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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773359/-psychoactive-substances-use-in-r%C3%A3-union-island-and-mayotte-french-departments-in-indian-ocean
#1
Amélie Daveluy, Françoise Haramburu
INTRODUCTION: The government plan for the fight against drugs and addictive behaviors 2013-2017 includes several actions concerning French overseas territories, in particular to strengthen information on drug addiction. The Interministerial mission for combating drugs and addictive behaviors (MILD&CA) has commissioned the Bordeaux addictovigilance center to strengthen exchanges on addictovigilance with Réunion Island and Mayotte and to make an inventory of problematic drug use in these two French departments of Indian Ocean...
February 27, 2018: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772331/surgical-treatment-of-a-high-flow-femoro-femoral-arteriovenous-fistula-in-an-intravenous-drug-abuser
#2
Pietro Rossetti, Paolo Perini, Alessandro Ucci, Gaetano Carolla, Antonio Freyrie, Roberto Quintavalla
OBJECTIVE: To report the surgical treatment of a high-flow femoro-femoral arteriovenous fistula (AVF), a rare complication of intravenous drug abuse. CASE REPORT: A 36-year-old woman with history of intravenous heroin and cocaine abuse presented with right lower limb oedema, inguinal bruit and heart failure. Duplex ultrasound examination and CT-angiography showed a large, high-flow AVF involving the common femoral vein and the superficial femoral artery, associated with thrombosis of the great saphenous vein and an important inflammation in the right groin, without active bleeding...
May 14, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769132/toots-tastes-and-tester-shots-user-accounts-of-drug-sampling-methods-for-gauging-heroin-potency
#3
Sarah G Mars, Jeff Ondocsin, Daniel Ciccarone
BACKGROUND: Internationally, overdose is the primary cause of death among people injecting drugs. However, since 2001, heroin-related overdose deaths in the United States (US) have risen sixfold, paralleled by a rise in the death rate attributed to synthetic opioids, particularly the fentanyls. This paper considers the adaptations some US heroin injectors are making to protect themselves from these risks. METHODS: Between 2015 and 2016, a team of ethnographers collected data through semi-structured interviews and observation captured in field notes and video recording of heroin preparation/consumption...
May 16, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760180/the-affective-and-neural-correlates-of-heroin-vs-cocaine-use-in-addiction-are-influenced-by-environmental-setting-but-in-opposite-directions
#4
Silvana De Pirro, Gaspare Galati, Luigi Pizzamiglio, Aldo Badiani
Previous studies have shown that individuals with heroin and cocaine addiction prefer to use these drugs in distinct settings: mostly at home in the case of heroin and mostly outside the home in the case of cocaine. Here we investigated whether the context would modulate the affective and neural responses to these drugs in a similar way. First, we used a novel emotional task to assess the affective state produced by heroin or cocaine in different settings, based on the recollections of male and female drug users...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759251/using-of-aerodynamic-droplet-breakup-for-mass-spectrometric-analysis
#5
Viktor V Pervukhin, Dmitriy G Sheven
The method of ionization by aerodynamic droplet breakup is considered for applications in mass spectrometric analysis. It is assumed that Aerodynamic Breakup Droplet Ionization (ABDI) occurs in a tube linking the region of atmospheric pressure to the area of weak vacuum. The possibility of ionization of solutions of organic compounds and organometallic complexes is shown. As test compounds were chosen: heroin (as an example of organic compounds) and organometallic complexes of ruthenium and copper, dissolved in water or acetonitrile...
August 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757600/dark-classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-morphine
#6
Andrea L Devereaux, Susan L Mercer, Christopher W Cunningham
As the major psychoactive agent in opium and direct precursor for heroin, morphine is a historically critical molecule in chemical neuroscience. A structurally complex phenanthrene alkaloid produced by Papaver somniferum, morphine has fascinated chemists seeking to disentangle pharmacologically beneficial analgesic effects from addiction, tolerance, and dependence liabilities. In this review, we will detail the history of morphine, from the first extraction and isolation by Sertürner in 1804 to the illicit use of morphine and proliferation of opioid use and abuse disorders currently ravaging the United States...
May 14, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754104/measuring-individual-level-needle-and-syringe-coverage-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-myanmar
#7
Daniel O'Keefe, Soe Moe Aung, Naanki Pasricha, Thu Wun, Soe Khaing Linn, Nay Lin, Campbell Aitken, Chad Hughes, Paul Dietze
BACKGROUND: Myanmar has prioritised people who inject drugs (PWID) as a key population for HIV mitigation efforts, with targets for needle and syringe distribution set at a population level. However, individual-level coverage, defined as the percentage of an individual's injecting episodes covered by a sterile syringe, is a more sensitive measure of intervention coverage. We sought to examine individual-level coverage in a sample of PWID in Myanmar. METHODS: We recruited 512 PWID through urban drop-in-centres in Yangon, Mandalay and Pyin Oo Lwin...
