Read by QxMD icon Read


Wen-Yi Lee, Shu-Yu Kuo
The use of illegal drugs in Taiwan is on the rise. Drug addicts often have complex physical, psychological, and social problems. In addition, they often avoid disclosing their illicit drug use by deceit, concealment, or under-reporting. Building and maintaining relationships of trust with drug-addict patients has become a critical issue in achieving better care quality. In this case report, we report on an anesthesia care process for a heroin addict who was admitted for open reduction and internal fixation surgery for the femur and patella fractures after a car accident...
April 2018: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
Jiawei Xu, Teng Wang, Zhiyang Su, Xinyao Zhou, Yuqian Xiang, Lin He, Candong Li, Zhaoyang Yang, Xinzhi Zhao
The μ-opioid receptor (OPRM1) plays an important role in opiate addiction. The OPRM1 gene promoter showed hypermethylation in lymphocytes of opiate addicts as well as opioid medications users, while the methylation status displayed ethnic diversity. The purpose of the study was to investigate the methylation pattern of OPRM1 promoter in the Han Chinese population. We analyzed 22 CpG sites located in OPRM1 promoter in 186 former opiate addicts (94 males and 92 females) and 184 healthy controls (102 males and 82 females)...
March 21, 2018: Biochemical Genetics
Bridget W Brox, Bart A Ellenbroek
BACKGROUND: Despite ongoing study and research to better understand drug addiction, it continues to be a heavy burden. Only a small percentage of individuals who take drugs of abuse go on to develop addiction. However, there is growing evidence to suggest that a reduction in the serotonin transporter may play an important role for those that transition to compulsive drug taking. Studies have demonstrated that reduced serotonin transporter function potentiates self-administration of psychostimulant drugs ("ecstasy," MDMA; cocaine); however, additional research revealed no differences between genotypes when the opioid heroin was self-administered...
March 21, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Candy S Hwang, Lauren C Smith, Yoshihiro Natori, Beverly Ellis, Bin Zhou, Kim D Janda
The sharp increase in overdose deaths involving illicit opioid use has been declared a national crisis in the United States. This growing number of overdose deaths can in part be attributed to the increased frequency of fentanyl contamination in the United States heroin supply. To combat this growing trend, we designed a vaccine containing a mixture of heroin and fentanyl hapten-conjugates as a proof-of-concept immunotherapy targeting a combination of these drugs. Rodents immunized with the admixture vaccine showed drug retention in serum and reduced distribution in the brain after administration of an intravenous bolus of heroin coadministered with fentanyl (10% w/w)...
March 23, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Alice Bell, Alex S Bennett, T Stephen Jones, Maya Doe-Simkins, Leslie D Williams
BACKGROUND: Illicitly manufactured fentanyl (IMF) prevalence has increased. However, there is uncertainty about naloxone dose(s) used by nonmedical bystanders to reverse opioid overdoses in the context of increasing IMF. METHODS: We used community naloxone distribution program data about naloxone doses and fatal opioid overdoses from the Allegheny County Medical Examiner. From January 2013 to December 2016, staff interviewed participants who administered naloxone in response to 1,072 overdoses...
March 20, 2018: Substance Abuse
Kathryn M Nowotny, Jessica Frankeberger, Victoria E Rodriguez, Avelardo Valdez, Alice Cepeda
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is among the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in the United States. Despite this, there has been limited research on the correlates to HSV-2 among disadvantaged and marginalized women, particularly among Latinas. Data for the present analysis include 125 young adult Mexican-American women enrolled in a longitudinal study in a disadvantaged urban community in San Antonio, Texas. The current rate of tested HSV-2 infection is 56.8%. Our findings suggest strong comorbidity of genital herpes with injecting heroin use, Hepatitis C, sexual violence, incarceration, and mental illness...
March 20, 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Magdalena Harris, Tim Rhodes
A life history approach enables study of how risk or health protection is shaped by critical transitions and turning points in a life trajectory and in the context of social environment and time. We employed visual and narrative life history methods with people who inject drugs to explore how hepatitis C protection was enabled and maintained over the life course. We overview our methodological approach, with a focus on the ethics in practice of using life history timelines and life-grids with 37 participants...
