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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107680/a-randomized-clinical-trial-of-buprenorphine-for-prisoners-findings-at-12-months-post-release
#1
Michael S Gordon, Timothy W Kinlock, Robert P Schwartz, Kevin E O'Grady, Terrence T Fitzgerald, Frank J Vocci
BACKGROUND: This study examined whether starting buprenorphine treatment prior to prison and after release from prison would be associated with better drug treatment outcomes and whether males and females responded differently to the combination of in-prison treatment and post-release service setting. METHODS: Study design was a 2 (In-Prison Treatment: Condition: Buprenorphine Treatment: vs. Counseling Only)×2 [Post-Release Service Setting Condition: Opioid Treatment: Program (OTP) vs...
January 11, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107670/pharmaceutical-opioid-use-among-oral-and-intravenous-users-in-australia-a-qualitative-comparative-study
#2
George Dertadian, Jenny Iversen, Thomas C Dixon, Katrina Sotiropoulos, Lisa Maher
BACKGROUND: Between 1992 and 2012 dispensing episodes for pharmaceutical opioids (PO) in Australia increased from 500000 to 7500000. In the US, increases in the prescription of PO have been linked to increases in opioid-related morbidity and mortality and transitions to heroin injection. However, Australian data indicate that morbidity and mortality related to PO are relatively low, particularly when compared to heroin and other drugs. This paper explores the characteristics and patterns of non-medical pharmaceutical opioid (NMPO) use among a sample of young people in Sydney, Australia...
January 17, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106041/glutamatergic-projections-from-the-entorhinal-cortex-to-dorsal-dentate-gyrus-mediate-context-induced-reinstatement-of-heroin-seeking
#3
Feifei Ge, Na Wang, Cailian Cui, Yijing Li, Yan Liu, Yaoying Ma, Shuli Liu, Haolin Zhang, Xiaowei Sun
Re-exposure to the context associated with heroin intake provokes relapse to drug taking after abstinence. The dorsal dentate gyrus (dDG) and entorhinal cortex (EC) have been implicated in contextual memory processing, but the underlying circuit mechanisms in context-induced relapse remains poorly understood. In this study, using a self-administration rat model, we found that activation and synaptic transmission of glutamatergic projections from the EC to the upper blade of dentate gyrus (dDGub) were significantly enhanced during context-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking...
January 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104548/six-month-outcomes-among-socially-marginalized-alcohol-and-drug-users-attending-a-drop-in-center-allowing-alcohol-consumption
#4
Véronique S Grazioli, Susan E Collins, Sophie Paroz, Caroline Graap, Jean-Bernard Daeppen
BACKGROUND: Despite their experience of substance-related harm, few socially marginalized alcohol and other drug (AOD) users access substance use treatment. Thus, identifying alternative approaches for this population is important. This program evaluation documented substance use and health-related quality of life (QoL) following exposure to such an alternative approach: a harm-reduction drop-in center allowing alcohol consumption onsite. METHODS: Participants (N=85) were socially marginalized AOD users (e...
January 16, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104465/heroin-use-is-associated-with-lower-levels-of-restriction-factors-and-type-i-interferon-expression-and-facilitates-hiv-1-replication
#5
Jia-Wu Zhu, Feng-Liang Liu, Dan Mu, De-Yao Deng, Yong-Tang Zheng
Heroin use is associated with increased incidence of infectious diseases such as HIV-1 infection, as a result of immunosuppression to a certain extent. Host restriction factors are recently identified cellular proteins with potent antiviral activities. Whether heroin use impacts on the in vivo expression of restriction factors that result in facilitating HIV-1 replication is poorly understood. Here we recruited 432 intravenous drug users (IDUs) and 164 non-IDUs at high-risk behaviors. Based on serological tests, significantly higher prevalence of HIV-1 infection was observed among IDUs compared with non-IDUs...
January 16, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100971/tricuspid-valve-replacement-in-an-hiv-infected-patient-with-severe-tricuspid-regurgitation-secondary-to-remote-endocarditis
#6
Merle Myerson, Ehrin J Armstrong, Eduard Poltavskiy, Jose Fefer, Heejung Bang
Surgical intervention for severe tricuspid regurgitation secondary to remote infective endocarditis has been infrequent, especially in patients also infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We describe the case of a 62-year-old HIV-positive man, with a 24-year history of endocarditis caused by intravenous heroin use, who presented with severe tricuspid regurgitation. The patient was initially asymptomatic, was taking antiretroviral medications, and had a satisfactory CD4 count and an undetectable viral load, so we decided to manage the regurgitation conservatively...
