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Spatial dependence analysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735443/retinoic-acid-regulates-avian-lung-branching-through-a-molecular-network
#1
Hugo Fernandes-Silva, Patrícia Vaz-Cunha, Violina Baranauskaite Barbosa, Carla Silva-Gonçalves, Jorge Correia-Pinto, Rute Silva Moura
Retinoic acid (RA) is of major importance during vertebrate embryonic development and its levels need to be strictly regulated otherwise congenital malformations will develop. Through the action of specific nuclear receptors, named RAR/RXR, RA regulates the expression of genes that eventually influence proliferation and tissue patterning. RA has been described as crucial for different stages of mammalian lung morphogenesis, and as part of a complex molecular network that contributes to precise organogenesis; nonetheless, nothing is known about its role in avian lung development...
July 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734164/cognitive-strategies-in-the-mental-rotation-task-revealed-by-eeg-spectral-power
#2
Aaron L Gardony, Marianna D Eddy, Tad T Brunyé, Holly A Taylor
The classic mental rotation task (MRT; Shepard & Metzler, 1971) is commonly thought to measure mental rotation, a cognitive process involving covert simulation of motor rotation. Yet much research suggests that the MRT recruits both motor simulation and other analytic cognitive strategies that depend on visuospatial representation and visual working memory (WM). In the present study, we investigated cognitive strategies in the MRT using time-frequency analysis of EEG and independent component analysis. We scrutinized sensorimotor mu (µ) power reduction, associated with motor simulation, parietal alpha (pα) power reduction, associated with visuospatial representation, and frontal midline theta (fmθ) power enhancement, associated with WM maintenance and manipulation...
July 19, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733414/live-cell-imaging-in-fission-yeast
#3
Daniel P Mulvihill
Live cell imaging complements the array of biochemical and molecular genetic approaches to provide a comprehensive insight into functional dependencies and molecular interactions in fission yeast. Fluorescent proteins and vital dyes reveal dynamic changes in the spatial distribution of organelles and the proteome and how each alters in response to changes in environmental and genetic composition. This introduction discusses key issues and basic image analysis for live cell imaging of fission yeast.
July 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731892/racial-differences-in-geographic-access-to-medical-care-as-measured-by-patient-report-and-geographic-information-systems
#4
Michelle S Wong, David T Grande, Nandita Mitra, Archana Radhakrishnan, Charles C Branas, Katelyn R Ward, Craig E Pollack
BACKGROUND: Geographic access-the travel burden required to reach medical care-is an important aspect of care. Studies, which typically rely on geographic information system (GIS) calculated travel times, have found some evidence of racial disparities in spatial access to care. However, the validity of these studies depends on the accuracy of travel times by patient race. OBJECTIVES: To determine if there are racial differences when comparing patient-reported and GIS-calculated travel times...
July 20, 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727417/oxygen-dependent-lipid-profiles-of-3d-cultured-human-chondrocytes-revealed-by-maldi-msi
#5
Brenda Bakker, Gert B Eijkel, Ron M A Heeren, Marcel Karperien, Janine N Post, Berta Cillero Pastor
Articular cartilage is exposed to a gradient of oxygen levels ranging from 5% at the surface to 1% in the deepest layers. While most cartilage research is performed in supraphysiological oxygen levels (19-21%), culturing chondrocytes under hypoxic oxygen levels (≤ 8%) promotes the chondrogenic phenotype. Exposure of cells to various oxygen levels alters their lipid metabolism, but detailed studies examining how hypoxia affects lipid metabolism in chondrocytes are lacking. To better understand the chondrocyte's behavior in response to oxygen we cultured 3D pellets of human primary chondrocytes in normoxia (20% oxygen) and hypoxia (2...
July 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718892/methoxetamine-affects-brain-processing-involved-in-emotional-response-in-rats
#6
M T Zanda, P Fadda, S Antinori, M di Chio, W Fratta, C Chiamulera, L Fattore
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Methoxetamine (MXE) is a novel psychoactive substance that is emerging on the Internet and induces dissociative effects and acute toxicity. Yet, its pharmacological effects are still poorly investigated. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We examined a range of behavioural effects induced by acute intraperitoneal administration of MXE (0.5-5 mg/kg) in rats, and whether it causes rapid neuroadaptive molecular changes. KEY RESULTS: MXE (0...
July 18, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718158/the-extent-of-heavy-metal-pollution-and-their-potential-health-risk-in-topsoils-of-the-massively-urbanized-district-of-shanghai
#7
Syed Taseer Abbas Jaffar, Long-Zhu Chen, Hassan Younas
Urbanization and industrialization increase the concentrations of heavy metals in soils, which affect human health. A total of 127 topsoil samples were collected from the massively urbanized and industrialized district of Shanghai: Baoshan District. The sampling sites were isolated based on the land-use practice: industrial area, roadside area, residential area, and agricultural area. The absolute concentrations of heavy metals (Zn, Cr, Ni, Mn, Cu, Pb, and Cd) were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry and compared with Shanghai and the National soil background values...
