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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720832/deep-ocean-dissolved-organic-matter-reactivity-along-the-mediterranean-sea-does-size-matter
#1
Alba María Martínez-Pérez, Xosé Antón Álvarez-Salgado, Javier Arístegui, Mar Nieto-Cid
Despite of the major role ascribed to marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the global carbon cycle, the reactivity of this pool in the dark ocean is still poorly understood. Present hypotheses, posed within the size-reactivity continuum (SRC) and the microbial carbon pump (MCP) conceptual frameworks, need further empirical support. Here, we provide field evidence of the soundness of the SRC model. We sampled the high salinity core-of-flow of the Levantine Intermediate Water along its westward route through the entire Mediterranean Sea...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713339/concurrent-methane-production-and-oxidation-in-surface-sediment-from-aarhus-bay-denmark
#2
Ke-Qing Xiao, Felix Beulig, Kasper U Kjeldsen, Bo B Jørgensen, Nils Risgaard-Petersen
Marine surface sediments, which are replete with sulfate, are typically considered to be devoid of endogenous methanogenesis. Yet, methanogenic archaea are present in those sediments, suggesting a potential for methanogenesis. We used an isotope dilution method based on sediment bag incubation and spiking with (13)C-CH4 to quantify CH4 turnover rates in sediment from Aarhus Bay, Denmark. In two independent experiments, highest CH4 production and oxidation rates (>200 pmol cm(-3) d(-1)) were found in the top 0-2 cm, below which rates dropped below 100 pmol cm(-3) d(-1) in all other segments down to 16 cm...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688458/dating-the-middle-paleolithic-deposits-of-la-quina-amont-charente-%C3%A2-france-using-luminescence-methods
#3
Marine Frouin, Christelle Lahaye, Hélène Valladas, Thomas Higham, André Debénath, Anne Delagnes, Norbert Mercier
The site of La Quina Amont, located in the Charente region, is one of the most important sites in southwestern France for studying major changes in human behaviors from the Middle Paleolithic (MP) to the Early Upper Paleolithic (EUP). Extensively excavated over the past 50 years, numerous dating studies have been focused on the Upper Paleolithic deposits using radiocarbon on bone collagen and thermoluminescence (TL) on heated flints; however, the Mousterian levels remain undated due to the scarcity of suitable materials...
August 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680802/lobster-processing-by-products-as-valuable-bioresource-of-marine-functional-ingredients-nutraceuticals-and-pharmaceuticals
#4
REVIEW
Trung T Nguyen, Andrew R Barber, Kendall Corbin, Wei Zhang
The worldwide annual production of lobster was 165,367 tons valued over $3.32 billion in 2004, but this figure rose up to 304,000 tons in 2012. Over half the volume of the worldwide lobster production has been processed to meet the rising global demand in diversified lobster products. Lobster processing generates a large amount of by-products (heads, shells, livers, and eggs) which account for 50-70% of the starting material. Continued production of these lobster processing by-products (LPBs) without corresponding process development for efficient utilization has led to disposal issues associated with costs and pollutions...
2017: Bioresources and Bioprocessing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676799/impact-of-aeolian-dry-deposition-of-reactive-iron-minerals-on-sulfur-cycling-in-sediments-of-the-gulf-of-aqaba
#5
Barak Blonder, Valeria Boyko, Alexandra V Turchyn, Gilad Antler, Uriel Sinichkin, Nadav Knossow, Rotem Klein, Alexey Kamyshny
The Gulf of Aqaba is an oligotrophic marine system with oxygen-rich water column and organic carbon-poor sediments (≤0.6% at sites that are not influenced by anthropogenic impact). Aeolian dust deposition from the Arabian, Sinai, and Sahara Deserts is an important source of sediment, especially at the deep-water sites of the Gulf, which are less affected by sediment transport from the Arava Desert during seasonal flash floods. Microbial sulfate reduction in sediments is inferred from the presence of pyrite (although at relatively low concentrations), the presence of sulfide oxidation intermediates, and by the sulfur isotopic composition of sulfate and solid-phase sulfides...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676652/anaerobic-consortia-of-fungi-and-sulfate-reducing-bacteria-in-deep-granite-fractures
#6
Henrik Drake, Magnus Ivarsson, Stefan Bengtson, Christine Heim, Sandra Siljeström, Martin J Whitehouse, Curt Broman, Veneta Belivanova, Mats E Åström
The deep biosphere is one of the least understood ecosystems on Earth. Although most microbiological studies in this system have focused on prokaryotes and neglected microeukaryotes, recent discoveries have revealed existence of fossil and active fungi in marine sediments and sub-seafloor basalts, with proposed importance for the subsurface energy cycle. However, studies of fungi in deep continental crystalline rocks are surprisingly few. Consequently, the characteristics and processes of fungi and fungus-prokaryote interactions in this vast environment remain enigmatic...
