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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810997/cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-a-saudi-arabian-soldier-stationed-in-the-united-states
#1
Kelly Laurent, Jason Susong, Eric Fillman, Simon Ritchie
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a common parasitic disease seen in many parts of the world, especially in areas where current U.S. and international forces are deployed. Approximately 350 million people are thought to be at risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) with an annual incidence of 1.5 million cases. Over 90% of cutaneous infections with Leishmania occur in the Middle East, Brazil, and Peru. Outbreaks of CL may occur in military personnel deployed to endemic areas. Since the incubation period for symptomatic CL ranges from weeks to months, symptoms may not appear until well after returning to the United States...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810975/adaptation-of-screening-brief-intervention-referral-to-treatment-to-active-duty-military-personnel-in-an-emergency-department-findings-from-a-formative-research-study
#2
Megan Holt, Mark Reed, Susan I Woodruff, Gerard DeMers, Michael Matteucci, Suzanne L Hurtado
BACKGROUND: The transient nature of military life coupled with environmental and psychosocial stressors increase the risk for alcohol misuse and abuse among active duty (AD) military service members and recent epidemiological studies demonstrate high rates of heavy drinking among AD personnel. Over the past decade, Department of Defense health care systems have observed increases in the utilization of substance use services among military personnel demobilizing from Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810974/factors-affecting-organizational-commitment-in-navy-corpsmen
#3
Stephanie Booth-Kewley, Renée G Dell'Acqua, Cynthia J Thomsen
BACKGROUND: Organizational commitment is a psychological state that has a strong impact on the likelihood that employees will remain with an organization. Among military personnel, organizational commitment is predictive of a number of important outcomes, including reenlistment intentions, job performance, morale, and perceived readiness. Because of the unique challenges and experiences associated with military service, it may be that organizational commitment is even more critical in the military than in civilian populations...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810965/the-benefits-and-risks-of-energy-drinks-in-young-adults-and-military-service-members
#4
Julianne Manchester, Inbal Eshel, Donald W Marion
INTRODUCTION: Energy drinks (EDs) have become an integral part of the young adult, athletic, and military culture. Many athletes are convinced that EDs enhance performance, and service members as well as college students frequently use EDs as stimulants to counter sleep deprivation, or to improve academic performance. However, concerns have been raised by some military leaders about potential adverse effects of EDs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A needs assessment survey of a convenience sample of military health care providers was conducted and identified EDs as a top knowledge need for those providers working in the area of traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810963/treating-decompression-sickness-military-flight-simulation-site-community-hospital-partnership
#5
Whitney C Rhodes, George Hertner, Robert Price, Lani Finck, Claudia Temmer, Tracy Cushing, Kathleen Flarity
BACKGROUND: High-altitude flight simulation familiarizes military trainees with the symptoms of hypoxia to prepare them for emergency situations. Decompression sickness (DCS) can occur as a result of these simulations. In cases when ground-level supplemental oxygen does not resolve symptoms, hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy is indicated. Many military hyperbaric chambers have been closed because of cost reductions, necessitating partnerships with community hospitals to ensure access to treatment...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807499/making-the-hard-decisions-ethical-care-decisions-in-wartime-nursing-practice
#6
Janice Agazio, Petra Goodman
BACKGROUND: Codes of ethics set forth standards of ethical conduct for nurses. However, nurses involved in wartime operations, or disasters, may often have their moral compass challenged by the patient care decisions necessary under adverse conditions. Reverse triage, resource allocation, and promotion of patient autonomy present multiple challenges to meeting commonly applied ethical principles. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to use the International Council of Nursing code of ethics as a framework to organize the ethical issues emerging from wartime nursing...
June 30, 2017: Nursing Outlook
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807069/a-pilot-project-demonstrating-that-combat-medics-can-safely-administer-parenteral-medications-in-the-emergency-department
#7
Steven G Schauer, Cord W Cunningham, Andrew D Fisher, Robert A DeLorenzo
Introduction Select units in the military have improved combat medic training by integrating their functions into routine clinical care activities with measurable improvements in battlefield care. This level of integration is currently limited to special operations units. It is unknown if regular Army units and combat medics can emulate these successes. The goal of this project was to determine whether US Army combat medics can be integrated into routine emergency department (ED) clinical care, specifically medication administration...