May 10, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750250/analysis-of-fentanyl-and-18-novel-fentanyl-analogs-and-metabolites-by-lc-ms-ms-and-report-of-fatalities-associated-with-methoxyacetylfentanyl-and-cyclopropylfentanyl
#8
Melissa F Fogarty, Donna M Papsun, Barry K Logan
Methoxyacetylfentanyl and cyclopropylfentanyl are two of the newest illicit opioids that are infiltrating the heroin market. Methoxyacetylfentanyl and cyclopropylfentanyl were reported by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) in their third quarter report of 2017 to have been chemically identified seven and five times, respectively, from drug evidence analyzed by the DEA's lab system; Q3 was the first time cyclopropylfentanyl was identified by the DEA's lab system, while methoxyacetylfentanyl was reported one time in Q2 2017...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747875/young-adults-opioid-use-trajectories-from-nonmedical-prescription-opioid-use-to-heroin-drug-injection-drug-treatment-and-overdose
#9
Honoria Guarino, Pedro Mateu-Gelabert, Jennifer Teubl, Elizabeth Goodbody
INTRODUCTION: Recent research has begun to explore the transition from nonmedical use of prescription opioids (POs) to heroin and injection drug use, adding to earlier literature identifying factors that influence the transition from intranasal to injection use of heroin. However, little research has explored how these transitions are embedded within young people's broader opioid use trajectories - individual pathways that may also include experiences of nonfatal overdose and drug treatment...
May 1, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739133/increased-neutrophil-lymphocyte-and-platelet-lymphocyte-ratios-in-male-heroin-addicts-a-prospective-controlled-study
#10
Erdinc Cıcek, Başak Demırel, Ismet Esra Cıcek, Aslı Seda Kıraç, Ibrahim Eren
Objective: The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are markers that can determine the presence of systemic inflammatory response. In this study, we examined the NLR and PLR levels in patients with heroin dependence compared to healthy controls. Methods: The study sample included 90 male patients with heroin dependence aged 18 to 45 years and 60 healthy subjects who had similar socio-demographic characteristics as the patient group...
May 31, 2018: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735630/running-the-numbers-county-level-dynamics-of-heroin-mortality-in-north-carolina
#11
Alexander H Gunn, Bryce Bartlett, Grace Feng, Matthew Gayed, Katie Kanter, Erica Onuoha, Madeline Thornton, Andrew Muzyk, Nicole Schramm-Sapyta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: North Carolina Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735625/how-did-we-get-here-heroin-and-fentanyl-trafficking-trends-a-law-enforcement-perspective
#12
Leslie Cooley Dismukes
Illicit heroin and fentanyl are infecting North Carolina's communities, and causing an increasing number of overdose deaths. These trends in drug trafficking and opioid misuse represent a dramatic shift, necessitating a new and coordinated law enforcement response. The North Carolina Attorney General's Office is committed to working toward increased enforcement, prevention, and treatment to address this epidemic.
May 2018: North Carolina Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728088/opioid-substitution-treatment-and-heroin-dependent-adolescents-reductions-in-heroin-use-and-treatment-retention-over-twelve-months
#13
Bobby P Smyth, Khalifa Elmusharaf, Walter Cullen
BACKGROUND: Opioid dependence is a major health concern across the world and does also occur in adolescents. While opioid substitution treatment (OST) has been thoroughly evaluated in adult populations, very few studies have examined its use in adolescents. There are concerns that OST is underutilised in adolescents with heroin dependence. We sought to measure changes in drug use among adolescents receiving OST and also to examine treatment attrition during the first 12 months of this treatment...
May 4, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726847/opioid-induced-hyperalgesia-in-the-nonsurgical-setting-a-systematic-review
#14
David Z Yang, Billy Sin, Joshua Beckhusen, Dawei Xia, Rebecca Khaimova, Ilia Iliev
BACKGROUND: Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) is a phenomenon that causes an increased pain sensitization and perception of pain to noxious stimuli secondary to opioid exposure. While this clinical effect has been described in the surgical setting, it is unclear if OIH occurs in the nonsurgical setting. STUDY QUESTION: To review the available literature which evaluated OIH in nonsurgical settings. DATA SOURCES: A comprehensive literature search was performed using PubMed (January 1946-July 2017) using a variety of keywords for OIH...