July 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669478/the-marine-sedimentary-record-of-natural-and-anthropogenic-contribution-from-the-sulcis-iglesiente-mining-district-sardinia-italy
#7
Elena Romano, Giovanni De Giudici, Luisa Bergamin, Stefano Andreucci, Chiara Maggi, Giancarlo Pierfranceschi, Maria Celia Magno, Antonella Ausili
Intensive exploitation of base metal deposits in the Sulcis-Iglesiente district (Sardinia, Italy), lasted from the 1850s to the 1990s, determined a high environmental impact on the coastal area, but the effects on marine environment have never been investigated. A marine sediment core, dated with (14)C, was characterized for grain size, chemical and mineralogical composition, in order to reconstruct the sedimentary history of the area and to assess the environmental impact of mining. The comparison of chemical and mineralogical characteristics of recent sediments with those of pre-industrial age allowed discriminating the real anthropogenic impact from the natural metal enrichment...
June 29, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665112/nacre-topography-produces-higher-crystallinity-in-bone-than-chemically-induced-osteogenesis
#8
Enateri V Alakpa, Karl E V Burgess, Peter Chung, Mathis O Riehle, Nikolaj Gadegaard, Matthew John Dalby, Maggie Cusack
It is counter-intuitive that invertebrate shells can induce bone formation yet nacre, or mother of pearl, from marine shells is both osteoinductive and osteointegrative. Nacre is composed of aragonite (calcium carbonate) and induces production of vertebrate bone (calcium phosphate). Exploited by the Mayans for dental implants, this remarkable phenomenon has been confirmed in vitro and in vivo yet the characteristic of nacre that induces bone formation remains unknown. By isolating nacre topography from its inherent chemistry in the production of polycaprolactone (PCL) nacre replica, we show that, for mesenchymal stem cells, nacre topography is osteoinductive...
June 30, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649685/templated-and-self-limiting-calcite-formation-directed-by-coccolith-organic-macromolecules
#9
Assaf Gal, Richard Wirth, Zahava Barkay, Noam Eliaz, André Scheffel, Damien Faivre
The formation of intricately shaped crystalline minerals by organisms is orchestrated by specialized biomacromolecules. The macromolecules associated with coccoliths, nanometer-sized calcite crystal arrays produced by marine microalgae, can form a distinct calcium-rich phase via macromolecular recognition. Here, we show that this calcium-rich phase can be mineralized into a thin film of single-crystalline calcite by the balanced addition of carbonate ions. Such a crystallization process provides a strategy to direct crystalline products via local interactions between soluble macromolecules and compatible templates...
July 6, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647775/a-natural-calcium-rich-marine-multi-mineral-complex-preserves-bone-structure-composition-and-strength-in-an-ovariectomised-rat-model-of-osteoporosis
#10
Orlaith Brennan, Joseph Sweeney, Brian O'Meara, Amro Widaa, Franck Bonnier, Hugh J Byrne, Denise M O'Gorman, Fergal J O'Brien
Calcium supplements are used as an aid in the prevention of osteopenia and osteoporosis and also for the treatment of patients when used along with medication. Many of these supplements are calcium carbonate based. This study compared a calcium-rich, marine multi-mineral complex (Aquamin) to calcium carbonate in an ovariectomised rat model of osteoporosis in order to assess Aquamin's efficacy in preventing the onset of bone loss. Animals were randomly assigned to either non-ovariectomy control (Control), ovariectomy (OVX) plus calcium carbonate, ovariectomy plus Aquamin or ovariectomy plus Aquamin delay where Aquamin treatment started 8 weeks post OVX...