December 2016: Texas Heart Institute Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100012/characterization-and-management-of-patients-with-heroin-versus-non-heroin-opioid-overdoses-experience-at-an-academic-medical-center
#7
Kate M Morizio, Regan A Baum, Adam Dugan, Julia E Marin, Abby M Bailey
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To characterize the differences between patients who had heroin and non-heroin opioid overdoses and to determine whether there were any significant differences in their management with regard to the naloxone use. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Large, academic medical center. PATIENTS: A total of 923 patients admitted to the medical center who were identified for overdose by heroin or other opiate-related narcotics between January 2010 and September 2015; 480 patients experienced a non-heroin opioid overdose event, and 443 patients experienced a heroin overdose event...
January 18, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097536/prevalence-and-correlates-of-adhd-in-individuals-with-substance-use-disorder-in-nigeria
#8
Musa U Umar, Auwal S Salihu, Shakirat D Owolabi
Substance use disorder (SUD) is associated with ADHD. ADHD increases the severity of SUD and has negative influence on the prognosis of the disorder. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of ADHD in individuals with SUD. During 2013-2015, a cross-sectional descriptive study of 233 drug treatment-seeking individuals was assessed. Diagnosis of ADHD was done using DSM-IV criteria with the Diagnostic Interview for ADHD in Adults (DIVA 2.0), while Semi-structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism (SSADDA 6...
January 17, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095255/effect-of-heroin-use-on-changes-of-brain-functions-as-measured-by-fmri-a-systematic-review
#9
Ayman Fareed, Jungjin Kim, Bethany Ketchen, Woo Jin Kwak, Danzhao Wang, Hilaire Shongo-Hiango, Karen Drexler
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In this study we focus on reviewing imaging studies that used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for individuals with a history of heroin use. This review study compiled existing research addressing the effect of heroin use on decision making by reviewing available functional neuroimaging data.. METHODS: Systematic review of the literatures using the PRISMA checklist. Eligible articles were retrieved through a computer-based MEDLINE and PsycINFO search from 1960 to December 2015 using the major medical subject headings 'heroin, fMRI' (all fields)...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Addictive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093220/increased-oxytocin-levels-among-abstinent-heroin-addicts-association-with-aggressiveness-psychiatric-symptoms-and-perceived-childhood-neglect
#10
Lidia M Gerra, Gilberto Gerra, Laura Mercolini, Matteo Manfredini, Lorenzo Somaini, Chiara M Pieri, Maina Antonioni, Michele Protti, Paolo Ossola, Carlo Marchesi
A disruption of the oxytocin system seems to affect a variety of brain functions including emotions, mood and social behavior possibly underlying severe social deficits and susceptibility for substance use and mental health disorders. Early life adversity, such as insecure attachment in childhood, has been suggested to influence oxytocin tone contributing to a condition of neurobiological vulnerability. Aim of the present study was to investigate oxytocin serum levels in abstinent heroin addicted patients, in comparison with healthy controls, and the possible correlation with co-occurring psychiatric symptoms, aggressiveness and perception of parental neglect...
January 13, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088742/patterns-of-drug-use-and-hiv-infection-among-adults-in-a-nationally-representative-sample
#11
Stephanie Shiau, Stephen M Arpadi, Michael T Yin, Silvia S Martins
BACKGROUND: Little is known about drug use patterns among people living with HIV in comparison to an uninfected group in the general population. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between legal and illegal drug use and HIV infection in a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States. METHODS: Public use data files (2005-2014) from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) were used. Respondents were asked whether a medical professional had ever told them that they had HIV/AIDS...
January 7, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088741/prevalence-and-correlates-of-fentanyl-contaminated-heroin-exposure-among-young-adults-who-use-prescription-opioids-non-medically
#12
Alexandria Macmadu, Jennifer J Carroll, Scott E Hadland, Traci C Green, Brandon D L Marshall
BACKGROUND: The rate of overdose deaths caused by fentanyl-contaminated heroin (FCH) use is increasing rapidly in the United States. We examined risk factors for exposure to FCH and experiences with FCH use among young adult non-medical prescription opioids (NMPO) users. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Rhode Island Young Adult Prescription Drug Study (RAPiDS), which enrolled young adults aged 18 to 29 reporting prior 30day NMPO use between January 2015 and February 2016...
January 6, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081060/erratum-vol-65-nos-50-51
#13
(no author information available yet)
In the report "Increases in Drug and Opioid-Involved Overdose Deaths - United States, 2010-2015" in both "TABLE 1. Number and age-adjusted rate of drug overdose deaths* involving natural and semisynthetic opioids(†) and methadone,(§,¶) by sex, age group, race/ethnicity,** U.S. Census region, and selected states(††) - United States, 2014 and 2015," and in "TABLE 2. Number and age-adjusted rate of drug overdose deaths* involving synthetic opioids other than methadone(†) and heroin,(§,¶) by sex, age group, race/ethnicity,** U...
