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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719885/racial-and-ethnic-differences-in-opioid-agonist-treatment-for-opioid-use-disorder-in-a-u-s-national-sample
#1
Noa Krawczyk, Kenneth A Feder, Michael I Fingerhood, Brendan Saloner
BACKGROUND: Opioid Agonist Treatment (OAT) is the standard of care for the treatment of opioid use disorders. However, most people in treatment do not receive OAT. This study evaluated whether there are racial and/or ethnic differences in OAT receipt among adults entering specialty treatment for opioid use disorders in publicly-funded treatment programs across the U.S. METHODS: Using data from the national Treatment: Episode Data Base, odds of OAT receipt were compared among black, Hispanic and white clients...
July 11, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719884/increases-from-2002-to-2015-in-prescription-opioid-overdose-deaths-in-combination-with-other-substances
#2
Denise B Kandel, Mei-Chen Hu, Pamela Griesler, Melanie Wall
BACKGROUND: Prescription opioid (PO) overdose deaths increased sharply over the last decade. Changes in PO deaths in combination with other psychoactive substances may provide a partial explanation. METHODS: PO deaths from the National Multiple-Cause-of-Death Files for 2002-03 (N=15,973) and 2014-15 (N=41,491) were analyzed. We calculated (1) changes in proportions of deaths in combination with benzodiazepines, antidepressants, heroin, alcohol, cocaine between the two periods, and (2) proportions of increase in deaths attributable to each substance among PO and synthetic opioids other than methadone (SO-M) deaths, by age, gender, race/ethnicity...
July 4, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719091/multimodal-analgesia-as-an-alternative-to-the-risks-of-opioid-monotherapy-in-surgical-pain-management
#3
John J Savarese, Norman G Tabler
Clinicians have long been aware of the danger of overreliance on opioids to manage acute pain, such as the pain accompanying surgery. The risk of adverse drug events is higher with opioids than with any other common class of drugs. Overreliance on opioids increases length of stay and hospital costs, while decreasing patient satisfaction. Opioids can lead to problems that continue well after discharge, including chronic pain, abuse and addiction, and even death. Increasingly, prescribed opioids have proved to lead to heroin addiction...
July 2017: Journal of Healthcare Risk Management: the Journal of the American Society for Healthcare Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719060/drug-use-and-phylogenetic-clustering-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-among-people-who-use-drugs-in-vancouver-canada-a-latent-class-analysis-approach
#4
Brendan Jacka, Bethany Bray, Tanya L Applegate, Brandon Dl Marshall, Viviane Dias Lima, Kanna Hayashi, Kora DeBeck, Jayna Raghwani, P Richard Harrigan, Mel Krajden, Julio Montaner, Jason Grebely
BACKGROUND: This study estimated latent classes (i.e., unobserved subgroups in a population) of people who use drugs in Vancouver, Canada and examined how these classes relate to phylogenetic clustering of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS: HCV antibody positive people who use drugs from two cohorts in Vancouver, Canada (1996-2012) with a Core-E2 sequence were included. Time-stamped phylogenetic trees were inferred and phylogenetic clustering was determined by time to most common recent ancestor...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716395/-it-ruined-my-life-the-effects-of-the-war-on-drugs-on-people-who-inject-drugs-pwid-in-rural-puerto-rico
#5
R Abadie, C Gelpi-Acosta, C Davila, A Rivera, M Welch-Lazoritz, K Dombrowski
BACKGROUND: The War on Drugs has raised the incarceration rates of racial minorities for non-violent drug-related crimes, profoundly stigmatized drug users, and redirected resources from drug prevention and treatment to militarizing federal and local law enforcement. Yet, while some states consider shifting their punitive approach to drug use, to one based on drug treatment and rehabilitation, nothing suggests that these policy shifts are being replicated in Puerto Rico. METHODS: This paper utilizes data from 360 PWID residing in four rural towns in the mountainous area of central Puerto Rico...
July 14, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708940/the-street-like-synthesis-of-krokodil-results-in-the-formation-of-an-enlarged-cluster-of-known-and-new-morphinans-with-therapeutic-potential
#6
José Soares, Emanuele Alves, André Silva, Natália Figueiredo, João F Neves, Sara Cravo, Maria Rangel, Annibal Netto, Félix Carvalho, Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira, Carlos Afonso
"Krokodil" is the street name for a homemade injectable drug that has been used as a cheap substitute for heroin. Codeine is the opioid starting material for krokodil synthesis and desomorphine is the opioid claimed to be the main component of krokodil and the main responsible for its addictive and psychoactive characteristics. However, due to its peculiar manufacture, using cheap raw materials, krokodil is composed by a large and complex mixture of different substances. In order to shed some light upon the chemical complexity of krokodil, its profiling was conducted by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detector (RP-HPLC-DAD) and by liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-IT-Orbitrap-MS)...
