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Spatial dependence analysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926149/speciation-below-ground-tempo-and-mode-of-diversification-in-a-radiation-of-endogean-ground-beetles
#1
Carmelo Andújar, Sergio Pérez-González, Paula Arribas, Juan P Zaballos, Alfried P Vogler, Ignacio Ribera
Dispersal is a critical factor determining the spatial scale of speciation, which is constrained by the ecological characteristics and distribution of a species' habitat and the intrinsic traits of species. Endogean taxa are strongly affected by the unique qualities of the below-ground environment and its effect on dispersal, and contrasting reports indicate either high dispersal capabilities favoured by small body size and mediated by passive mechanisms, or low dispersal due to restricted movement and confinement inside the soil...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922510/effects-of-spatial-smoothing-on-functional-brain-networks
#2
Tuomas Alakörkkö, Heini Saarimäki, Enrico Glerean, Jari Saramäki, Onerva Korhonen
Graph-theoretical methods have rapidly become a standard tool in studies of the structure and function of the human brain. Whereas the structural connectome can be fairly straightforwardly mapped onto a complex network, there are more degrees of freedom in constructing networks that represent functional connections between brain areas. For fMRI data, such networks are typically built by aggregating the BOLD signal time series of voxels into larger entities (such as Regions of Interest in some brain atlas), and determining their connection strengths from some measure of time-series correlations...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921934/mirror-trends-of-plasticity-and-stability-indicators-in-primate-prefrontal-cortex
#3
Miguel Á García-Cabezas, Mary Kate P Joyce, Yohan J John, Basilis Zikopoulos, Helen Barbas
Research on plasticity markers in the cerebral cortex has largely focused on their timing of expression and role in shaping circuits during critical and normal periods. By contrast, little attention has been focused on the spatial dimension of plasticity-stability across cortical areas. The rationale for this analysis is based on the systematic variation in cortical structure that parallels functional specialization and raises the possibility of varying levels of plasticity. Here we investigated in adult rhesus monkeys the expression of markers related to synaptic plasticity or stability in prefrontal limbic and eulaminate areas that vary in laminar structure...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919506/the-role-of-climatic-cycles-and-trans-saharan-migration-corridors-in-species-diversification-biogeography-of-psammophis-schokari-group-in-north-africa
#4
Duarte Vasconcelos Gonçalves, Fernando Martínez-Freiría, Pierre-André Crochet, Philippe Geniez, Salvador Carranza, José Carlos Brito
Highlands, hydrographic systems and coastal areas have been hypothesised to form corridors across the hyperarid Sahara desert in North Africa, allowing dispersal and gene flow for non-xeric species. Here we aim to provide a genetic test for the trans-Saharan corridor model, and predict the location and stability of ecological-corridors, by combining phylogeography and palaeoclimatic modelling. The model was the Psammophis schokari (Schokari sand racer) group, fast-moving and widely distributed generalist colubrids occurring mostly in arid and semiarid scrublands...
September 14, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914327/repeated-2-sevoflurane-administration-in-7%C3%A2-and-60-day-old-rats-neurotoxicity-and-neurocognitive-dysfunction
#5
He Huang, Cun-Ming Liu, Jie Sun, Wen-Jie Jin, Yu-Qing Wu, Jing Chen
BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane is one of the most widely used inhalation anesthetics in pediatric anesthesia. A large number of studies have demonstrated that repeated treatment with high concentrations or long durations of sevoflurane anesthesia during the neonatal period can induce neuroapoptosis and long-term learning disability. In clinical practice, we observed that a subset of patients underwent minor surgery under sevoflurane anesthesia more than once from birth to adolescence. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate whether a 2% concentration of sevoflurane (clinically relevant usage of sevoflurane) for 1 h (a short duration) can induce neuroapoptosis and neurocognitive dysfunction in adolescent rats that received sevoflurane (2% for 1 h) during the neonatal period...
September 15, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913594/developmental-trajectory-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-a-systematic-review-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-studies
#6
Sónia S Sousa, Edson Amaro, Alberto Crego, Óscar F Gonçalves, Adriana Sampaio
Fluctuations in gray and white matter volumes in addition to the fibers' reorganization and refinement of synaptic connectivity apparently happen in a particular temporo-spatial sequence during the dynamic and prolonged process of cerebral maturation. These developmental events are associated with regional modifications of brain tissues and neural circuits, contributing to networks' specialization and enhanced cognitive processing. According to several studies, improvements in cognitive processes are possibly myelin-dependent and associated to white matter maturation...
