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marine minerals

Nina Gong, Hanlie Hong, Warren D Huff, Qian Fang, Christopher J Bae, Chaowen Wang, Ke Yin, Shuling Chen
Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) altered volcanic ashes (tuffs) are widely distributed within the P-Tr boundary successions in South China. Volcanic altered ashes from terrestrial section-Chahe (CH) and marine section-Shangsi (SS) are selected to further understand the influence of sedimentary environments and volcanic sources on diagenetic alterarion on volcanic tuffs. The zircon 206 Pb/238 U ages of the corresponding beds between two sections are almost synchronous. Sedimentary environment of the altered tuffs was characterized by a low pH and did not experience a hydrothermal process...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Liang-Saw Wen, Chih-Ping Lee, Wen-Huei Lee, Alan Chuang
The distributions of many trace elements in the ocean are strongly associated with the growth, death, and re-mineralization of marine plankton and those of suspended/sinking particles. Here, we present an all plastic (Polypropylene and Polycarbonate), multi-layer filtration system for collection of suspended particulate matter (SPM) at sea. This ultra-clean sampling device has been designed and developed specifically for trace element studies. Meticulous selection of all non-metallic materials and utilization of an in-line flow-through procedure minimizes any possible metal contamination during sampling...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Mehwish Taneez, Charlotte Hurel, Franck Mady, Patrice Francour
In-situ capping of polluted sediment is considered as an inexpensive and effective treatment technology to immobilize contaminants in a short time. In this remediation technique sediments are capped by placing a layer of sand, clean sediment or other materials over sediments in order to mitigate risk. In this study, low cost industrial by products (bauxaline, steel slag, and mixture of the two products) were applied as capping agents. A bench scale laboratory experiment in aquariums was performed to evaluate their effects on Cd, Zn, As, and Cr mobility from an artificially contaminated marine sediment...
April 30, 2018: Environmental Pollution
José Antonio Mata-Marín, Carla I Arroyo-Anduiza, María de Los Ángeles Berrospe-Silva, Alberto Chaparro-Sánchez, Ana Gil-Avila, Jesús Gaytán-Martínez
Low bone mineral density (BMD) and fragility fractures are common in individuals infected with HIV, who are undergoing antiretroviral therapy (ART). In high-income countries, dual energy X-ray absorptiometrry is typically used to evaluate osteopenia or osteoporosis in HIV infected individuals. However, this technology is unavailable in low andmiddle income countries, so a different approach is needed. The aim of this study was to use X-ray scans of the spine to determine the prevalence of and associated risk factors for vertebral fractures in HIVinfected patients in a tertiary-care hospital in Mexico...
March 29, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
Jeta Kelmendi, Marin Vodanović, Ferit Koçani, Venera Bimbashi, Blerim Mehmeti, Ivan Galić
BACKGROUND: Tooth formation was recognized as useful body system to assess maturity and predict age. Tooth mineralization is much less affected by the endocrine and different nutritional status than bone mineralization, and teeth formation provides a more reliable indication of chronological age. Demirjian et al. in 1973 presented a scoring system and method for dental age estimation on a sample of French-Canadian children. Chaillet et al. and Willems et al. modified original Demirjian method...
April 24, 2018: Legal Medicine
Francisca Martinez-Ruiz, Fadwa Jroundi, Adina Paytan, Isabel Guerra-Tschuschke, María Del Mar Abad, María Teresa González-Muñoz
Ba proxies have been broadly used to reconstruct past oceanic export production. However, the precise mechanisms underlying barite precipitation in undersaturated seawater are not known. The link between bacterial production and particulate Ba in the ocean suggests that bacteria may play a role. Here we show that under experimental conditions marine bacterial biofilms, particularly extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), are capable of bioaccumulating Ba, providing adequate conditions for barite precipitation...
April 24, 2018: Nature Communications
G Sankaran Pillai, G Satheeshkumar, P Shahul Hameed
Marine environment is enriched source of heavy minerals associated with radionuclides which are largely responsible for human exposure to radiation. Bay of Bengal is one among the important marine ecosystems in the world because of its high biodiversity. The aim of this work was to generate a comprehensive data on distribution and bioaccumulation of 210Po and 210Pb in marine environment of the Bay of Bengal. For this water and sand samples (10 stations), shellfishes (21 species) and fishes (43 species) were collected and the concentrations of 210Po and 210Pb were measured by radiochemical separation followed by alpha counting method using ZnS(Ag) detector...