July 14, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703355/neuronal-representation-of-individual-heroin-choices-in-the-orbitofrontal-cortex
#7
Karine Guillem, Viridiana Brenot, Audrey Durand, Serge H Ahmed
Drug addiction is a harmful preference for drug use over and at the expense of other non-drug-related activities. We previously identified in the rat orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) a mechanism that influences individual preferences between cocaine use and an alternative action rewarded by a non-drug reward (i.e. sweet water). Here, we sought to test the generality of this mechanism to a different addictive drug, heroin. OFC neuronal activity was recorded while rats responded for heroin or the alternative non-drug reward separately or while they chose between the two...
July 13, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699480/adulteration-practices-of-psychoactive-illicit-drugs-an-updated-review
#8
Renata Solimini, Maria Concetta Rotolo, Manuela Pellegrini, Adele Minutillo, Roberta Pacifici, Francesco Paolo Busardò, Simona Zaami
BACKGROUND: It is well known that powdery drugs such as cocaine and heroin are frequently adulterated or diluted predominantly to obtain more doses and to increase the drug dealer's profits, but also to enhance, to modify or to oppose drug effects. METHODS: The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the recent scientific literature on medicines as well as on new psychoactive substances, used as cutting agents (i.e. pharmacologically active adulterants) and on the related adverse health effects on consumers, possibly due to the synergistic effect of the adulterants laced with substances of abuse, which represent a matter of great concern because of the frequent fatalities...
July 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699096/hepatitis-c-cascade-of-care-among-pregnant-women-on-opioid-agonist-pharmacotherapy-attending-a-comprehensive-prenatal-program
#9
Kimberly Page, Lawrence Leeman, Steven Bishop, Sandra Cano, Ludmila N Bakhireva
Background Given the large increases in opioid use among pregnant women and associations with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, screening pregnant women who are on (opioid agonist) pharmacotherapy for HCV infection has potential to inform medical care for these mothers as well as their newborns. We investigated the HCV testing cascade among pregnant women on pharmacotherapy in order to describe exposure and infection rates and to identify opportunities that would improve care. Methods Secondary analyses of laboratory results were performed for HCV testing, including anti-HCV, viremia (RNA) and genotype...
July 11, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695243/cns-metabolism-in-high-risk-drug-abuse-insights-gained-from-1-h-31-p-mrs-and-pet
#10
REVIEW
S Bodea
BACKGROUND: High-risk drug consumption is a matter of great concern for public health actors in industrialised countries. The latest trends show a market tendency towards diversification and increasing demand for high-purity synthetic drugs. While most consumers seek medical help after cannabis use, it is high-risk drugs like cocaine, heroin and amphetamines that account for most of the 1000 drug-related deaths that occur in Germany every year. PURPOSE: This article presents the most prominent in vivo cerebral metabolic information in cocaine, heroin and methamphetamine users provided by MRI spectroscopy and PET imaging...
July 10, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692945/impact-of-new-york-prescription-drug-monitoring-program-i-stop-on-statewide-overdose-morbidity
#11
Richard Brown, Moira R Riley, Lydia Ulrich, Ellen Percy Kraly, Paul Jenkins, Nicole L Krupa, Anne Gadomski
BACKGROUND: Prescription Drug Monitoring programs (PDMPs) are intended to reduce opioid prescribing and aberrant drug-related behavior thereby reducing morbidity and mortality due to prescription opioid overdose. Expansion of the New York (NY) State's PDMP in 2013 included the institution of the I-STOP law that mandated clinicians to consult the statewide PDMP database to review the patient's prescription history prior to prescribing opioids. METHODS: Trends in prescription opioid distribution, prescribing, and prescription opioid and heroin overdose morbidity in NY were analyzed using time series...
June 23, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692418/contribution-of-genetic-polymorphisms-and-haplotypes-in-drd2-bdnf-and-opioid-receptors-to-heroin-dependence-and-endophenotypes-among-the-han-chinese
#12
Xuan Gao, Youxin Wang, Minglin Lang, Li Yuan, Albert Stuart Reece, Wei Wang
Heroin and drug dependence are major contributors to global health burden worldwide, but their underlying mechanisms remain elusive and may vary from population to population. Reward- and memory-related candidate genes dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), as well as the opioid receptor genes (OPRM1, OPRD1, and OPRK1), have been implicated in drug dependence, but relatively little is known on their contributions to heroin dependence in populations worldwide. Hence, we evaluated the contributions of the above five candidate genes in heroin dependence and several important related endophenotypes (the onset age of heroin use and subjective response to first heroin use), at single single-nucleotide polymorphism as well as haplotype levels, in a Han Chinese population sample...
July 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692400/developing-syndromic-surveillance-to-monitor-and-respond-to-adverse-health-events-related-to-psychoactive-substance-use-methods-and-applications
#13
Michelle L Nolan, Hillary V Kunins, Ramona Lall, Denise Paone
INTRODUCTION: Recent increases in drug overdose deaths, both in New York City and nationally, highlight the need for timely data on psychoactive drug-related morbidity. We developed drug syndrome definitions for syndromic surveillance to monitor drug-related emergency department (ED) visits in real time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used 2012 archived syndromic surveillance data from New York City hospitals to develop definitions for psychoactive drug-related syndromes...