September 15, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912681/divergence-in-morris-water-maze-based-cognitive-performance-under-chronic-stress-is-associated-with-the-hippocampal-whole-transcriptomic-modification-in-mice
#7
Seung H Jung, Milene L Brownlow, Matteo Pellegrini, Ryan Jankord
Individual susceptibility determines the magnitude of stress effects on cognitive function. The hippocampus, a brain region of memory consolidation, is vulnerable to stressful environments, and the impact of stress on hippocampus may determine individual variability in cognitive performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to define the relationship between the divergence in spatial memory performance under chronically unpredictable stress and an associated transcriptomic alternation in hippocampus, the brain region of spatial memory consolidation...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911822/structural-insights-of-cyclin-dependent-kinases-implications-in-design-of-selective-inhibitors
#8
REVIEW
Sourav Kalra, Gaurav Joshi, Anjana Munshi, Raj Kumar
There are around 20 Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) known till date, and various research groups have reported their role in different types of cancer. The X-ray structures of some CDKs especially CDK2 was exploited in the past few years, and several inhibitors have been found, e.g., flavopiridol, indirubicin, roscovitine, etc., but due to the specificity issues of these inhibitors (binding to all CDKs), these were called as pan inhibitors. The revolutionary outcome of palbociclib in 2015 as CDK4/6 inhibitor added a new charm to the specific inhibitor design for CDKs...
September 4, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902915/social-interactions-between-live-and-artificial-weakly-electric-fish-electrocommunication-and-locomotor-behavior-of-mormyrus-rume-proboscirostris-towards-a-mobile-dummy-fish
#9
Martin Worm, Frank Kirschbaum, Gerhard von der Emde
Mormyrid weakly electric fish produce short, pulse-type electric organ discharges for actively probing their environment and to communicate with conspecifics. Animals emit sequences of pulse-trains that vary in overall frequency and temporal patterning and can lead to time-locked interactions with the discharge activity of other individuals. Both active electrolocation and electrocommunication are additionally accompanied by stereotypical locomotor patterns. However, the concrete roles of electrical and locomotor patterns during social interactions in mormyrids are not well understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900007/e46k-%C3%AE-synuclein-pathological-mutation-causes-cell-autonomous-toxicity-without-altering-protein-turnover-or-aggregation
#10
Ignacio Íñigo-Marco, Miguel Valencia, Laura Larrea, Ricardo Bugallo, Mikel Martínez-Goikoetxea, Iker Zuriguel, Montserrat Arrasate
α-Synuclein (aSyn) is the main driver of neurodegenerative diseases known as "synucleinopathies," but the mechanisms underlying this toxicity remain poorly understood. To investigate aSyn toxic mechanisms, we have developed a primary neuronal model in which a longitudinal survival analysis can be performed by following the overexpression of fluorescently tagged WT or pathologically mutant aSyn constructs. Most aSyn mutations linked to neurodegenerative disease hindered neuronal survival in this model; of these mutations, the E46K mutation proved to be the most toxic...
September 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899429/amyloid-independent-atrophy-patterns-predict-time-to-progression-to-dementia-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#11
Mara Ten Kate, Frederik Barkhof, Pieter Jelle Visser, Charlotte E Teunissen, Philip Scheltens, Wiesje M van der Flier, Betty M Tijms
BACKGROUND: Amyloid pathology in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an important risk factor for progression to dementia due to Alzheimer's disease. Predicting the onset of dementia is challenging even in the presence of amyloid, as time to progression varies considerably among patients and depends on the onset of neurodegeneration. Survival analysis can account for variability in time to event, but has not often been applied to MRI measurements beyond singular predefined brain regions such as the hippocampus...
September 12, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899094/solvent-entropy-contributions-to-catalytic-activity-in-designed-and-optimized-kemp-eliminases
#12
Saurabh Belsare, Viren Pattni, Matthias Heyden, Teresa Head-Gordon
We analyze the role of solvation for enzymatic catalysis in two distinct, artificially designed Kemp Eliminases, KE07 and KE70, and mutated variants that were optimized by laboratory directed evolution. Using a spatially resolved analysis of hydration patterns, intermolecular vibrations and local solvent entropies, we identify distinct classes of hydration water and follow their changes upon substrate binding and transition state formation for the designed KE07 and KE70 enzymes and their evolved variants. We observe that differences in hydration of the enzymatic systems are concentrated in the active site and undergo significant changes during substrate recruitment...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895002/synaptic-convergence-regulates-synchronization-dependent-spike-transfer-in-feedforward-neural-networks
#13
Pachaya Sailamul, Jaeson Jang, Se-Bum Paik
Correlated neural activities such as synchronizations can significantly alter the characteristics of spike transfer between neural layers. However, it is not clear how this synchronization-dependent spike transfer can be affected by the structure of convergent feedforward wiring. To address this question, we implemented computer simulations of model neural networks: a source and a target layer connected with different types of convergent wiring rules. In the Gaussian-Gaussian (GG) model, both the connection probability and the strength are given as Gaussian distribution as a function of spatial distance...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894761/multiprotocol-multiatlas-statistical-fusion-theory-and-application