March 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Antonella Sorrentino, Silvia Trotta, Anna Pia Colucci, Lucia Aventaggiato, Andrea Marzullo, Biagio Solarino
"Krokodil" is a home-made opioid drug obtained by synthesizing desomorphine from codeine and combining it with other low-cost additives. Initially introduced in the former Soviet countries, it was then imported to Western Europe as a heroin substitute. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an Italian case of lethal krokodil abuse, that occurred in a 39-year-old man, who died suddenly after transportation to the Emergency Department (ED) for hyperthermia associated with sweating, dyspnoea and tachycardia...
March 19, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Svetla Slavova, Alison Miller, Terry L Bunn, Jessica R White, David Kirschke, Tom Light, Daniel Christy, Gary Thompson, Ruth Winecker
BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to establish and compare baseline data on the prevalence of gabapentin identified through postmortem toxicology testing among drug overdose decedents in several geographically diverse states/jurisdictions with differing levels of drug overdose fatality burdens in 2015. METHODS: Death certificates and postmortem toxicology result reports from five U.S. jurisdictions were used to identify residents who died from drug overdoses in year 2015 and to calculate prevalence rates of gabapentin in postmortem toxicology by jurisdiction...
March 10, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Nongnooch Poowanawittayakom, Anamika Dutta, Shannon Stock, Sunkaru Touray, Richard T Ellison, Stuart M Levitz
The epidemic of illicit intravenous drug use (IVDU) in the United States has been accompanied by a surge in drug overdose deaths and infectious sequelae. Candida albicans infections were associated with injection of contaminated impure brown heroin in the 1970s-1990s; however, candidiasis accompanying IVDU became considerably rarer as the purity of the heroin supply increased. We reviewed cases of candidemia occurring over a recent 7-year period in persons >14 years of age at a tertiary care hospital in central Massachusetts...
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Therese M Lynn, Ena Lynn, Eamon Keenan, Suzi Lyons
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to provide trend analysis on all deaths among drug users who injected at or around the time of their death in Ireland between 1998 and 2014. METHOD: A review of the data recorded by the National Drug-Related Deaths Index (NDRDI) was conducted to identify individuals who were known to be injecting at or around the time of their death, from 1998 to 2014. RESULTS: Between 1998 and 2014, 16,500 deaths were recorded by the NDRDI...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Thai Hoang, Hong Nguyen, Ray W Shiraishi, Mai Nguyen, Trista Bingham, Diep Nguyen, Tam Nguyen, Hao Duong, Sheryl Lyss, Hien Tran
BACKGROUND: Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is highly effective for reducing heroin use and HIV transmission among people who inject opioids. We sought to measure and understand factors associated with continued heroin use, a critical factor affecting treatment outcome among MMT patients in Vietnam. METHOD: We collected data from medical charts of a nationally representative sample of patients who were on MMT from May 2008 to December 2013. We selected 10 MMT clinics using probability proportional to size and 50 patients/clinic by systematic random sampling...
March 15, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Jianbo Zhang, Peng Yan, Yunxiao Li, Xintong Cai, Ziyu Yang, Xinyao Miao, Bo Chen, Shengbin Li, Wei Dang, Wei Jia, Yongsheng Zhu
Ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 (ANKK1) and dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) gene polymorphisms have long been considered to contribute to susceptibility to heroin dependence. Despite their adjacent locations, few studies have elucidated the role of the potential interaction between ANKK1 and DRD2 in heroin dependence. In the present study, we performed a systematic analysis of the association between 39 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these two genes and heroin dependence in 593 Chinese subjects...
March 14, 2018: Brain Research
Luther Elliott, Andrew Golub, Alexander Bennett
This study examines the temporal relationship between prescription opioid (PO) and heroin use among veterans in New York City. Drawing on survey data from a convenience sample of 214 Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND)-era opioid-using military veterans, analyses demonstrate substantial cohort-level variation. Most notably, heroin use prior to PO initiation and prior to military enlistment was reported more frequently among the cohorts born prior to 1970 and after 1984...
