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Spatial dependence analysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531202/the-role-of-density-dependent-and-independent-processes-in-spawning-habitat-selection-by-salmon-in-an-arctic-riverscape
#1
Brock M Huntsman, Jeffrey A Falke, James W Savereide, Katrina E Bennett
Density-dependent (DD) and density-independent (DI) habitat selection is strongly linked to a species' evolutionary history. Determining the relative importance of each is necessary because declining populations are not always the result of altered DI mechanisms but can often be the result of DD via a reduced carrying capacity. We developed spatially and temporally explicit models throughout the Chena River, Alaska to predict important DI mechanisms that influence Chinook salmon spawning success. We used resource-selection functions to predict suitable spawning habitat based on geomorphic characteristics, a semi-distributed water-and-energy balance hydrologic model to generate stream flow metrics, and modeled stream temperature as a function of climatic variables...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530089/use-of-low-frequency-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-to-reduce-context-dependent-learning-in-people-with-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Ya-Yun Lee, Beth E Fisher
BACKGROUND: Compared with age-matched non-disabled adults, people with Parkinson's disease (PD) demonstrated greater context-dependent learning, a phenomenon in which an individual shows inferior motor performance when the testing environmental context is different from the original practice context. Additionally, enhanced context- dependency has been shown to be associated with an increased activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). AIM: This study aimed to determine whether context-dependent learning in people with PD could be reduced by decreasing DLPFC activation with low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)...
May 22, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527110/a-review-of-the-hemodynamic-factors-believed-to-contribute-to-vascular-access-dysfunction
#3
Connor V Cunnane, Eoghan M Cunnane, Michael T Walsh
A vascular access (VA) is used to facilitate hemodialysis in patients that suffer from end-stage renal disease. However, they suffer from high failure rates due to non-maturation and venous stenosis, with intimal hyperplasia (IH) the underlying cause of both conditions. Abnormal hemodynamic profiles, which arise following VA creation, are believed to lead to the development of IH. However, the exact physiological response that initiates this process is unknown. This review evaluates the different hemodynamic parameters that are hypothesised to correlate with the development of IH...
May 19, 2017: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525781/sleep-waves-and-recovery-from-drug-and-alcohol-dependence-towards-a-rhythm-analysis-of-sleep-in-residential-treatment
#4
Robert Meadows, Sarah Nettleton, Joanne Neale
This paper reports on a study of sleep amongst men and women who are living in residential rehabilitation centres in the UK and who are receiving support for their recovery from addiction to alcohol and other forms of substance use. Conceptually and methodologically, the paper draws on the work of the French sociologist Lefebvre and, in particular, his rhythmanalysis. We argue that this approach offers a useful way of exploring sleep in terms of biological, experiential, temporal, spatial and social rhythms...
May 6, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523616/the-effect-of-multiple-contamination-of-soil-on-lmw-and-mmw-pahs-accumulation-in-the-roots-of-rubus-fruticosus-l-naturally-growing-near-the-copper-mining-and-smelting-complex-bor-east-serbia
#5
Slađana Č Alagić, Vesna P Stankov Jovanović, Violeta D Mitić, Jelena S Nikolić, Goran M Petrović, Snežana B Tošić, Gordana S Stojanović
Samples of roots and spatial soils of native Rubus fruticosus L. were collected from the spots positioned at different distances from the copper smelter and city heating plants in the industrial zone of the town of Bor (Serbia) and subjected to chemical analyses in order to determine the content of several heavy metals, and 15 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, the results for 9 low and medium molecular weight PAHs (LMW and MMW PAHs) are represented and processed using the calculation of bio-concentration factors and statistical methods such as hierarchical cluster analysis and Pearson's correlation study with the aim of investigating the plant capabilities for their uptake from the soil and later accumulation into the root tissue, under the hostile circumstances of multiple contamination...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522847/a-molecular-basis-for-selective-antagonist-destabilization-of-dopamine-d3-receptor-quaternary-organization
#6
Sara Marsango, Gianluigi Caltabiano, Mireia Jiménez-Rosés, Mark J Millan, John D Pediani, Richard J Ward, Graeme Milligan
The dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) is a molecular target for both first-generation and several recently-developed antipsychotic agents. Following stable expression of this mEGFP-tagged receptor, Spatial Intensity Distribution Analysis indicated that a substantial proportion of the receptor was present within dimeric/oligomeric complexes and that increased expression levels of the receptor favored a greater dimer to monomer ratio. Addition of the antipsychotics, spiperone or haloperidol, resulted in re-organization of D3R quaternary structure to promote monomerization...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522527/lineage-dependent-spatial-and-functional-organization-of-the-mammalian-enteric-nervous-system
#7
Reena Lasrado, Werend Boesmans, Jens Kleinjung, Carmen Pin, Donald Bell, Leena Bhaw, Sarah McCallum, Hui Zong, Liqun Luo, Hans Clevers, Pieter Vanden Berghe, Vassilis Pachnis
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is essential for digestive function and gut homeostasis. Here we show that the amorphous neuroglia networks of the mouse ENS are composed of overlapping clonal units founded by postmigratory neural crest-derived progenitors. The spatial configuration of ENS clones depends on proliferation-driven local interactions of ENS progenitors with lineally unrelated neuroectodermal cells, the ordered colonization of the serosa-mucosa axis by clonal descendants, and gut expansion. Single-cell transcriptomics and mutagenesis analysis delineated dynamic molecular states of ENS progenitors and identified RET as a regulator of neurogenic commitment...