August 15, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798200/wearable-physiological-monitoring-for-human-thermal-work-strain-optimization
#8
Mark J Buller, Alexander Pearson Welles, Karl E Friedl
Safe performance limits of soldiers and athletes have typically relied on predictive work-rest models of ambient conditions, average work intensity, and characteristics of the population. Bioengineering advances in noninvasive sensor technologies including miniaturization, reduced cost, power requirements, and comfort now make it possible to produce individual predictions of safe thermal-work limits. These precision medicine assessments depend on the development of thoughtful algorithms based on physics and physiology...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795994/potential-and-actual-health-hazards-in-the-dense-urban-operational-environment-critical-gaps-and-solutions-for-military-occupational-health
#9
Steven L Patterson, Blair C R Dancy, Danielle L Ippolito, Jonathan D Stallings
: This paper presents environmental health risks which are prevalent in dense urban environments.We review the current literature and recommendations proposed by environmental medicine experts in a 2-day symposium sponsored by the Department of Defense and supported by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory.Key hazards in the dense urban operational environment include toxic industrial chemicals and materials, water pollution and sewage, and air pollution. Four critical gaps in environmental medicine were identified: prioritizing chemical and environmental concerns, developing mobile decision aids, personalized health assessments, and better real-time health biomonitoring...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789770/military-nurse-deployments-similarities-differences-and-resulting-issues
#10
Felecia Rivers, Sandra Gordon
BACKGROUND: Military nurses have a long history of deploying to combat and disaster. Much can be gleaned from their experiences. PURPOSE: The purpose of this secondary analysis was to explore military nurses' perceptions of similarities, differences, and resulting issues of military deployments from narratives of three previous studies. METHODS: Secondary analysis of interviews from 65 U.S. military nurses (Air Force, Army, Navy) was conducted...
July 15, 2017: Nursing Outlook
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766395/dual-loyalties-everyday-ethical-problems-of-registered-nurses-and-physicians-in-combat-zones
#11
Kristina Lundberg, Sofia Kjellström, Lars Sandman
BACKGROUND: When healthcare personnel take part in military operations in combat zones, they experience ethical problems related to dual loyalties, that is, when they find themselves torn between expectations of doing caring and military tasks, respectively. AIM: This article aims to describe how Swedish healthcare personnel reason concerning everyday ethical problems related to dual loyalties between care and military tasks when undertaking healthcare in combat zones...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763355/regulatory-considerations-for-physiological-closed-loop-controlled-medical-devices-used-for-automated-critical-care-food-and-drug-administration-workshop-discussion-topics
#12
Bahram Parvinian, Christopher Scully, Hanniebey Wiyor, Allison Kumar, Sandy Weininger
Part of the mission of the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) at the US Food and Drug Administration is to facilitate medical device innovation. Therefore, CDRH plays an important role in helping its stakeholders such as manufacturers, health care professionals, patients, patient advocates, academia, and other government agencies navigate the regulatory landscape for medical devices. This is particularly important for innovative physiological closed-loop controlled (PCLC) devices used in critical care environments, such as intensive care units, emergency settings, and battlefield environments...
July 28, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753471/neural-differences-underlying-face-processing-in-veterans-with-tbi-and-co-occurring-tbi-and-ptsd
#13
J Bomyea, S C Matthews, M S Buchsbaum, A D Spadoni, I A Strigo, A N Simmons
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common in military personnel and associated with high rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). TBI impacts widely-distributed neural patterns, some of which influence affective processing. Better understanding how TBI and PTSD/TBI alters affective neural activity may improve our understanding of comorbidity mechanisms, but to date the neural correlates of emotional processing in these groups has been relatively understudied. METHODS: Military controls, military personnel with a history of TBI, and military personnel with both TBI and PTSD (N = 53) completed an emotional face processing task during fMRI...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752655/predictors-of-emerging-suicide-death-among-military-personnel-on-social-media-networks
#14
Craig J Bryan, Jonathan E Butner, Sungchoon Sinclair, Anna Belle O Bryan, Christina M Hesse, Andree E Rose
Suicide is a leading cause of death in the United States and is the second leading cause of death in the U.S. military. Previous research suggests that data obtained from social media networks may provide important clues for identifying at-risk individuals. To test this possibility, the social media profiles from 315 military personnel who died by suicide (n = 157) or other causes (n = 158) were coded for the presence of stressful life situations (i.e., triggers), somatic complaints or health issues (i...