July 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692390/use-of-emergency-department-data-to-monitor-and-respond-to-an-increase-in-opioid-overdoses-in-new-hampshire-2011-2015
#14
Elizabeth R Daly, Kenneth Dufault, David J Swenson, Paul Lakevicius, Erin Metcalf, Benjamin P Chan
OBJECTIVES: Opioid-related overdoses and deaths in New Hampshire have increased substantially in recent years, similar to increases observed across the United States. We queried emergency department (ED) data in New Hampshire to monitor opioid-related ED encounters as part of the public health response to this health problem. METHODS: We obtained data on opioid-related ED encounters for the period January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2015, from New Hampshire's syndromic surveillance ED data system by querying for (1) chief complaint text related to the words "fentanyl," "heroin," "opiate," and "opioid" and (2) opioid-related International Classification of Diseases ( ICD) codes...
July 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692385/local-public-health-surveillance-of-heroin-related-morbidity-and-mortality-orange-county-florida-2010-2014
#15
Toni-Marie L Hudson, Benjamin G Klekamp, Sarah D Matthews
OBJECTIVES: Heroin-related deaths have increased substantially in the past 10 years in the United States, particularly in Florida. Our objectives were to measure heroin-related morbidity and mortality rates in Orange County, Florida, and to assess trends in those rates during 2010-2014. METHODS: We used 3 heroin surveillance methods, based on data from the Florida Medical Examiner, the Florida Agency for Health Care Administration (AHCA), and the Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-Based Epidemics-Florida (ESSENCE-FL)...
July 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688539/us-regional-and-demographic-differences-in-prescription-opioid-and-heroin-related-overdose-hospitalizations
#16
George Jay Unick, Daniel Ciccarone
BACKGROUND: US opioid overdose death rates have increased between 2000 and 2014. While, the increase in prescription opioid use has been linked to the increase in heroin use, there are reasons to view this relationship as a partial explanation for the recent increase in heroin-related harms. This study documents the differences in trends in prescription opioid overdose-related (POD) and heroin overdose-related (HOD) hospitalizations. METHODS: Data come from the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) for the years 2000 through 2014...
July 5, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687187/naloxone-for-heroin-prescription-opioid-and-illicitly-made-fentanyl-overdoses-challenges-and-innovations-responding-to-a-dynamic-epidemic
#17
Nadia Fairbairn, Phillip O Coffin, Alexander Y Walley
Community-based overdose prevention programs first emerged in the 1990's and are now the leading public health intervention for overdose. Key elements of these programs are overdose education and naloxone distribution to people who use opioids and their social networks. We review the evolution of naloxone programming through the heroin overdose era of the 1990's, the prescription opioid era of the 2000's, and the current overdose crisis stemming from the synthetic opioid era of illicitly manufactured fentanyl and its analogues in the 2010's...
July 4, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685296/methamphetamine-induced-toxic-leukoencephalopathy-clinical-radiological-and-autopsy-findings
#18
Jiao Mu, Meiyu Li, Ying Guo, Bin Lv, Mingjie Qiu, Hongmei Dong
Toxic leukoencephalopathy represents a process of structural alteration of the white matter. It is caused by substance abuse including drugs such as heroin, cocaine, toluene and ethanol. We reported the clinical, radiological and autopsy findings of a rare case of toxic leukoencephalopathy following chronic methamphetamine (MA) usage. A 34-year-old man with a 3-year history of MA abuse experienced progressive sluggish state, limb weakness, inability to stand and eating disorders, followed by rapid progression to coma and death...
July 6, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683227/supervised-injectable-heroin-a-clinical-perspective
#19
James Bell, Rob van der Waal, John Strang
BACKGROUND: Six recent randomised control trials (RCTs) have suggested that supervised injectable heroin (SIH) can be effective in patients who persist in street heroin use during methadone treatment. However, short-term randomised control trials have limitations in assessing the effectiveness of treatments for addictive disorders, which are chronic and relapsing disorders of motivation. These RCTs particularly fail to capture the process of the SIH treatment and the diversity of influence and change over time...
July 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682218/differences-in-the-rates-of-drug-polyconsumption-and-psychiatric-comorbidity-among-patients-with-cocaine-use-disorders-according-to-the-mental-health-service
#20
P Araos, Esperanza Vergara-Moragues, Francisco González-Saiz, María Pedraz, Nuria García-Marchena, Pablo Romero-Sanchiz, Juan Jesus Ruiz, Rafael Campos-Cloute, Antonia Serrano, Francisco Javier Pavón, Marta Torrens, Fernando Rodriguez De Fonseca
Cocaine continues to be a worldwide public health concern in Europe. To improve prognosis and intervention, it is necessary to understand the characteristics of the patients who depend on the services where they receive care. The objective is to analyze the differences among patients who use cocaine and between ambulatory and residential resources to better adapt treatment. This is a descriptive, observational study of two populations of cocaine users in treatment: the ambulatory therapeutic community (ATC) and the therapeutic community (TC)...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
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