June 24, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645178/ecological-imperatives-for-aquatic-carbon-dioxide-concentrating-mechanisms
#11
Stephen C Maberly, Brigitte Gontero
In aquatic environments, the concentration of inorganic carbon is spatially and temporally variable and CO2 can be substantially oversaturated or depleted. Depletion of CO2 plus low rates of diffusion cause inorganic carbon to be more limiting in aquatic than terrestrial environments, and the frequency of species with a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), and their contribution to productivity, is correspondingly greater. Aquatic photoautotrophs may have biochemical or biophysical CCMs and exploit CO2 from the sediment or the atmosphere...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627517/corrigendum-a-proteinaceous-organic-matrix-regulates-carbonate-mineral-production-in-the-marine-teleost-intestine
#12
Kevin L Schauer, Christophe M R LeMoine, Adrian Pelin, Nicolas Corradi, M Danielle McDonald, Wesley C Warren, Martin Grosell
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/srep34494.
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587464/copper-binding-sites-in-the-manganese-oxidizing-mnx-protein-complex-investigated-by-electron-paramagnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#13
Lizhi Tao, Troy A Stich, Shu-Hao Liou, Alexandra V Soldatova, David A Delgadillo, Christine A Romano, Thomas G Spiro, David B Goodin, Bradley M Tebo, William H Casey, R David Britt
Manganese-oxide minerals (MnOx) are widely distributed over the Earth's surface, and their geochemical cycling is globally important. A multicopper oxidase (MCO) MnxG protein from marine Bacillus bacteria plays an essential role in producing MnOx minerals by oxidizing Mn(2+)(aq) at rates that are 3 to 5 orders of magnitude faster than abiotic rates. The MnxG protein is isolated as part of a multiprotein complex denoted as "Mnx" that includes accessory protein subunits MnxE and MnxF, with an estimated stoichiometry of MnxE3F3G and corresponding molecular weight of ≈211 kDa...
June 22, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574451/effect-of-montmorillonite-nanogel-composite-fillers-on-the-protection-performance-of-epoxy-coatings-on-steel-pipelines
#14
Ayman M Atta, Ashraf M El-Saeed, Hamad A Al-Lohedan, Mohamed Wahby
Montmorillonite (MMT) clay mineral is widely used as filler for several organic coatings. Its activity is increased by exfoliation via chemical modification to produce nanomaterials. In the present work, the modification of MMT to form nanogel composites is proposed to increase the dispersion of MMT into epoxy matrices used to fill cracks and holes produced by the curing exotherms of epoxy resins. The dispersion of MMT in epoxy improved both the mechanical and anti-corrosion performance of epoxy coatings in aggressive marine environments...
June 2, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567624/properties-environmental-fate-and-biodegradation-of-carbazole
#15
REVIEW
Lateef B Salam, Mathew O Ilori, Olukayode O Amund
The last two decades had witnessed extensive investigation on bacterial degradation of carbazole, an N-heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. Specifically, previous studies have reported the primary importance of angular dioxygenation, a novel type of oxygenation reaction, which facilitates mineralization of carbazole to intermediates of the TCA cycle. Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria are the predominant bacterial phyla implicated in this novel mode of dioxygenation, while anthranilic acid and catechol are the signature metabolites...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533378/pyrite-sulfur-isotopes-reveal-glacial-interglacial-environmental-changes
#16
Virgil Pasquier, Pierre Sansjofre, Marina Rabineau, Sidonie Revillon, Jennifer Houghton, David A Fike
The sulfur biogeochemical cycle plays a key role in regulating Earth's surface redox through diverse abiotic and biological reactions that have distinctive stable isotopic fractionations. As such, variations in the sulfur isotopic composition (δ(34)S) of sedimentary sulfate and sulfide phases over Earth history can be used to infer substantive changes to the Earth's surface environment, including the rise of atmospheric oxygen. Such inferences assume that individual δ(34)S records reflect temporal changes in the global sulfur cycle; this assumption may be well grounded for sulfate-bearing minerals but is less well established for pyrite-based records...
