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Spatial dependence analysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917260/integrative-bayesian-analysis-of-neuroimaging-genetic-data-through-hierarchical-dimension-reduction
#1
S Azadeh, B P Hobbs, L Ma, D A Nielsen, F G Moeller, V Baladandayuthapani
Advances in neuromedicine have emerged from endeavors to elucidate the distinct genetic factors that influence the changes in brain structure that underlie various neurological conditions. We present a framework for examining the extent to which genetic factors impact imaging phenotypes described by voxel-wise measurements organized into collections of functionally relevant regions of interest (ROIs) that span the entire brain. Statistically, the integration of neuroimaging and genetic data is challenging. Because genetic variants are expected to impact different regions of the brain, an appropriate method of inference must simultaneously account for spatial dependence and model uncertainty...
April 2016: Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: from Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908164/comparison-of-low-contrast-detectability-between-two-ct-reconstruction-algorithms-using-voxel-based-3d-printed-textured-phantoms
#2
Justin Solomon, Alexandre Ba, François Bochud, Ehsan Samei
PURPOSE: To use novel voxel-based 3D printed textured phantoms in order to compare low-contrast detectability between two reconstruction algorithms, FBP (filtered-backprojection) and SAFIRE (sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction) and determine what impact background texture (i.e., anatomical noise) has on estimating the dose reduction potential of SAFIRE. METHODS: Liver volumes were segmented from 23 abdominal CT cases. The volumes were characterized in terms of texture features from gray-level co-occurrence and run-length matrices...
December 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906974/in-silico-knockout-studies-of-xenophagic-capturing-of-salmonella
#3
Jennifer Scheidel, Leonie Amstein, Jörg Ackermann, Ivan Dikic, Ina Koch
The degradation of cytosol-invading pathogens by autophagy, a process known as xenophagy, is an important mechanism of the innate immune system. Inside the host, Salmonella Typhimurium invades epithelial cells and resides within a specialized intracellular compartment, the Salmonella-containing vacuole. A fraction of these bacteria does not persist inside the vacuole and enters the host cytosol. Salmonella Typhimurium that invades the host cytosol becomes a target of the autophagy machinery for degradation...
December 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905494/laser-speckle-rheology-for-evaluating-the-viscoelastic-properties-of-hydrogel-scaffolds
#4
Zeinab Hajjarian, Hadi Tavakoli Nia, Shawn Ahn, Alan J Grodzinsky, Rakesh K Jain, Seemantini K Nadkarni
Natural and synthetic hydrogel scaffolds exhibit distinct viscoelastic properties at various length scales and deformation rates. Laser Speckle Rheology (LSR) offers a novel, non-contact optical approach for evaluating the frequency-dependent viscoelastic properties of hydrogels. In LSR, a coherent laser beam illuminates the specimen and a high-speed camera acquires the time-varying speckle images. Cross-correlation analysis of frames returns the speckle intensity autocorrelation function, g2(t), from which the frequency-dependent viscoelastic modulus, G*(ω), is deduced...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905323/plasmonic-nano-protrusions-hierarchical-nanostructures-for-single-molecule-raman-spectroscopy
#5
Sagnik Basuray, Avinash Pathak, Sangho Bok, Biyan Chen, Steven C Hamm, Cherian J Mathai, Suchismita Guha, Keshab Gangopadhyay, Shubhra Gangopadhyay
Classical methods for enhancing the electromagnetic field from substrates for spectroscopic applications, such as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), have involved the generation of hotspots through directed self-assembly of nanoparticles or by patterning nanoscale features using expensive nanolithography techniques. A novel large-area, cost-effective soft lithographic technique involving glancing angle deposition (GLAD) of silver on polymer gratings is reported here. This method produces hierarchical nanostructures with high enhancement factors capable of analyzing single-molecule SERS...
December 1, 2016: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903308/joint-spatial-time-series-epidemiological-analysis-of-malaria-and-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-infection
#6
O A Adegboye, M Al-Saghir, D H Y Leung
Malaria and leishmaniasis are among the two most important health problems of many developing countries especially in the Middle East and North Africa. It is common for vector-borne infectious diseases to have similar hotspots which may be attributed to the overlapping ecological distribution of the vector. Hotspot analyses were conducted to simultaneously detect the location of local hotspots and test their statistical significance. Spatial scan statistics were used to detect and test hotspots of malaria and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Afghanistan in 2009...
December 1, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903057/spatial-analysis-and-prediction-of-the-flow-of-patients-to-public-health-centres-in-a-middle-sized-spanish-city
#7
Isabel Ramos, Juan J Cubillas, Francisco R Feito, Tomas Ureña
Human and medical resources in the Spanish primary health care centres are usually planned and managed on the basis of the average number of patients in previous years. However, sudden increases in patient demand leading to delays and slip-ups can occur at any time without warning. This paper describes a predictive model capable of calculating patient demand in advance using geospatial data, whose values depend directly on weather variables and location of the health centre people are assigned to. The results obtained here show that outcomes differ from one centre to another depending on variations in the variables measured...