#14
Andrew J Plassard, Bennett A Landman
Multiatlas segmentation offers an exceedingly convenient process by which image segmentation tools can be created from a series of labeled atlases (i.e., raters). However, creation of the atlases is exceedingly time consuming and prone to shifts in clinical/research demands as anatomical definitions are refined, combined, or subdivided. Hence, a process by which atlases from distinct, but complementary, anatomical "protocols" could be combined would allow for greater innovation in structural analysis and efficiency of data (re)use...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894415/loss-of-fmrp-impaired-hippocampal-long-term-plasticity-and-spatial-learning-in-rats
#15
Yonglu Tian, Chaojuan Yang, Shujiang Shang, Yijun Cai, Xiaofei Deng, Jian Zhang, Feng Shao, Desheng Zhu, Yunbo Liu, Guiquan Chen, Jing Liang, Qiang Sun, Zilong Qiu, Chen Zhang
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the FMR1 gene that inactivate expression of the gene product, the fragile X mental retardation 1 protein (FMRP). In this study, we used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) technology to generate Fmr1 knockout (KO) rats by disruption of the fourth exon of the Fmr1 gene. Western blotting analysis confirmed that the FMRP was absent from the brains of the Fmr1 KO rats (Fmr1(exon4-KO) )...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894161/microbial-communities-in-placentas-from-term-normal-pregnancy-exhibit-spatially-variable-profiles
#16
Lindsay A Parnell, Catherine M Briggs, Bin Cao, Omar Delannoy-Bruno, Andrew E Schrieffer, Indira U Mysorekar
The placenta is the principal organ nurturing the fetus during pregnancy and was traditionally considered to be sterile. Recent work has suggested that the placenta harbours microbial communities, however the location and possible function of these microbes remain to be confirmed and elucidated. Here, we employed genomic DNA sequencing of multiple variable (V) regions of the bacterial 16S ribosomal gene, to interrogate microbial profiles in term pregnancies, from the basal plate, which is in direct contact with maternal uterine, endothelial, and immune cells; placental villi, which are bathed in maternal blood, and fetal membranes, which encapsulate the amniotic cavity...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890536/a-key-role-for-il-7r-in-the-generation-of-microenvironments-required-for-thymic-dendritic-cells
#17
Amanda J Moore, Tracy Sh In, Ashton Trotman-Grant, Kogulan Yoganathan, Bertrand Montpellier, Cynthia J Guidos, Juan Carlos Zúñiga-Pflücker, Michele K Anderson
Interleukin-7 receptor (IL-7R) signaling is critical for multiple stages of T-cell development, but a role in the establishment of the mature thymic architecture needed for T-cell development and thymocyte selection has not been established. Crosstalk signals between developing thymocytes and thymic epithelial cell (TEC) precursors are critical for their differentiation into cortical TECs (cTECs) and medullary TECs (mTECs). Additionally, mTECs-derived factors have been implicated in the recruitment of thymic dendritic cells (DCs) and intrathymic DC development...
September 11, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889217/best-dispersal-strategies-in-spatially-heterogeneous-environments-optimization-of-the-principal-eigenvalue-for-indefinite-fractional-neumann-problems
#18
Benedetta Pellacci, Gianmaria Verzini
We study the positive principal eigenvalue of a weighted problem associated with the Neumann spectral fractional Laplacian. This analysis is related to the investigation of the survival threshold in population dynamics. Our main result concerns the optimization of such threshold with respect to the fractional order [Formula: see text], the case [Formula: see text] corresponding to the standard Neumann Laplacian: when the habitat is not too fragmented, the principal positive eigenvalue can not have local minima for [Formula: see text]...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886445/unveiling-the-polarization-of-the-multimode-acoustic-fields
#19
Boris Sveshnikov, Aleksey Koigerov, Sergey Yankin
The spatial three dimensional variation of the polarization ellipse characterizing an elastic movement of the solid particles in the harmonically oscillating ultrasonic fields is studied. Such a variation comes into sight because of the interference of various elastic modes generated during the excitation and/or scattering of acoustic waves by the inhomogeneities located on the solid surface. In order to confirm this effect, an innovative method based on finite element approach is used showing a rule to find the form and orientation of the elastic polarization ellipse in general case...
September 1, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876453/reconstructing-the-microstructure-of-polyimide-silicalite-mixed-matrix-membranes-and-their-particle-connectivity-using-fib-sem-tomography
#20
P Diblíková, M Veselý, P Sysel, P Čapek
Properties of a composite material made of a continuous matrix and particles often depend on microscopic details, such as contacts between particles. Focusing on processing raw focused-ion beam scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) tomography data, we reconstructed three mixed-matrix membrane samples made of 6FDA-ODA polyimide and silicalite-1 particles. In the first step of image processing, backscattered electron (BSE) and secondary electron (SE) signals were mixed in a ratio that was expected to obtain a segmented 3D image with a realistic volume fraction of silicalite-1...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
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