April 23, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
J Castrec, P Soudant, L Payton, D Tran, P Miner, C Lambert, N Le Goïc, A Huvet, V Quillien, F Boullot, Z Amzil, H Hégaret, C Fabioux
Blooms of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium spp., known as producers of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are regularly detected on the French coastline. PSTs accumulate into harvested shellfish species, such as the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, and can cause strong disorders to consumers at high doses. The impacts of Alexandrium minutum on C. gigas have often been attributed to its production of PSTs without testing separately the effects of the bioactive extracellular compounds (BECs) with allelopathic, hemolytic, cytotoxic or ichthyotoxic properties, which can also be produced by these algae...
March 29, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Carlos Marin, Georgios Papantonakis, Kathleen Sels, G Harry van Lenthe, Guillaume Falgayrac, Roman Vangoitsenhoven, Bart Van der Schueren, Guillaume Penel, Frank Luyten, Katleen Vandamme, Greet Kerckhofs
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder associated with obesity and hyperglycemia. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is a common treatment for severely obese patients and T2DM. Both RYGB and T2DM are linked to increased skeletal fragility, though the exact mechanisms are poorly understood. Our aim was to characterize the structural, mechanical and compositional properties of bones from diet-induced obese and RYGB-treated obese (bypass) mice to elucidate which the exact factors are contributing to the increased skeletal fragility...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mouloud Bouyoucef, Rodolphe Rakic, Tangni Gómez-Leduc, Thomas Latire, Frédéric Marin, Sylvain Leclercq, Franck Carreiras, Antoine Serpentini, Jean-Marc Lebel, Philippe Galéra, Florence Legendre
The shells of the bivalve mollusks are organo-mineral structures predominantly composed of calcium carbonate, but also of a minor organic matrix, a mixture of proteins, glycoproteins, and polysaccharides. These proteins are involved in mineral deposition and, more generally, in the spatial organization of the shell crystallites in well-defined microstructures. In this work, we extracted different organic shell extracts (acid-soluble matrix, acid-insoluble matrix, water-soluble matrix, guanidine HCl/EDTA-extracted matrix, referred as ASM, AIM, WSM, and EDTAM, respectively) from the shell of the scallop Pecten maximus and studied their biological activities on human articular chondrocytes (HACs)...
April 7, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Shawn E McGlynn, Grayson L Chadwick, Ariel O'Neill, Mason Mackey, Andrea Thor, Thomas J Deerinck, Mark H Ellisman, Victoria J Orphan
Phylogenetically diverse environmental ANME archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria cooperatively catalyze the anaerobic oxidation of methane oxidation (AOM) in multi-celled consortia within methane seep environments. To better understand these cells and their symbiotic associations, we applied a suite of electron microscopy approaches including correlative<u>f</u>luorescence <u>i</u> n<u>s</u>itu <u>h</u>ybridization -<u>e</u>lectron<u>m</u>icroscopy (FISH-EM),<u>t</u>ransmission<u>e</u>lectron<u>m</u>icroscopy (TEM), and<u>s</u>erial<u>b</u>lock face scanning<u>e</u>lectron<u>m</u>icroscopy 3D reconstructions (SBEM)...
April 6, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Shunto Sakurada, Shoko Fujiwara, Michio Suzuki, Toshihiro Kogure, Tatsuya Uchida, Tomonari Umemura, Mikio Tsuzuki
Coccolithophorids, unicellular marine microalgae, have calcified scales with elaborate structures, called coccoliths, on the cell surface. Coccoliths generally comprise a base plate, CaCO3 , and a crystal coat consisting of acidic polysaccharides. In this study, the in vitro calcification conditions on the base plate of Pleurochrysis haptonemofera were examined to determine the functions of the base plate and acidic polysaccharides (Ph-PS-1, -2, and -3). When EDTA-treated coccoliths (acidic polysaccharide-free base plates) or low pH-treated coccoliths (whole acidic polysaccharide-containing base plates) were used, mineralization was not detected on the base plate...
April 4, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
D Rodelli, L Jovane, A P Roberts, J Cypriano, F Abreu, U Lins
Magnetotactic bacteria are a multi-phyletic group of bacteria that synthesize membrane-bound magnetic minerals. Understanding the preservation of these minerals in various environments (e.g. with varying oxygen concentrations and iron supply) is important for understanding their role as carriers of primary magnetizations in sediments and sedimentary rocks. Here we present X-ray near edge structure (XANES) spectra for Fe in magnetotactic bacteria samples from recent sediments to assess surface oxidation and crystal structure changes in bacterial magnetite during early burial...
April 3, 2018: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Samantha A McBride, Susmita Dash, Kripa K Varanasi
Mineral-fouling induced corrosion and deterioration of marine vessels, aircraft, and coastal structures is due in part from structural intrusion of crystals grown from ocean-generated saline drops. As such, much work has explored surface treatments that induce hydrophobicity or introduce barriers for anti-fouling and corrosion-prevention; however, the efficacy of these strategies will be altered by the underlying substrate texture. Here, we study the behavior of evaporating saline drops on superhydrophobic and liquid impregnated surfaces as a function of surface texture...