July 28, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743067/-we-must-cooperate-with-one-another-against-the-enemy-agency-and-activism-in-school-aged-children-as-protective-factors-against-ongoing-war-trauma-and-political-violence-in-the-gaza-strip
#15
Guido Veronese, Alessandro Pepe, Alaa Jaradah, Feda Murannak, Housam Hamdouna
This exploratory qualitative study investigated self-perceived risk and protection factors that may reinforce the ability of children living in refugee camps on the Gaza Strip to adjust to a traumatic and risky life context characterized by loss and dispossession. The sample comprised 200 Palestinian children recruited at primary schools in four refugee camps in the Gaza Strip following the Israeli military operation "Pillar of Defence" in 2012. Thematic content analysis was applied to written materials and narratives produced by the children...
July 22, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742078/longitudinal-changes-in-glucocorticoid-receptor-exon-1f-methylation-and-psychopathology-after-military-deployment
#16
R R Schür, M P Boks, B P F Rutten, N P Daskalakis, L de Nijs, M van Zuiden, A Kavelaars, C J Heijnen, M Joëls, R S Kahn, E Geuze, E Vermetten, C H Vinkers
Several cross-sectional studies have demonstrated the relevance of DNA methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor exon 1F region (GR-1F) for trauma-related psychopathology. We conducted a longitudinal study to examine GR-1F methylation changes over time in relation to trauma exposure and the development of post-deployment psychopathology. GR-1F methylation (52 loci) was quantified using pyrosequencing in whole blood of 92 military men 1 month before and 6 months after a 4-month deployment period to Afghanistan...
July 25, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741810/gender-differences-in-machine-learning-models-of-trauma-and-suicidal-ideation-in-veterans-of-the-iraq-and-afghanistan-wars
#17
Jaimie L Gradus, Matthew W King, Isaac Galatzer-Levy, Amy E Street
Suicide rates among recent veterans have led to interest in risk identification. Evidence of gender-and trauma-specific predictors of suicidal ideation necessitates the use of advanced computational methods capable of elucidating these important and complex associations. In this study, we used machine learning to examine gender-specific associations between predeployment and military factors, traumatic deployment experiences, and psychopathology and suicidal ideation (SI) in a national sample of veterans deployed during the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts (n = 2,244)...
August 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740438/availability-and-use-of-hemostatic-agents-in-prehospital-trauma-patients-in-pennsylvania-translation-from-the-military-to-the-civilian-setting
#18
Adam Sigal, Anthony Martin, Adrian Ong
OBJECTIVE: To understand the translation of one innovation in trauma care from the military to the civilian setting, the adoption of topical hemostatic agents in the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) community and in Trauma Centers in Pennsylvania. METHOD: We utilized an anonymous electronic survey of EMS Agency Administrative Officers and Trauma Center Coordinators. RESULTS: We received responses from 23% (93/402) Advanced Life Support and Air Medical agencies in the State...
2017: Open Access Emergency Medicine: OAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739579/the-prospective-validation-of-the-modified-physiological-triage-tool-mptt-an-evidence-based-approach-to-major-incident-triage
#19
James Vassallo, S Horne, J E Smith, L A Wallis
INTRODUCTION: Triage is a key principle in the effective management of major incidents. There is limited evidence to support existing triage tools, with a number of studies demonstrating poor performance at predicting the need for a life-saving intervention. The Modified Physiological Triage Tool (MPTT) is a novel triage tool derived using logistic regression, and in retrospective data sets has shown optimum performance at predicting the need for life-saving intervention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Physiological data and interventions were prospectively collected for consecutive adult patients with trauma (>18years) presenting to the emergency department at Camp Bastion, Afghanistan, between March and September 2011...
July 23, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720181/computerized-tests-of-team-performance-and-crew-coordination-suitable-for-military-aviation-settings
#20
Ben D Lawson, Thomas W Britt, Amanda M Kelley, Jeremy R Athy, Shauna M Legan
INTRODUCTION: The coordination of team effort on shared tasks is an area of inquiry. A number of tests of team performance in challenging environments have been developed without comparison or standardization. This article provides a systematic review of the most accessible and usable low-to-medium fidelity computerized tests of team performance and determines which are most applicable to military- and aviation-relevant research, such as studies of group command, control, communication, and crew coordination...
August 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
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