July 17, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717389/sexual-selection-reinforces-a-higher-flight-endurance-in-urban-damselflies
#8
Nedim Tüzün, Lin Op de Beeck, Robby Stoks
Urbanization is among the most important and globally rapidly increasing anthropogenic processes and is known to drive rapid evolution. Habitats in urbanized areas typically consist of small, fragmented and isolated patches, which are expected to select for a better locomotor performance, along with its underlying morphological traits. This, in turn, is expected to cause differentiation in selection regimes, as populations with different frequency distributions for a given trait will span different parts of the species' fitness function...
August 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714857/comparative-analysis-on-resistance-profiling-along-tapered-semiconductor-nanowires-multi-tip-technique-vs-transmission-line-method
#9
Andreas Nägelein, Lisa Liborius, Matthias Steidl, Christian Blumberg, Peter Kleinschmidt, Artur Poloczek, Thomas Hannappel
The detection of doping dependent values like contact- and path resistances along nanowires (NWs) still proves to be rather challenging compared to planar structures. Unfortunately, the usually used and well established TLM (transmission line measurement) setup exhibits some drawbacks. Complex preliminary preparation steps and the necessity of ohmic contacts limit the investigation to certain semiconductor materials. The simultaneous determination of contact- and path resistances with an unknown distribution makes an analysis on complex structures like tapered nanowires very challenging...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714583/mapping-social-ecological-vulnerability-to-inform-local-decision-making
#10
Lauric Thiault, Paul Marshall, Stefan Gelcich, Antoine Collin, Frédérique Chlous, Joachim Claudet
An overarching challenge of natural resource management and biodiversity conservation is that relationships between human and nature are difficult to integrate into tools that can effectively guide decision-making. Social-ecological vulnerability offers a valuable framework for identifying and understanding important social-ecological linkages, and the implications of dependencies and other feedback loops in the system. Unfortunately its implementation at local scales has hitherto been limited, due at least in part to the lack of operational tools for spatial representation of social-ecological vulnerability...
July 17, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714108/assessing-the-spatial-distribution-of-tuta-absoluta-lepidoptera-gelechiidae-eggs-in-open-field-tomato-cultivation-through-geostatistical-analysis
#11
Júlio C Martins, Marcelo C Picanço, Ricardo S Silva, Alfredo H R Gonring, Tarcísio V S Galdino, Raul N C Guedes
BACKGROUND: The spatial distribution of insects is due to the interaction between individuals and the environment. Knowledge about the within-field pattern of spatial distribution of a pest is critical to planning control tactics, developing efficient sampling plans, and predicting the pests' damages. The leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is the main pest in tomato crops in several regions of the world. Despite the importance of this pest, the pattern of spatial distribution of T...
July 17, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713174/fusing-multiple-neuroimaging-modalities-to-assess-group-differences-in-perception-action-coupling
#12
Jordan Muraskin, Jason Sherwin, Gregory Lieberman, Javier O Garcia, Timothy Verstynen, Jean M Vettel, Paul Sajda
In the last few decades, non-invasive neuroimaging has revealed macro-scale brain dynamics that underlie perception, cognition and action. Advances in non-invasive neuroimaging target two capabilities; 1) increased spatial and temporal resolution of measured neural activity, and 2) innovative methodologies to extract brain-behavior relationships from evolving neuroimaging technology. We target the second. Our novel methodology integrated three neuroimaging methodologies and elucidated expertise-dependent differences in functional (fused EEG-fMRI) and structural (dMRI) brain networks for a perception-action coupling task...
January 2017: Proceedings of the IEEE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709245/shear-rate-dependent-transport-coefficients-in-granular-suspensions
#13
Vicente Garzó
A recent model for monodisperse granular suspensions is used to analyze transport properties in spatially inhomogeneous states close to the simple (or uniform) shear flow. The kinetic equation is based on the inelastic Boltzmann (for low-density gases) with the presence of a viscous drag force that models the influence of the interstitial gas phase on the dynamics of grains. A normal solution is obtained via a Chapman-Enskog-like expansion around a (local) shear flow distribution which retains all the hydrodynamic orders in the shear rate...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708550/unsupervised-myocardial-segmentation-for-cardiac-bold
#14
Ilkay Oksuz, Anirban Mukhopadhyay, Rohan Dharmakumar, Sotirios A Tsaftaris
A fully automated 2D+time myocardial segmentation framework is proposed for Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) Blood-Oxygen-Level-Dependent (BOLD) datasets. Ischemia detection with CINE BOLD CMR relies on spatiotemporal patterns in myocardial intensity but these patterns also trouble supervised segmentation methods, the de-facto standard for myocardial segmentation in cine MRI. Segmentation errors severely undermine the accurate extraction of these patterns. In this paper we build a joint motion and appearance method that relies on dictionary learning to find a suitable subspace...