April 3, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
C L Blättler, M W Claire, A R Prave, K Kirsimäe, J A Higgins, P V Medvedev, A E Romashkin, D V Rychanchik, A L Zerkle, K Paiste, T Kreitsmann, I L Millar, J A Hayles, H Bao, A V Turchyn, M R Warke, A Lepland
Major changes in atmospheric and ocean chemistry occurred in the Paleoproterozoic Era (2.5-1.6 billion years ago). Increasing oxidation dramatically changed Earth's surface, but few quantitative constraints exist on this important transition. This study describes the sedimentology, mineralogy, and geochemistry of a two-billion-year-old and ~800 m-thick evaporite succession from the Onega Basin in Russian Karelia. The deposit consists of a basal unit dominated by halite (~100 m) followed by anhydrite-magnesite (~500 m) and dolomite-magnesite (~200 m) dominated units...
March 22, 2018: Science
Kevin L Schauer, Emil A F Christensen, Martin Grosell
Marine bony fish poses the unique ability to hydrate from imbibed seawater. They accomplish this, in part, by the precipitation of inorganic carbonate mineral in their intestine, which lowers luminal osmotic pressure and allows for water uptake. It has recently been described that in the Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) this Ca(Mg)CO3 precipitation occurs under the regulation of an organic matrix. To date no investigations have aimed to determine if this phenomenon applies more generally to marine fish. Here, intestinally derived precipitates were collected from gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus), white grunt (Haemulon plumieri), European flounder (Platichthys flesus), as well as Gulf toadfish, and their matrices were extracted...
March 17, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
C Melissa Miner, Jennifer L Burnaford, Richard F Ambrose, Liam Antrim, Heath Bohlmann, Carol A Blanchette, John M Engle, Steven C Fradkin, Rani Gaddam, Christopher D G Harley, Benjamin G Miner, Steven N Murray, Jayson R Smith, Stephen G Whitaker, Peter T Raimondi
Disease outbreaks can have substantial impacts on wild populations, but the often patchy or anecdotal evidence of these impacts impedes our ability to understand outbreak dynamics. Recently however, a severe disease outbreak occurred in a group of very well-studied organisms-sea stars along the west coast of North America. We analyzed nearly two decades of data from a coordinated monitoring effort at 88 sites ranging from southern British Columbia to San Diego, California along with 2 sites near Sitka, Alaska to better understand the effects of sea star wasting disease (SSWD) on the keystone intertidal predator, Pisaster ochraceus...
2018: PloS One
Salvatore Sauro, Ashvin Babbar, Borzo Gharibi, Victor Pinheiro Feitosa, Ricardo Marins Carvalho, Lidiany Karla Azevedo Rodrigues, Avijit Banerjee, Timothy Watson
OBJECTIVE: Materials for pulp protection should have therapeutic properties in order to stimulate remineralization and pulp reparative processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties, biocompatibility, cell differentiation and bioactivity of experimental light-curable resin-based materials containing bioactive micro-fillers. METHODS: Four calcium-phosphosilicate micro-fillers were prepared and incorporated into a resin blend: 1) Bioglass 45S5 (BAG); 2) zinc-doped bioglass (BAG-Zn); 3) βTCP-modified calcium silicate (β-CS); 4) zinc-doped β-CS (β-CS-Zn)...
March 16, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Anna Maria Orani, Aurélie Barats, Wendy Zitte, Christine Morrow, Olivier P Thomas
The bioaccumulation and biotransformation of arsenic (As) were studied in six representative marine sponges from the French Mediterranean and Irish Atlantic coasts. Methodologies were carefully optimized in one of the species on Haliclona fulva sponges for two critical steps: the sample mineralization for total As analysis by ICP-MS and the extraction of As species for HPLC-ICP-MS analysis. During the optimization, extractions performed with 0.6 mol L-1 H3 PO4 were shown to be the most efficient. Extraction recovery of 81% was obtained which represents the best results obtained until now in sponge samples...
March 12, 2018: Chemosphere
Rebeca Martinez-Haya, Consuelo Sabater, Maria-Ángeles Castillo, Miguel A Miranda, M Luisa Marin
Photocatalytic degradation of three highly chlorinated contaminants, namely 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP), 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) and 5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol (triclosan, TCS) has been investigated in the presence of N-methylquinolinium tetrafluoroborate (NMQ+ ), a photocatalyst able to act via Type I or Type II mechanism. Photodegradation of contaminants under aerobic conditions was achieved within hours; and it was accompanied by mineralization, as demonstrated by trapping of the evolved carbon dioxide as barium carbonate...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
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