May 19, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506874/impact-of-acquisition-and-analysis-strategies-on-cortical-depth-dependent-fmri
#8
Sriranga Kashyap, Dimo Ivanov, Martin Havlicek, Benedikt A Poser, Kâmil Uludağ
Functional MRI at ultra-high magnetic fields (≥ 7T) provides the opportunity to probe columnar and laminar processing in the human brain in vivo at submillimeter spatial scales. However, fMRI data only indirectly reflects the neuronal laminar profile, due to a bias to ascending and pial veins inherent in gradient- and spin-echo BOLD fMRI. In addition, accurate delineation of the cortical depths is difficult, due to the relatively large voxel sizes and lack of sufficient tissue contrast in the functional images...
May 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505836/stationary-patterns-in-star-networks-of-bistable-units-theory-and-application-to-chemical-reactions
#9
Nikos E Kouvaris, Michael Sebek, Albert Iribarne, Albert Díaz-Guilera, István Z Kiss
We present theoretical and experimental studies on pattern formation with bistable dynamical units coupled in a star network configuration. By applying a localized perturbation to the central or the peripheral elements, we demonstrate the subsequent spreading, pinning, or retraction of the activations; such analysis enables the characterization of the formation of stationary patterns of localized activity. The results are interpreted with a theoretical analysis of a simplified bistable reaction-diffusion model...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505761/dispersive-transport-and-symmetry-of-the-dispersion-tensor-in-porous-media
#10
Steven R Pride, Donald W Vasco, Eirik G Flekkoy, Ran Holtzman
The macroscopic laws controlling the advection and diffusion of solute at the scale of the porous continuum are derived in a general manner that does not place limitations on the geometry and time evolution of the pore space. Special focus is given to the definition and symmetry of the dispersion tensor that is controlling how a solute plume spreads out. We show that the dispersion tensor is not symmetric and that the asymmetry derives from the advective derivative in the pore-scale advection-diffusion equation...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505506/a-methodology-for-efficiency-optimization-of-betavoltaic-cell-design-using-an-isotropic-planar-source-having-an-energy-dependent-beta-particle-distribution
#11
Sirichai Theirrattanakul, Mark Prelas
Nuclear batteries based on silicon carbide betavoltaic cells have been studied extensively in the literature. This paper describes an analysis of design parameters, which can be applied to a variety of materials, but is specific to silicon carbide. In order to optimize the interface between a beta source and silicon carbide p-n junction, it is important to account for the specific isotope, angular distribution of the beta particles from the source, the energy distribution of the source as well as the geometrical aspects of the interface between the source and the transducer...
May 5, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502226/stronger-interference-from-distractors-in-the-right-hemifield-during-visual-search
#12
Christophe Carlei, Dirk Kerzel
The orientation-bias hypothesis states that there is a bias to attend to the right visual hemifield (RVF) when there is spatial competition between stimuli in the left and right hemifield [Pollmann, S. (1996). A pop-out induced extinction-like phenomenon in neurologically intact subjects. Neuropsychologia, 34(5), 413-425. doi: 10.1016/0028-3932(95)00125-5 ]. In support of this hypothesis, stronger interference was reported for RVF distractors with contralateral targets. In contrast, previous studies using rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) found stronger interference from distractors in the left visual hemifield (LVF)...