July 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708549/effects-of-image-quality-on-the-fundamental-limits-of-image-registration-accuracy
#15
Michael D Ketcha, Tharindu De Silva, Runze Han, Ali Uneri, Joseph Goerres, Matthew Jacobson, Sebastian Vogt, Gerhard Kleinszig, Jeffrey H Siewerdsen
For image-guided procedures, the imaging task is often tied to the registration of intraoperative and preoperative images to a common coordinate system. While the accuracy of this registration is a vital factor in system performance, there is relatively little work that relates registration accuracy to image quality factors such as dose, noise, and spatial resolution. To create a theoretical model for such a relationship, we present a Fisher information approach to analyze registration performance in explicit dependence on the underlying image quality factors of image noise, spatial resolution, and signal power spectrum...
July 11, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707327/environmental-drivers-of-coral-reef-carbonate-production-and-bioerosion-a-multi-scale-analysis
#16
Nyssa J Silbiger, Megan J Donahue, Russell E Brainard
The resilience of coral reefs depends on the balance between reef growth and reef breakdown, and their responses to changing environmental conditions. Across the 2500 km Hawaiian Archipelago, we quantified rates of carbonate production, bioerosion, and net accretion at regional, island, site, and within-site spatial scales and tested how carbonate production, bioerosion, and net accretion rates respond to environmental conditions across different spatial scales. Overall, there were four major outcomes from this study: 1) bioerosion rates were generally higher in the populated Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) than the remote, protected Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), while carbonate production rates did not vary significantly between the two regions; 2) variability in carbonate production, bioerosion, and net accretion rates was greatest at the smallest within-reef spatial scale; 3) carbonate production and bioerosion rates were associated with distinct sets of environmental parameters; and 4) the strongest correlates of carbonate production, bioerosion, and net accretion rates were different between the MHI region and the NWHI region: in the MHI, the dominant correlates were % cover of macroalgae and herbivorous fish biomass for carbonate production and bioerosion, respectively, whereas in the NWHI, the top correlates were total alkalinity and benthic cover...
July 14, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705721/characterization-of-nlrp3-like-gene-from-apostichopus-japonicus-provides-new-evidence-on-inflammation-response-in-invertebrates
#17
Zhimeng Lv, Zhixin Wei, Zhen Zhang, Chenghua Li, Yina Shao, Weiwei Zhang, Xuelin Zhao, Ye Li, Xuemei Duan, Jinbo Xiong
Inflammatory/defensive response after pathogen invasion is considered a local defense reaction in vertebrates. Inflammation response in Apostichopus japonicus was hardly determined due to scarce information available for nucleotide binding domain-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing (NLRP) family. In the present study, invertebrate NLRP homologue was identified from A. japonicus (designated as AjNLRP3-like) by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Full-length cDNA of AjNLRP3-like measured 2970 bp with 2265 bp open reading frame encoding a 754-amino acid (aa) residue protein...
July 10, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704969/urban-green-space-perception-and-its-contribution-to-well-being
#18
Gyula Kothencz, Ronald Kolcsár, Pablo Cabrera-Barona, Péter Szilassi
Individual perceptions are essential when evaluating the well-being benefits from urban green spaces. This study predicted the influence of perceived green space characteristics in the city of Szeged, Hungary, on two well-being variables: the green space visitors' level of satisfaction and the self-reported quality of life. The applied logistic regression analysis used nine predictors: seven perceived green space characteristics from a questionnaire survey among visitors of five urban green spaces of Szeged; and the frequency of green space visitors' crowd-sourced recreational running paths and photographs picturing green space aesthetics...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704562/cerebral-18f-fdg-pet-in-macrophagic-myofasciitis-an-individual-svm-based-approach
#19
Paul Blanc-Durand, Axel Van Der Gucht, Eric Guedj, Mukedaisi Abulizi, Mehdi Aoun-Sebaiti, Lionel Lerman, Antoine Verger, François-Jérôme Authier, Emmanuel Itti
INTRODUCTION: Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an emerging condition with highly specific myopathological alterations. A peculiar spatial pattern of a cerebral glucose hypometabolism involving occipito-temporal cortex and cerebellum have been reported in patients with MMF; however, the full pattern is not systematically present in routine interpretation of scans, and with varying degrees of severity depending on the cognitive profile of patients. Aim was to generate and evaluate a support vector machine (SVM) procedure to classify patients between healthy or MMF 18F-FDG brain profiles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704561/diet-overlap-and-spatial-segregation-between-two-neotropical-marsupials-revealed-by-multiple-analytical-approaches
#20
Vanessa Villanova Kuhnen, Gustavo Quevedo Romero, Arício Xavier Linhares, Jeferson Vizentin-Bugoni, Erica Aline Correa Porto, Eleonore Zulnara Freire Setz
Species co-existence depends on how organisms utilize their environment and resources. When two sympatric species are similar in some ecological requirements, their coexistence may arise from differences in resource use over time and/or space. Interactions among coexisting marsupials remain poorly understood, especially in the Neotropics. Here we combine spatial niche measurements, individual-resource networks, and isotopic niche approaches, to investigate the ecological strategies used by the Neotropical marsupials Didelphis aurita and Metachirus nudicaudatus to co-occur in an area of Serra do Mar State Park (southeast of Brazil)...
2017: PloS One
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