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Spatial dependence analysis

Gehendra Mahara, Kun Yang, Sipeng Chen, Wei Wang, Xiuhua Guo
Evidence shows that multiple factors, such as socio-economic status and access to health care facilities, affect tuberculosis (TB) incidence. However, there is limited literature available with respect to the correlation between socio-economic/health facility factors and tuberculosis incidence. This study aimed to explore the relationship between TB incidence and socio-economic/health service predictors in the study settings. A retrospective spatial regression analysis was carried out based on new sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB cases in Beijing districts...
March 21, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Yan-Dong Guo, Hui-Feng Liu, Hong-Li Zeng, Xiao-Hong Yan, Xiao-Chen Song
Unlike graphene nanoribbons, zigzag monolayer hexagonal boron nitride nanoribbons (ZBNNRs) possess two distinct edges (B and N edges). Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the spin-dependent electronic transport of ZBNNRs with edge defects. It is found that the defects could make the system operate as a dual spin filter, where the direction of spin polarization is switched by the defect. Further analysis shows that the transmission eigenchannels for the opposite spins reside spatially separated on opposite edges...
March 21, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yoshitaka Inui, Takashi Ichihara, Masaki Uno, Masanobu Ishiguro, Kengo Ito, Katsuhiko Kato, Hajime Sakuma, Hidehiko Okazawa, Hiroshi Toyama
OBJECTIVE: Statistical image analysis of brain SPECT images has improved diagnostic accuracy for brain disorders. However, the results of statistical analysis vary depending on the institution even when they use a common normal database (NDB), due to different intrinsic spatial resolutions or correction methods. The present study aimed to evaluate the correction of spatial resolution differences between equipment and examine the differences in skull bone attenuation to construct a common NDB for use in multicenter settings...
March 19, 2018: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
Or P Mendels, Maoz Shamir
Noise correlations in neuronal responses can have a strong influence on the information available in large populations. In addition, the structure of noise correlations may have a great impact on the utility of different algorithms to extract this information that may depend on the specific algorithm, and hence may affect our understanding of population codes in the brain. Thus, a better understanding of the structure of noise correlations and their interplay with different readout algorithms is required. Here we use eigendecomposition to investigate the structure of noise correlations in populations of about 50-100 simultaneously recorded neurons in the primary visual cortex of anesthetized monkeys, and we relate this structure to the performance of two common decoders: the population vector and the optimal linear estimator...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Tanja Jene, Nils C Gassen, Verena Opitz, Kristina Endres, Marianne B Müller, Michael A van der Kooij
Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the response to an acute stressor may provide novel insights into successful stress-coping strategies. Acute behavioral stress-effects may be restricted to a specific time window early after stress-induction. However, existing behavioral test batteries typically span multiple days or even weeks, limiting the feasibility for a broad behavioral analysis following acute stress. Here, we designed a novel comprehensive behavioral test battery in male mice that assesses multiple behavioral dimensions within a sufficiently brief time window to capture acute stress-effects and its temporal profile...
March 8, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
João Castelhano, Paula Tavares, Susana Mouga, Guiomar Oliveira, Miguel Castelo-Branco
OBJECTIVE: Electroencephalographic biomarkers have been widely investigated in autism, in the search for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic outcome measures. Here we took advantage of the information available in temporal oscillatory patterns evoked by simple perceptual decisions to investigate whether stimulus dependent oscillatory signatures can be used as potential biomarkers in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: We studied an extensive set of stimuli (9 categories of faces) and performed data driven classification (Support vector machine, SVM) of ASD vs...
February 20, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Sarah Schnitzler, Christian Johannes Hartmann, Stefan Jun Groiss, Lars Wojtecki, Alfons Schnitzler, Jan Vesper, Jan Hirschmann
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether high frequency oscillations (HFOs, >150 Hz), known to occur in basal ganglia nuclei, can be observed in the thalamus. METHODS: We recorded intraoperative local field potentials from the ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) of the thalamus in patients with Essential Tremor (N = 16), Parkinsonian Tremor (3), Holmes Tremor (2) and Dystonic Tremor (1) during implantation of electrodes for deep brain stimulation. Recordings were performed with up to five micro/macro-electrodes that were simultaneously advanced to the stereotactic target...
