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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349219/drug-involvement-in-fatal-overdoses
#1
Christopher J Ruhm
Death certificate data from the Multiple Cause of Death (MCOD) files were analyzed to better understand the drug categories most responsible for the increase in fatal overdoses occurring between 1999 and 2014. Statistical adjustment methods were used to account for the understatement in reported drug involvement occurring because death certificates frequently do not specify which drugs were involved in the deaths. The frequency of combination drug use introduced additional uncertainty and so a distinction was made between any versus exclusive drug involvement...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339294/ketamine-for-the-treatment-of-addiction-evidence-and-potential-mechanisms
#2
REVIEW
I Ivan Ezquerra-Romano, W Lawn, E Krupitsky, C J A Morgan
Ketamine is a dissociative anaesthetic drug which acts on the central nervous system chiefly through antagonism of the n-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Recently, ketamine has attracted attention as a rapid-acting anti-depressant but other studies have also reported its efficacy in reducing problematic alcohol and drug use. This review explores the preclinical and clinical research into ketamine's ability to treat addiction. Despite methodological limitations and the relative infancy of the field, results thus far are promising...
January 12, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338578/cannabis-use-is-associated-with-lower-odds-of-prescription-opioid-analgesic-use-among-hiv-infected-individuals-with-chronic-pain
#3
Nancy L Sohler, Joanna L Starrels, Laila Khalid, Marcus A Bachhuber, Julia H Arnsten, Shadi Nahvi, John Jost, Chinazo O Cunningham
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is common in the United States and prescribed opioid analgesics use for noncancer pain has increased dramatically in the past two decades, possibly accounting for the current opioid addiction epidemic. Co-morbid drug use in those prescribed opioid analgesics is common, but there are few data on polysubstance use patterns. OBJECTIVE: We explored patterns of use of cigarette, alcohol, and illicit drugs in HIV-infected people with chronic pain who were prescribed opioid analgesics...
January 17, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337399/impact-of-pregnancy-on-psychoactive-substance-use-among-women-with-substance-use-disorders-recruited-in-addiction-specialized-care-centers-in-france
#4
Liselotte Pochard, Julie Dupouy, Elisabeth Frauger, Adeline Giocanti, Joëlle Micallef, Maryse Lapeyre-Mestre
Pregnancy can be a motivation for decrease in drug abusing but may also represent a period of high vulnerability for relapse.We aimed to assess psychoactive substance use among women with substance use disorders followed in addiction care centers in France. We analyzed data from women aged 15-44 years included in the 'Observation of illegal drugs and misuse of psychotropic medication survey' (OPPIDUM), an annualcross-sectional survey collecting details on psychoactive substances used. Characteristics of women included in 2005 to 2012 yearly surveys were compared depending on their pregnant or not pregnant status...
January 16, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336948/the-effect-of-a-potentially-tamper-resistant-oxycodone-formulation-on-opioid-use-and-harm-main-findings-of-the-national-opioid-medications-abuse-deterrence-nomad-study
#5
Briony Larance, Timothy Dobbins, Amy Peacock, Robert Ali, Raimondo Bruno, Nicholas Lintzeris, Michael Farrell, Louisa Degenhardt
BACKGROUND: Escalation of pharmaceutical opioid use and harm in North America is well-documented, with similar issues emerging in Australia. One response is the development of tamper-resistant formulations of opioids. A potentially tamper-resistant formulation of controlled-release oxycodone was introduced in Australia in April, 2014, rapidly replacing the non-tamper-resistant formulation. Our study is the most systematic and comprehensive examination of the impact of a new opioid formulation to date, assessing the effect of tamper-resistant formulation of controlled-release oxycodone on population-level opioid use and opioid-related harm (ie, overdose, help-seeking, and treatment-seeking); and opioid use, tampering, and preference for the tamper-resistant formulation of controlled-release oxycodone compared with other drugs or formulations among sentinel populations likely to tamper with pharmaceutical opioids...
January 10, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334921/a-pilot-feasibility-randomised-controlled-trial-of-an-adjunct-brief-social-network-intervention-in-opiate-substitution-treatment-services
#6
Ed Day, Alex Copello, Jennifer L Seddon, Marilyn Christie, Deborah Bamber, Charlotte Powell, Carmel Bennett, Shabana Akhtar, Sanju George, Andrew Ball, Emma Frew, Ilias Goranitis, Nick Freemantle
BACKGROUND: Approximately 3% of people receiving opioid substitution therapy (OST) in the UK manage to achieve abstinence from prescribed and illicit drugs within three years of commencing treatment. Involvement of families and wider social networks in supporting psychological treatment may be an effective strategy in facilitating recovery, and this pilot study aimed to evaluate the impact of a social network-focused intervention for patients receiving OST. METHODS: A two-site, open feasibility trial randomised patients receiving OST for at least 12 months but still reporting illicit opiate use in the past 28 days to one of three treatments: 1) treatment as usual (TAU), 2) Brief Social Behaviour and Network Therapy (B-SBNT) + TAU, or 3) Personal Goal Setting (PGS) + TAU...
