard, Matthew John Dalby, Maggie Cusack
It is counterintuitive that invertebrate shells can induce bone formation, yet nacre, or mother of pearl, from marine shells is both osteoinductive and osteointegrative. Nacre is composed of aragonite (calcium carbonate) and induces production of vertebrate bone (calcium phosphate). Exploited by the Mayans for dental implants, this remarkable phenomenon has been confirmed in vitro and in vivo, yet the characteristic of nacre that induces bone formation remains unknown. By isolating nacre topography from its inherent chemistry in the production of polycaprolactone (PCL) nacre replica, we show that, for mesenchymal stem cells, nacre topography is osteoinductive...
July 25, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649685/templated-and-self-limiting-calcite-formation-directed-by-coccolith-organic-macromolecules
#16
Assaf Gal, Richard Wirth, Zahava Barkay, Noam Eliaz, André Scheffel, Damien Faivre
The formation of intricately shaped crystalline minerals by organisms is orchestrated by specialized biomacromolecules. The macromolecules associated with coccoliths, nanometer-sized calcite crystal arrays produced by marine microalgae, can form a distinct calcium-rich phase via macromolecular recognition. Here, we show that this calcium-rich phase can be mineralized into a thin film of single-crystalline calcite by the balanced addition of carbonate ions. Such a crystallization process provides a strategy to direct crystalline products via local interactions between soluble macromolecules and compatible templates...
July 6, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647775/a-natural-calcium-rich-marine-multi-mineral-complex-preserves-bone-structure-composition-and-strength-in-an-ovariectomised-rat-model-of-osteoporosis
#17
Orlaith Brennan, Joseph Sweeney, Brian O'Meara, Amro Widaa, Franck Bonnier, Hugh J Byrne, Denise M O'Gorman, Fergal J O'Brien
Calcium supplements are used as an aid in the prevention of osteopenia and osteoporosis and also for the treatment of patients when used along with medication. Many of these supplements are calcium carbonate based. This study compared a calcium-rich, marine multi-mineral complex (Aquamin) to calcium carbonate in an ovariectomised rat model of osteoporosis in order to assess Aquamin's efficacy in preventing the onset of bone loss. Animals were randomly assigned to either non-ovariectomy control (Control), ovariectomy (OVX) plus calcium carbonate, ovariectomy plus Aquamin or ovariectomy plus Aquamin delay where Aquamin treatment started 8 weeks post OVX...
June 24, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645178/ecological-imperatives-for-aquatic-carbon-dioxide-concentrating-mechanisms
#18
Stephen C Maberly, Brigitte Gontero
In aquatic environments, the concentration of inorganic carbon is spatially and temporally variable and CO2 can be substantially oversaturated or depleted. Depletion of CO2 plus low rates of diffusion cause inorganic carbon to be more limiting in aquatic than terrestrial environments, and the frequency of species with a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), and their contribution to productivity, is correspondingly greater. Aquatic photoautotrophs may have biochemical or biophysical CCMs and exploit CO2 from the sediment or the atmosphere...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627517/corrigendum-a-proteinaceous-organic-matrix-regulates-carbonate-mineral-production-in-the-marine-teleost-intestine
#19
Kevin L Schauer, Christophe M R LeMoine, Adrian Pelin, Nicolas Corradi, M Danielle McDonald, Wesley C Warren, Martin Grosell
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/srep34494.
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587464/copper-binding-sites-in-the-manganese-oxidizing-mnx-protein-complex-investigated-by-electron-paramagnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#20
Lizhi Tao, Troy A Stich, Shu-Hao Liou, Alexandra V Soldatova, David A Delgadillo, Christine A Romano, Thomas G Spiro, David B Goodin, Bradley M Tebo, William H Casey, R David Britt
Manganese-oxide minerals (MnOx) are widely distributed over the Earth's surface, and their geochemical cycling is globally important. A multicopper oxidase (MCO) MnxG protein from marine Bacillus bacteria plays an essential role in producing MnOx minerals by oxidizing Mn(2+)(aq) at rates that are 3 to 5 orders of magnitude faster than abiotic rates. The MnxG protein is isolated as part of a multiprotein complex denoted as "Mnx" that includes accessory protein subunits MnxE and MnxF, with an estimated stoichiometry of MnxE3F3G and corresponding molecular weight of ≈211 kDa...
June 22, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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