February 19, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Emilie Neveu, Petr Popov, Alexandre Hoffmann, Angelo Migliosi, Xavier Besseron, Grégoire Danoy, Pascal Bouvry, Sergei Grudinin
Motivation: The root mean square deviation (RMSD) is one of the most used similarity criteria in structural biology and bioinformatics. Standard computation of the RMSD has a linear complexity with respect to the number of atoms in a molecule, making RMSD calculations time-consuming for the large-scale modeling applications, such as assessment of molecular docking predictions or clustering of spatially proximate molecular conformations. Previously we introduced the RigidRMSD algorithm to compute the RMSD corresponding to the rigid-body motion of a molecule...
March 15, 2018: Bioinformatics
Waldemar Kaiser, Tim Albes, Alessio Gagliardi
Low charge carrier mobility is one key factor limiting the performance and applicability of devices based on organic semiconductors. Theoretical studies on mobility using the kinetic Monte Carlo or master equation are mainly based on a Gaussian energetic disorder and regular cubic lattices. The dependence of mobility on the electric field, temperature and charge carrier density is well studied for the Gaussian disorder model. In this work, we investigate the influence of spatially correlated site energies and spatial disorder in the lattice sites on the mobility using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations...
March 19, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Quanying Liu, Marco Ganzetti, Nicole Wenderoth, Dante Mantini
Resting state networks (RSNs) in the human brain were recently detected using high-density electroencephalography (hdEEG). This was done by using an advanced analysis workflow to estimate neural signals in the cortex and to assess functional connectivity (FC) between distant cortical regions. FC analyses were conducted either using temporal (tICA) or spatial independent component analysis (sICA). Notably, EEG-RSNs obtained with sICA were very similar to RSNs retrieved with sICA from functional magnetic resonance imaging data...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
Joran Rolland
This paper presents a numerical and theoretical study of multistability in two stochastic models of transitional wall flows. An algorithm dedicated to the computation of rare events is adapted on these two stochastic models. The main focus is placed on a stochastic partial differential equation model proposed by Barkley. Three types of events are computed in a systematic and reproducible manner: (i) the collapse of isolated puffs and domains initially containing their steady turbulent fraction; (ii) the puff splitting; (iii) the build-up of turbulence from the laminar base flow under a noise perturbation of vanishing variance...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Louise Wogelred, Fredrik Höök, Björn Agnarsson, Peter Sjövall
Accurate detection and quantification of individual molecules is important for the development of improved diagnostic methods as well as biochemical characterization of disease progression and treatments. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is a surface analysis technique capable of imaging the distribution of specific molecules on surfaces with a high spatial resolution (<1 μm) and high sensitivity. ToF-SIMS is particularly suitable for detection of molecules up to ∼2 kDa, including lipids, whereas larger molecules, such as peptides and proteins, are fragmented during analysis, which makes them difficult to identify...
March 15, 2018: Biointerphases
Denisa Muraru, Alice Niero, Hugo Rodriguez-Zanella, Diana Cherata, Luigi Badano
Three-dimensional (3D) speckle-tracking echocardiography (3DSTE) is an advanced imaging technique designed for left ventricular (LV) myocardial deformation analysis based on 3D data sets. 3DSTE has the potential to overcome some of the intrinsic limitations of two-dimensional STE (2DSTE) in the assessment of complex LV myocardial mechanics, offering additional deformation parameters (such as area strain) and a comprehensive quantitation of LV geometry and function from a single 3D acquisition. Albeit being a relatively young technique still undergoing technological developments, several experimental studies and clinical investigations have already demonstrated the reliability and feasibility of 3DSTE, as well as several advantages of 3DSTE over 2DSTE...