January 15, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333664/increased-non-fatal-overdose-risk-associated-with-involuntary-drug-treatment-in-a-longitudinal-study-with-people-who-inject-drugs
#7
Claudia Rafful, Ricardo Orozco, Gudelia Rangel, Peter Davidson, Dan Werb, Leo Beletsky, Steffanie A Strathdee
AIM: To assess the effect of involuntary drug treatment (IDT) on non-fatal overdose among people who inject drugs (PWID). DESIGN: Longitudinal study. SETTING: Tijuana, Mexico. PARTICIPANTS: Baseline sample of 671 PWID included 258 (38.4%) women and 413 (61.6%) men. MEASUREMENTS: Primary independent variables were reported recent (i.e., past 6 months) non-fatal overdose event (dependent variable) and IDT...
January 14, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331188/-care-pathway-and-life-course-of-drug-addicted-patients
#8
Franck Warembourg, Victoria Varin
Placing drug addicts, notably heroin addicts, at the centre of their care project, itself part of a life project, is the objective of the Le Lac d'Argent association in Annecy. Caregivers have been able to reflect on their practices and help to fight against preconceived ideas. This article presents the experience of a global support approach.
January 2018: Revue de L'infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330986/use-of-psychoactive-drugs-among-medical-undergraduates-in-abbottabad
#9
Haq Nawaz, Aftab Alam Khan, Saima Bukhari
BACKGROUND: Psychoactive substance abuse is prevalent among medical undergraduates of Pakistan, India & Western countries which can adversely affect the physical & psychological grooming of a medical undergraduate thus threatening to compromise their role as future physicians & health-care providers in the society. The objective of the present cross-sectional study was to explore the prevalence and patterns of psychoactive substance/drug consumption among undergraduate students of a public sector medical college in Abbottabad...
October 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330135/apbb2-is-associated-with-amphetamine-use-and-plasma-beta-amyloids-in-patients-receiving-methadone-maintenance-treatment
#10
Chia-Chen Liu, Chiu-Ping Fang, Tung-Hsia Liu, Hsiang-Wei Kuo, Shu Chi Liu, Sheng-Chang Wang, Andrew C H Chen, Yu-Li Liu
APBB2, amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein-binding family B member 2, has been reported to be associated with opioid dependence. In this study, we reported the first time that the genetic variants in the APBB2 gene were associated with use of amphetamine in opioid dependent patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). 344 heroin-dependent patients undergoing MMT were recruited and assessed for use of amphetamine and opioids by urine toxicology, withdrawal severity, and side effects. DNAs were genome-widely genotyped for all patients...
January 9, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329388/a-series-of-deaths-involving-carfentanil-in-the-uk-and-associated-post-mortem-blood-concentrations
#11
Simon P Elliott, Elena Hernandez Lopez
The potent opioid and veterinary drug, carfentanil has recently entered the illicit drug market, especially in relation to heroin and cocaine. Recent publications have reported carfentanil concentrations found in fatalities occurring in the USA. This article presents the toxicological findings in seven heroin/cocaine cases occurring in the UK within a short period of time where carfentanil was detected and measured. Carfentanil was detected along with other drugs in all cases with no alcohol detected in the post-mortem blood in any of the cases...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326869/prenatal-methadone-exposure-is-associated-with-altered-neonatal-brain-development
#12
Victoria J Monnelly, Devasuda Anblagan, Alan Quigley, Manuel Blesa Cabez, E Sarah Cooper, Helen Mactier, Scott I Semple, Mark E Bastin, James P Boardman
Methadone is used for medication-assisted treatment of heroin addiction during pregnancy. The neurodevelopmental outcome of children with prenatal methadone exposure can be sub-optimal. We tested the hypothesis that brain development is altered among newborn infants whose mothers were prescribed methadone. 20 methadone-exposed neonates born after 37 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) and 20 non-exposed controls underwent diffusion MRI at mean PMA of 39+ 2 and 41+ 1 weeks, respectively. An age-optimized Tract-based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) pipeline was used to perform voxel-wise statistical comparison of fractional anisotropy (FA) data between exposed and non-exposed neonates...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322813/opioid-drug-poisonings-in-ohio-adolescents-and-young-adults-2002-2014
#13
Sarah Caupp, Janine Steffan, Junxin Shi, Krista K Wheeler, Henry A Spiller, Marcel J Casavant, Henry Xiang
CONTEXT: Opioids represent a drug class that adolescents and young adults intentionally misuse and abuse. When taken on their own or with other substances in this manner, opioids pose an increased risk of overdose and potential death. OBJECTIVE: To determine trends of opioid drug poisonings among adolescents and young adults in Ohio from 2002 to 2014 using Poison Control Center (PCC) data. METHODS: Data were obtained from Ohio PCCs from 2002 to 2014 for opioid drug poisonings amongst 10-29 year olds...