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726093/effects-of-heroin-on-rat-prosocial-behavior
#15
Seven E Tomek, Gabriela M Stegmann, M Foster Olive
Opioid use disorders are characterized in part by impairments in social functioning. Previous research indicates that laboratory rats, which are frequently used as animal models of addiction-related behaviors, are capable of prosocial behavior. For example, under normal conditions, when a 'free' rat is placed in the vicinity of rat trapped in a plastic restrainer, the rat will release or 'rescue' the other rat from confinement. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of heroin on prosocial behavior in rats...
May 4, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724988/total-gastric-necrosis-due-to-mucormycosis-a-rare-case-of-gastric-perforation
#16
Salah Termos, Feras Othman, Mohammad Alali, Bader M S Al Bader, Talal Alkhadher, Wael Fathi Hassanaiah, Ali Taqi, Abhijit Sapkal
BACKGROUND Spontaneous gastric perforation is usually a complication of peptic ulcer disease, or a postoperative complication resulting from gastric torsion. Mucormycosis (or zygomycosis) is an uncommon opportunistic fungal infection that is usually seen in immunocompromised patients and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This report is of a rare case of spontaneous gastric perforation due to mucormycosis infection. CASE REPORT A 52-year-old woman, with a past medical history of heroin abuse, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease treated by dialysis, presented to the emergency department with cellulitis of the arms...
May 4, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723483/breastfeeding-intention-compared-with-breastfeeding-postpartum-among-women-receiving-medication-assisted-treatment
#17
Nicole Yonke, Rebekah Maston, Sherry Weitzen, Lawrence Leeman
BACKGROUND: Women taking methadone or buprenorphine are encouraged to breastfeed if stable without polysubstance use. Research Aim: We aimed to determine the difference between stated intention to breastfeed prenatally in women taking methadone or buprenorphine compared with breastfeeding at discharge and 2 months postpartum. Secondary outcomes were determining whether breastfeeding was more common in women taking buprenorphine, in women without hepatitis C infection, and in women without a history of heroin use, and whether breastfeeding reduced the need for pharmacological treatment of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719345/status-investigation-of-outpatients-receiving-methadone-maintenance-treatment-mmt-in-shanghai-from-2005-to-2016
#18
Jiayi Bao, Lei Zhang, Zhen Ning, Jie Fu, Min Zhao, Jiang DU
Background: Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is an effective measure to control drug abuse, prevent AIDS, and improve family and social functions among those with heroin addiction. Relevant surveys in recent years show that the number of outpatients receiving MMT has a downward trend. Aims: To understand variation in maintenance treatment rates and causes of withdrawal for outpatients receiving MMT in Shanghai since initiation of this program. Method: This study was a retrospective investigation, with data from the AIDS Comprehensive Prevention and Control Data Information Management System of the China AIDS Prevention and Control Center...
December 25, 2017: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718715/treatment-outcomes-among-a-cohort-of-african-american-buprenorphine-patients-follow-up-at-12-months
#19
Laura B Monico, Jan Gryczynski, Robert P Schwartz, Jerome H Jaffe, Kevin E O'Grady, Shannon Gwin Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Although buprenorphine/naloxone (bup/nal) is well-established as a safe and effective treatment for opioid use disorders (OUDs), there are few studies reporting 12-month outcomes of patients receiving bup/nal in formerly drug-free outpatient programs. OBJECTIVES: To examine 12-month outcomes by bup/nal treatment enrollment status among a cohort of African American patients enrolled in a clinical trial. METHODS: This analysis builds upon a randomized trial of 300 opioid-dependent African American bup/nal patients in two outpatient programs in Baltimore, MD...
May 2, 2018: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713602/chemiluminescence-based-immunoassay-for-the-detection-of-heroin-and-its-metabolites
#20
Smritee Singh, Priya Mishra, Ivneet Banga, Avanish S Parmar, Prem Prakash Tripathi, Sonu Gandhi
Introduction: Continuous use of opiates causes drug-related illnesses, which poses an alarming situation to develop sensitive detection platform. In this study, a highly sensitive and reliable chemiluminescence immunoassay (CI) has been developed for the detection of heroin and its major metabolites in spiked urine samples. Methods: To develop robust immunoassay, monoacetyl morphine-bovine serum albumin (MAM-BSA) conjugate was synthesized and characterized thoroughly by physicochemical techniques. The anti-MAM antibodies were developed, labeled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and immunoassay was developed to detect the presence of target drug in spiked urine samples...
2018: BioImpacts: BI
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