January 13, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079530/can-intoxication-status-be-used-as-a-prediction-tool-for-manner-of-death-a-comparison-of-the-intoxication-status-in-violent-suicides-and-homicides
#14
D Kimberley Molina, Veronica M Hargrove
Determining the manner of death in medicolegal death investigations can be difficult. The investigator relies on many facets of death investigation, including the circumstances of death and autopsy examination. A study was designed to analyze whether the intoxication status of the decedent could be used as another tool in death investigations. The intoxication status of violent (nonoverdose or poisoning) suicides and homicides was retrospectively reviewed and compared. A total of 625 deaths were identified, including 366 suicides and 259 homicides...
January 10, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077147/the-political-and-scientific-challenges-in-evaluating-compulsory-drug-treatment-centers-in-southeast-asia
#15
Thu Vuong, Nhu Nguyen, Giang Le, Marian Shanahan, Robert Ali, Alison Ritter
BACKGROUND: In Vietnam, like many countries in Southeast Asia, the commonly used approach of center-based compulsory drug treatment (CCT) has been criticized on human rights ground. Meanwhile, community-based voluntary methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been implemented for nearly a decade with promising results. Reform-minded leaders have been seeking empirical evidence of the costs and effectiveness associated with these two main treatment modalities. Conducting evaluations of these treatments, especially where randomization is not ethical, presents challenges...
January 11, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074855/mir-218-targets-mecp2-and-inhibits-heroin-seeking-behavior
#16
Biao Yan, Zhaoyang Hu, Wenqing Yao, Qiumin Le, Bo Xu, Xing Liu, Lan Ma
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of evolutionarily conserved, 18-25 nucleotide non-coding sequences that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. Recent studies implicated their roles in the regulation of neuronal functions, such as learning, cognition and memory formation. Here we report that miR-218 inhibits heroin-induced behavioral plasticity. First, network propagation-based method was used to predict candidate miRNAs that played potential key roles in regulating drug addiction-related genes. Microarray screening was also carried out to identify miRNAs responding to chronic heroin administration in the nucleus accumbens (NAc)...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068563/a-review-fentanyl-and-non-pharmaceutical-fentanyls
#17
REVIEW
Joji Suzuki, Saria El-Haddad
BACKGROUND: Fentanyl and non-pharmaceutical fentanyls (NPFs) have been responsible for numerous outbreaks of overdoses all over the United States since the 1970s. However, there has been a growing concern in recent years that NPFs are contributing to an alarming rise in the number of opioid-related overdoses. METHODS: The authors conducted a narrative review of the published and grey literature on fentanyl and NPFs in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Google using the following search terms: "fentanyl", "non-pharmaceutical fentanyl", "fentanyl analogs", "fentanyl laced heroin" and "fentanyl overdose"...
December 16, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065255/a-54-year-old-man-with-lingual-granuloma-and-multiple-pulmonary-excavated-nodules
#18
Julien Dang, Noémie Chanson, Caroline Charlier, Christine Bonnal, Gregory Jouvion, Tiphaine Goulenok, Thomas Papo, Karim Sacre
A 54-year-old French man was admitted for evaluation of a chronic nodular lesion of the tongue and mandibular lymphadenopathy. He reported active tobacco and cannabis smoking as well as excessive alcohol use. He also reported frequent use of cocaine for several months and a past addiction to IV heroin. He had traveled abroad as a journalist and lived for several months in Columbia and Venezuela 12 years ago. His medical history included chronic hepatitis C infection successfully treated with interferon and ribavirin 6 years ago and high BP...
January 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063398/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-and-oxidative-stress-in-heroin-dependent-male-patients-undergoing-methadone-maintenance-treatment
#19
Meng-Chang Tsai, Tiao-Lai Huang
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and oxidative stress may play a role in patients with heroin dependence. The aim of this study was to investigate the serum levels and activities of BDNF and oxidative stress markers, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyl content (PCC), and 8-hydroxy 2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), in heroin-dependent patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). 60 heroin-dependent male MMT patients and 30 healthy males were recruited for this study...
December 27, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061909/opioid-overdose-prevention-and-naloxone-rescue-kits-what-we-know-and-what-we-don-t-know
#20
REVIEW
Todd Kerensky, Alexander Y Walley
The opioid use and overdose crisis is persistent and dynamic. Opioid overdoses were initially driven in the 1990s and 2000s by the increasing availability and misuse of prescription opioids. More recently, opioid overdoses are increasing at alarming rates due to wider use of heroin, which in some places is mixed with fentanyl or fentanyl derivatives. Naloxone access for opioid overdose rescue is one of the US Department of Health and Human Services' three priority areas for responding to the opioid crisis. This article summarizes the known benefits of naloxone access and details unanswered questions about overdose education and naloxone rescue kits...
January 7, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
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