February 2018: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
Jiayue Cai, Soojin Lee, Fang Ba, Saurabh Garg, Laura J Kim, Aiping Liu, Diana Kim, Z Jane Wang, Martin J McKeown
Falls and balance difficulties remain a major source of morbidity in Parkinson's Disease (PD) and are stubbornly resistant to therapeutic interventions. The mechanisms of gait impairment in PD are incompletely understood but may involve changes in the Pedunculopontine Nucleus (PPN) and its associated connections. We utilized fMRI to explore the modulation of PPN connectivity by Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation (GVS) in healthy controls ( n = 12) and PD subjects even without overt evidence of Freezing of Gait (FOG) while on medication ( n = 23)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
J Smith Torres-Roman, Diego Urrunaga-Pastor, Jose L Avilez, Luis M Helguero-Santin, German Malaga
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is emerging as a major public health problem worldwide. To date, most studies of obesity and overweight in Peru are focused on adults, with few of them involving children, a population at a critical stage of development. The trend in overweight and obesity prevalence in Peruvian children under the age of five has not yet been determined. Thus, the objective of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity between 2010 and 2015 in children under the age of five, stratified by geographical areas in Peru...
March 14, 2018: BMC Public Health
Daniel Gomez-Cardona, John Hayes, Ran Zhang, Ke Li, Juan Pablo Cruz-Bastida, Guang-Hong Chen
PURPOSE: Different low signal correction (LSC) methods have been shown to efficiently reduce noise streaks and noise level in CT to provide acceptable images at low radiation dose levels. These methods usually result in CT images with highly shift-variant and anisotropic spatial resolution and noise, which makes the parameter optimization process highly nontrivial. The purpose of this work was to develop a local task-based parameter optimization framework for LSC methods. METHODS: Two well-known LSC methods: the adaptive trimmed mean (ATM) filter and the anisotropic diffusion (AD) filter, were used as examples to demonstrate how to use the task-based framework to optimize filter parameter selection...
March 12, 2018: Medical Physics
Mallory Van Wyngaarden, Paul V R Snelgrove, Claudio DiBacco, Lorraine C Hamilton, Naiara Rodríguez-Ezpeleta, Luyao Zhan, Robert G Beiko, Ian R Bradbury
Environmental factors can influence diversity and population structure in marine species and accurate understanding of this influence can both improve fisheries management and help predict responses to environmental change. We used 7163 SNPs derived from restriction site-associated DNA sequencing genotyped in 245 individuals of the economically important sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus , to evaluate the correlations between oceanographic variation and a previously identified latitudinal genomic cline...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Eleftheria Giannouli, Otmar Bock, Wiebren Zijlstra
Increasing evidence indicates that mobility depends on cognitive resources, but the exact relationships between various cognitive functions and different mobility parameters still need to be investigated. This study examines the hypothesis that cognitive functioning is more closely related to real-life mobility performance than to mobility capacity as measured with standardized laboratory tests. The final sample used for analysis consisted of 66 older adults (72.3 ± 5.6 years). Cognition was assessed by measures of planning (HOTAP test), spatial working memory (Grid-Span test) and visuospatial attention (Attention Window test)...
March 2018: European Journal of Ageing
Shawn M Ferguson
Lysosomes perform degradative functions that are important for all cells. However, neurons are particularly dependent on optimal lysosome function due to their extremes of longevity, size and polarity. Axons in particular exemplify the major spatial challenges faced by neurons in the maintenance of lysosome biogenesis and function. What impact does this have on the regulation and functions of lysosomes in axons? This review focuses on the mechanisms whereby axonal lysosome biogenesis, transport and function are adapted to meet neuronal demand...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Tiago B Ferreira, João Pinheiro, Leyre Zabala, Filomena J Ribeiro
PURPOSE: To compare the clinical outcomes after cataract surgery with implantation of a monofocal or an extended-range-of-vision intraocular lens (IOL). SETTING: Hospital da Luz, Lisbon Portugal. DESIGN: Prospective case series. METHODS: Patients who previously had myopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) had cataract surgery with bilateral implantation of an extended-range-of-vision IOL (Tecnis Symfony) or a monofocal IOL (Tecnis ZCB00)...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
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