2018: Military Behavioral Health
Michael D Raleigh, Megan Laudenbach, Federico Baruffaldi, Samantha J Peterson, Michaela J Roslawski, Angela K Birnbaum, Frank I Carroll, Scott P Runyon, Scott Winston, Paul R Pentel, Marco Pravetoni
Heroin and oxycodone abuse occurs over a wide range of drug doses and by various routes of administration characterized by differing rates of drug absorption. The current study addressed the efficacy of a heroin vaccine (M-KLH) or oxycodone vaccine (OXY-KLH) for reducing drug distribution to brain after i.v. heroin or oxycodone, or s.c. oxycodone. Rats immunized with M-KLH or KLH control received an i.v. bolus dose of 0.26 or 2.6 mg/kg heroin. Vaccination with M-KLH increased retention of heroin and its active metabolites 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM) and morphine in plasma compared to KLH controls, and reduced total opioid (heroin + 6-AM + morphine) distribution to brain but only at the lower heroin dose...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Aleksandra A Zasada
Unusual human behavior leads to the emergence of new forms of infectious diseases and new routes of infection. In recent years, a new form of anthrax, called injectional anthrax, emerged and was related to 2 human anthrax outbreaks in Europe. The infection was caused by heroin contaminated with anthrax spores. The new form of anthrax differs from the earlier known "natural" forms of the disease in symptoms, length of the incubation period and recommended treatment. Despite medical treatment, the mortality rate in injectional anthrax is about 35%...
March 13, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Talat Ghane, Nasim Zamani, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Ali Beyrami, Alireza Noroozi
Objective: To describe an outbreak of lead poisoning among opium users in the Islamic Republic of Iran and estimate the number of affected people in the country. Methods: We used data from the country's largest poison treatment centre to illustrate the epidemiology of an outbreak of lead poisoning in oral opium users. We describe the government's referral and treatment guidelines in response to the outbreak. Based on the number of individuals treated and previous studies on the prevalence of oral opium use we estimated the total number of people at risk of lead-contaminated opium nationwide...
March 1, 2018: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Vaughn R Steele, J Michael Maurer, Mohammad R Arbabshirani, Eric D Claus, Brandi C Fink, Vikram Rao, Vince D Calhoun, Kent A Kiehl
BACKGROUND: Successfully treating illicit drug use has become paramount, yet elusive. Devising specialized treatment interventions could increase positive outcomes, but it is necessary to identify risk factors of poor long-term outcomes to develop specialized, efficacious treatments. We investigated whether functional network connectivity (FNC) measures were predictive of substance abuse treatment completion using machine learning pattern classification of functional magnetic resonance imaging data...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Abid Mehmood, Tariq Abduljabbar, Nawwaf Al-Hamoudi, Elham Gholamiazizi, Sergio Varela Kellesarian, Fahim Vohra, Fawad Javed
BACKGROUND: It is hypothesized that (a) self-perceived oral symptoms (OSs) are worse in intravenous heroin addicts (IHA) than controls; and (b) clinical periodontal inflammatory parameters (plaque index [PI], bleeding on probing [BOP], PD and clinical attachment loss [AL]), number of missing teeth (MT) and radiographic marginal bone loss (MBL) are higher in IHA compared with controls. The aim was to compare the self-perceived OSs and periodontal parameters among young IHA and controls...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Periodontology
A Belin-Rauscent, J Lacoste, O Hermine, A Moussy, B J Everitt, David Belin
RATIONALE: Accumulating evidence shows that cocaine, and also heroin, influence several tyrosine kinases, expressed in neurons and in non-neuronal populations such as microglia, astrocytes and mast-cells. Drug-induced activation of mast cells both triggers inflammatory processes in the brain mediated by the glial cells they activate, and facilitates histamine release which may directly influence the dopamine system. Thus, by triggering the activation and degranulation of mast cells dependent on the tyrosine kinase c-kit and Fyn, the latter being also involved in NMDA-dependent synaptic plasticity, cocaine and heroin may indirectly influence the neural mechanisms that mediate their reinforcing properties...
March 8, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"