January 11, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320347/heroin-use-and-drug-injection-among-youth-also-misusing-prescription-drugs
#14
Sonali Rajan, Kelly V Ruggles, Honoria Guarino, Pedro Mateu-Gelabert
OBJECTIVES: We identified the prevalence of nonmedical prescription drug use and its relationship to heroin and injection drug use in 4 nationally representative samples of adolescents. METHODS: We used the most recent data (2009-2015) from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (Ntotal= 61,132). Prevalence rates and 95% confidence intervals for prescription drug misuse, heroin use, and injection drug use were calculated across time points, sex, and race/ethnicity subgroups...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320313/acute-radiologic-manifestations-of-america-s-opioid-epidemic
#15
David D B Bates, Katherine Gallagher, HeiShun Yu, Jennifer Uyeda, Akira M Murakami, Bindu N Setty, Stephan W Anderson, Mariza O Clement
The United States is in the midst of an opioid use epidemic, which has severe medical, social, and economic consequences. Addictions to and abuse of prescription and illicit opioids are increasing, and emergency department radiologists are increasingly being faced with the task of examining patients who present with opioid-related complications. These complications may be the result of direct drug toxicity or nonsterile injection of the drugs. Neurologic, musculoskeletal, cardiopulmonary, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal complications may be evident at diagnostic imaging in emergent settings...
January 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318568/response-heroin-use-could-also-be-associated-with-ruptured-aortic-aneurysms
#16
EDITORIAL
Anil Can, Rose Du
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317484/chemogenetic-excitation-of-accumbens-projecting-infralimbic-cortical-neurons-blocks-toluene-induced-conditioned-place-preference
#17
Wesley N Wayman, John J Woodward
Abuse rates for inhalants among adolescents continue to be high, yet preclinical models for studying mechanisms underlying inhalant abuse remain limited. Our lab has previously shown that, in male rats, an acute binge-like exposure to toluene vapor that mimics human solvent abuse modifies the intrinsic excitability of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) pyramidal neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens (NAc). These changes showed region (infralimbic; IL vs. prelimbic; PRL), layer (shallow; 2/3 vs. deep; 5/6), target (core vs...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314518/adult-consequences-of-prenatal-drug-exposure
#18
Ju Lee Oei
Maternal drug use is not new but over the last few decades, the number of mothers using drugs of addiction has escalated to epidemic levels. These drugs are both legal (e.g. prescription medication) and illegal (e.g. heroin) and all will cross the placental barrier into the developing infant. The most immediate and obvious consequence of intra-uterine drug exposure is newborn withdrawal or the Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) which is now, with prompt recognition and treatment, an uncommon cause of neonatal death...
January 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306167/wastewater-based-epidemiology-and-enantiomeric-profiling-for-drugs-of-abuse-in-south-african-wastewaters
#19
E Archer, E Castrignanò, B Kasprzyk-Hordern, G M Wolfaardt
The current study is aimed to introduce a wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) approach for the first time on the African continent where substance abuse data is limited. The study included the quantification of several drugs of abuse (DOA) in raw wastewater samples. Quantification of urinary metabolites as drug target residues (DTR), as well as enantiomeric profiling of chiral DOA was performed to distinguish between consumption and direct disposal into sewage. Monitoring campaigns were undertaken at two South African wastewater treatment works (WWTWs) located within two provinces of the country...
January 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305761/patterns-of-substance-use-and-arrest-histories-among-hospitalized-hiv-drug-users-a-latent-class-analysis
#20
Karen Shiu-Yee, Ahnalee M Brincks, Daniel J Feaster, Jemima A Frimpong, Ank Nijhawan, Raul N Mandler, Robert Schwartz, Carlos Del Rio, Lisa R Metsch
Using baseline data from the NIDA Clinical Trials Network 0049 study (Project HOPE), we performed latent class analyses (LCA) to identify discrete classes, or clusters, of people living with HIV (PLWH) based on their past year substance use behaviors and lifetime arrest history. We also performed multinomial logistic regressions to identify key characteristics associated with class membership. We identified 5 classes of substance users (minimal drug users, cocaine users, substantial cocaine/hazardous alcohol users, problem polysubstance users, substantial cocaine/heroin users) and 3 classes of arrest history (minimal arrests, non-drug arrests, drug-related arrests)...
January 5, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
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