November 21, 2016: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902829/perceptual-interaction-of-local-motion-signals
#8
Eyal I Nitzany, Maren E Loe, Stephanie E Palmer, Jonathan D Victor
Motion signals are a rich source of information used in many everyday tasks, such as segregation of objects from background and navigation. Motion analysis by biological systems is generally considered to consist of two stages: extraction of local motion signals followed by spatial integration. Studies using synthetic stimuli show that there are many kinds and subtypes of local motion signals. When presented in isolation, these stimuli elicit behavioral and neurophysiological responses in a wide range of species, from insects to mammals...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900598/oxidative-stress-mediated-hippocampal-neuron-apoptosis-participated-in-carbon-disulfide-induced-rats-cognitive-dysfunction
#9
Shuo Wang, Gleniece Irving, Lulu Jiang, Hui Wang, Ming Li, Xujing Wang, Wenting Han, Yongpeng Xu, Yilin Yang, Tao Zeng, Fuyong Song, Xiulan Zhao, Keqin Xie
Occupational exposure to carbon disulfide (CS2) exhibits central nervous systems toxicity. But the mechanism is unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between the CNS damage and cognitive dysfunction caused by CS2, and eventually reveal the possible oxidative-related mechanism of hippocampus pathological changes in CS2 exposed rats. Male Wistar rats were administrated with CS2 at dosage of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg for consecutive 20 days, respectively. Cognitive performances were evaluated by Morris water maze tests...
November 29, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898947/study-of-bovine-gene-the-temporal-spatial-expression-patterns-polymorphism-and-association-analysis-with-meat-production-traits
#10
E Juszczuk-Kubiak, K Bujko, M Grześ, M Cymer, K Wicińska, A Szostak, M Pierzchała
The gene () encodes a transcription factor belonging to the MEF2 family that plays an important role in myogenesis by transcriptional regulation of genes involved in skeletal muscle growth and development. Despite the established importance of the factors in the muscular growth and development, the temporal-spatial expression and biological function of have not been reported in cattle. The aim of this study was to analyze the level of expression in the developing longissimus dorsi muscle (LM) of 4 cattle breeds (Polish Holstein-Friesian [HF], Limousine [LIM], Hereford [HER], Polish Red [PR]), differing in terms of meat production and utility type, at 6, 9, and 12 mo of age...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895569/influence-of-lumbar-muscle-fatigue-on-trunk-adaptations-during-sudden-external-perturbations
#11
Jacques Abboud, François Nougarou, Arnaud Lardon, Claude Dugas, Martin Descarreaux
Introduction: When the spine is subjected to perturbations, neuromuscular responses such as reflex muscle contractions contribute to the overall balance control and spinal stabilization mechanisms. These responses are influenced by muscle fatigue, which has been shown to trigger changes in muscle recruitment patterns. Neuromuscular adaptations, e.g., attenuation of reflex activation and/or postural oscillations following repeated unexpected external perturbations, have also been described. However, the characterization of these adaptations still remains unclear...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892396/a-topography-of-free-kicks-in-soccer
#12
Daniel Link, Otto Kolbinger, Hendrik Weber, Michael Stöckl
This study investigates the spatial relationship of performance variables for soccer free kicks. In order to suggest ways in which players might optimise their performance, we collected data from free kicks (<35 m to goal line) of two German Bundesliga seasons (2013/14, 2014/15) (n = 1624). In the analysis, we applied the ISO-map approach using colour gradients to visualise the mean values of a variable on a 2D-map of the pitch. Additionally, variograms were used to describe the degree of spatial dependence of the free kick variables...
December 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889871/genetic-relationships-and-spatial-genetic-structure-among-populations-of-rhodnius-prolixus-hemiptera-reduviidae-in-colombia-and-venezuela-based-on-mitochondrial-cytochrome-b-sequences
#13
K P Luna-Marín, V M Angulo-Silva, J Hernández-Torres, M Ruiz-García
One hundred twenty Rhodnius prolixus (Stal) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) specimens from 6 Colombian Departments and 1 Venezuelan State had 594-bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene sequenced to improve the understanding of evolutionary processes that shape the main vector of Chagas disease. The levels of genetic diversity for this species were low-medium with reference to other bugs. The genetic heterogeneity among the populations was very limited which means there has been extensive gene flow and/or very recent split processes...