June 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525299/early-diverging-fungi-diversity-and-impact-at-the-dawn-of-terrestrial-life
#17
Mary L Berbee, Timothy Y James, Christine Strullu-Derrien
As decomposers or plant pathogens, fungi deploy invasive growth and powerful carbohydrate active enzymes to reduce multicellular plant tissues to humus and simple sugars. Fungi are perhaps also the most important mutualistic symbionts in modern ecosystems, transporting poorly soluble mineral nutrients to plants and thus enhancing the growth of vegetation. However, at their origin over a billion years ago, fungus-like plants and animals were unicellular marine microbes. Like the other multicellular kingdoms, Fungi evolved increased size, complexity, and metabolic functioning...
May 19, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511936/biotechnologies-for-marine-oil-spill-cleanup-indissoluble-ties-with-microorganisms
#18
REVIEW
Francesca Mapelli, Alberto Scoma, Grégoire Michoud, Federico Aulenta, Nico Boon, Sara Borin, Nicolas Kalogerakis, Daniele Daffonchio
The ubiquitous exploitation of petroleum hydrocarbons (HCs) has been accompanied by accidental spills and chronic pollution in marine ecosystems, including the deep ocean. Physicochemical technologies are available for oil spill cleanup, but HCs must ultimately be mineralized by microorganisms. How environmental factors drive the assembly and activity of HC-degrading microbial communities remains unknown, limiting our capacity to integrate microorganism-based cleanup strategies with current physicochemical remediation technologies...
May 13, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511362/towards-complete-and-harmonized-assessment-of-soil-carbon-stocks-and-balance-in-forests-the-ability-of-the-yasso07-model-across-a-wide-gradient-of-climatic-and-forest-conditions-in-europe
#19
Laura Hernández, Robert Jandl, Viorel N B Blujdea, Aleksi Lehtonen, Kaie Kriiska, Iciar Alberdi, Veiko Adermann, Isabel Cañellas, Gheorghe Marin, Daniel Moreno-Fernández, Ivika Ostonen, Mats Varik, Markus Didion
Accurate carbon-balance accounting in forest soils is necessary for the development of climate change policy. However, changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) occur slowly and these changes may not be captured through repeated soil inventories. Simulation models may be used as alternatives to SOC measurement. The Yasso07 model presents a suitable alternative because most of the data required for the application are readily available in countries with common forest surveys. In this study, we test the suitability of Yasso07 for simulating SOC stocks and stock changes in a variety of European forests affected by different climatic, land use and forest management conditions and we address country-specific cases with differing resources and data availability...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508926/abundance-and-co-distribution-of-widespread-marine-archaeal-lineages-in-surface-sediments-of-freshwater-water-bodies-across-the-iberian-peninsula
#20
Sergi Compte-Port, Jèssica Subirats, Mireia Fillol, Alexandre Sànchez-Melsió, Rafael Marcé, Pedro Rivas-Ruiz, Antoni Rosell-Melé, Carles M Borrego
Archaea inhabiting marine and freshwater sediments have a relevant role in organic carbon mineralization, affecting carbon fluxes at a global scale. Despite current evidences suggesting that freshwater sediments largely contribute to this process, few large-scale surveys have been addressed to uncover archaeal diversity and abundance in freshwater sedimentary habitats. In this work, we quantified and high-throughput sequenced the archaeal 16S rRNA gene from surficial sediments collected in 21 inland waterbodies across the Iberian Peninsula differing in typology and trophic status...
May 16, 2017: Microbial Ecology
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