November 26, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885583/using-gis-mapping-to-target-public-health-interventions-examining-birth-outcomes-across-gis-techniques
#14
E L MacQuillan, A B Curtis, K M Baker, R Paul, Y O Back
With advances in spatial analysis techniques, there has been a trend in recent public health research to assess the contribution of area-level factors to health disparity for a number of outcomes, including births. Although it is widely accepted that health disparity is best addressed by targeted, evidence-based and data-driven community efforts, and despite national and local focus in the U.S. to reduce infant mortality and improve maternal-child health, there is little work exploring how choice of scale and specific GIS visualization technique may alter the perception of analyses focused on health disparity in birth outcomes...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883008/habitat-driven-variation-in-mycorrhizal-communities-in-the-terrestrial-orchid-genus-dactylorhiza
#15
Hans Jacquemyn, Michael Waud, Vincent S F T Merckx, Rein Brys, Daniel Tyteca, Mikael Hedrén, Bart Lievens
Orchid species are critically dependent on mycorrhizal fungi for completion of their life cycle, particularly during the early stages of their development when nutritional resources are scarce. As such, orchid mycorrhizal fungi play an important role in the population dynamics, abundance, and spatial distribution of orchid species. However, less is known about the ecology and distribution of orchid mycorrhizal fungi. In this study, we used 454 amplicon pyrosequencing to investigate ecological and geographic variation in mycorrhizal associations in fourteen species of the orchid genus Dactylorhiza...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880906/emergence-of-a-wave-of-wnt-signaling-that-regulates-lung-alveologenesis-by-controlling-epithelial-self-renewal-and-differentiation
#16
David B Frank, Tien Peng, Jarod A Zepp, Melinda Snitow, Tiffaney L Vincent, Ian J Penkala, Zheng Cui, Michael J Herriges, Michael P Morley, Su Zhou, Min Min Lu, Edward E Morrisey
Alveologenesis is the culmination of lung development and involves the correct temporal and spatial signals to generate the delicate gas exchange interface required for respiration. Using a Wnt-signaling reporter system, we demonstrate the emergence of a Wnt-responsive alveolar epithelial cell sublineage, which arises during alveologenesis, called the axin2+ alveolar type 2 cell, or AT2(Axin2). The number of AT2(Axin2) cells increases substantially during late lung development, correlating with a wave of Wnt signaling during alveologenesis...
November 22, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880877/association-of-the-occurrence-of-brazilian-spotted-fever-and-atlantic-rain-forest-fragmentation-in-the-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-metropolitan-region-brazil
#17
Claudia A Scinachi, Gabriela A C G Takeda, Luís Filipe Mucci, Adriano Pinter
Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF) is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. In the São Paulo Metropolitan Region (SPMR) it is transmitted by Amblyomma aureolatum ticks. In this region, annual lethality of the disease can reach 80% and spatial occurrence depends on environmental factors and more particularly on the presence and interaction of domestic and wild carnivores as well as the presence and characteristics of the remnant Atlantic Rain Forest patches. This study analyzed the association between forest fragmentation and its influence on the risk of occurrence of the disease in the human population...
November 21, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876224/microenvironmental-air-quality-impact-of-a-commercial-scale-biomass-heating-system
#18
Zheming Tong, Bo Yang, Philip K Hopke, K Max Zhang
Initiatives to displace petroleum and climate change mitigation have driven a recent increase in space heating with biomass combustion. However, there is ample evidence that biomass combustion emits significant quantities of health damaging pollutants. We investigated the near-source micro-environmental air quality impact of a biomass-fueled combined heat and power system equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in Syracuse, NY. Two rooftop sampling stations with PM2.5 and CO2 analyzers were established in such that one could capture the plume while the other one served as the background for comparison depending on the wind direction...
January 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875187/physics-based-visual-characterization-of-molecular-interaction-forces
#19
Pedro Hermosilla, Jorge Estrada, Victor Guallar, Timo Ropinski, Alvar Vinacua, Pere-Pau Vazquez
Molecular simulations are used in many areas of biotechnology, such as drug design and enzyme engineering. Despite the development of automatic computational protocols, analysis of molecular interactions is still a major aspect where human comprehension and intuition are key to accelerate, analyze, and propose modifications to the molecule of interest. Most visualization algorithms help the users by providing an accurate depiction of the spatial arrangement: the atoms involved in inter-molecular contacts. There are few tools that provide visual information on the forces governing molecular docking...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871800/zymosan-induced-immune-challenge-modifies-the-stress-response-of-hypoxic-air-breathing-fish-anabas-testudineus-bloch-evidence-for-reversed-patterns-of-cortisol-and-thyroid-hormone-interaction-differential-ion-transporter-functions-and-non-specific-immune-response
#20
S Simi, Valsa S Peter, M C Subhash Peter
Fishes have evolved physiological mechanisms to exhibit stress response, where hormonal signals interact with an array of ion transporters and regulate homeostasis. As major ion transport regulators in fish, cortisol and thyroid hormones have been shown to interact and fine-tune the stress response. Likewise, in fishes many interactions have been identified between stress and immune components, but the physiological basis of such interaction has not yet delineated particularly in air-breathing fish. We, therefore, investigated the responses of thyroid hormones and cortisol, ion transporter functions and non-specific immune response of an obligate air-breathing fish Anabas testudineus Bloch to zymosan treatment or hypoxia stress or both, to understand how immune challenge modifies the pattern of stress response in this fish...
November 18, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
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