May 13, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501600/development-of-a-human-epidermal-growth-factor-derivative-with-egfr-blocking-and-depleted-biological-activities-a-comparative-in-vitro-study-using-egfr-positive-breast-cancer-cells
#13
Masomeh Mehrabi, Kamran Mansouri, Bijan Soleymani, Zohreh Hoseinkhani, Mohsen Shahlaie, Reza Khodarahmi
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a local growth factor that stimulates cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation by binding to its receptor EGFR. EGF and EGFR are involved in many aspects of the development of carcinomas. Because EGFR has been found to be over-expressed in many tumors of epithelial origin, it is a potential target for antitumor therapy. In this study we designed a mutated form of hEGF (mEGF) with a deletion of four amino acids residues (Gln(43), Tyr(44), Arg(45) and Asp(46)) in order to show importance of Leu spatial location for EGFR binding/activation...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497690/a-novel-electrochemiluminescence-sensing-platform-for-precise-analysis-of-multiple-ltbi-markers
#14
Bin Zhou, Mingyao Zhu, Peihui Yang, Peihui Yang
Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is one of the major contributing factors for the high incidence of tuberculosis (TB), and the low contents of LTBI markers in human serum presents a great challenge for the diagnosis of LTBI. Here we reported a novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensing platform for the precise analysis of multiple LTBI markers, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-2. In this approach, self-prepared carbon quantum dots (CQDs) and luminol were integrated onto gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), which were further enriched on the surface of magnetic bead (MB) to create two solid-phase ECL nanoprobes (MB@Au@CQDs and MB@Au@luminol) for improving the detection sensitivity efficiently...
May 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495673/parallel-imaging-of-drosophila-embryos-for-quantitative-analysis-of-genetic-perturbations-of-the-ras-pathway
#15
Yogesh Goyal, Thomas J Levario, Henry H Mattingly, Susan Holmes, Stanislav Y Shvartsman, Hang Lu
The Ras pathway patterns the poles of the Drosophila embryo by downregulating the levels and activity of a DNA-binding transcriptional repressor Capicua (Cic). We demonstrate that the spatiotemporal pattern of Cic during this signaling event can be harnessed for functional studies of the Ras-pathway mutations from human diseases. Our approach relies on a new microfluidic device that enables parallel imaging of Cic dynamics in dozens of live embryos. We found that although the pattern of Cic in early embryos is complex, it can be accurately approximated by a product of one spatial profile and one time-dependent amplitude...
May 11, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489848/a-coordinated-dna-damage-response-promotes-adult-quiescent-neural-stem-cell-activation
#16
Lara Barazzuol, Limei Ju, Penny A Jeggo
Stem and differentiated cells frequently differ in their response to DNA damage, which can determine tissue sensitivity. By exploiting insight into the spatial arrangement of subdomains within the adult neural subventricular zone (SVZ) in vivo, we show distinct responses to ionising radiation (IR) between neural stem and progenitor cells. Further, we reveal different DNA damage responses between neonatal and adult neural stem cells (NSCs). Neural progenitors (transit amplifying cells and neuroblasts) but not NSCs (quiescent and activated) undergo apoptosis after 2 Gy IR...
May 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488712/probing-the-interactions-of-organic-molecules-nanomaterials-and-microbes-with-solid-surfaces-using-quartz-crystal-microbalances-methodology-advantages-and-limitations
#17
REVIEW
Rixiang Huang, Peng Yi, Yuanzhi Tang
Quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) provide a new analytical opportunity and prospect to characterize many environmental processes at solid/liquid interfaces, thanks to their almost real-time measurement of physicochemical changes on their quartz sensor. This work reviews the applications of QCMs in probing the interactions of organic molecules, nanomaterials (NMs) and microbes with solid surfaces. These interfacial interactions are relevant to critical environmental processes such as biofilm formation, fate and transport of NMs, fouling in engineering systems and antifouling practices...
May 10, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485926/simultaneous-acquisition-of-the-polarized-and-depolarized-raman-signal-with-a-single-detector
#18
Johannes Kiefer
Polarization-resolved Raman spectroscopy provides much more information than its conventional counterpart. However, it usually either requires a complicated setup with two spectrographs and detectors or two measurements must be performed sequentially. This study presents a simple and straightforward approach to recording both polarization components simultaneously with a single spectrograph and detector. The vertically and a horizontally polarized laser beam exiting a Wollaston prism are focused into the sample with a small spatial separation...
May 16, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480001/nematode-distributions-as-spatial-null-models-for-macroinvertebrate-species-richness-across-environmental-gradients-a-case-from-mountain-lakes
#19
Guillermo de Mendoza, Walter Traunspurger, Alejandro Palomo, Jordi Catalan
Nematode species are widely tolerant of environmental conditions and disperse passively. Therefore, the species richness distribution in this group might largely depend on the topological distribution of the habitats and main aerial and aquatic dispersal pathways connecting them. If so, the nematode species richness distributions may serve as null models for evaluating that of other groups more affected by environmental gradients. We investigated this hypothesis in lakes across an altitudinal gradient in the Pyrenees...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479475/the-impact-of-meg-source-reconstruction-method-on-source-space-connectivity-estimation-a-comparison-between-minimum-norm-solution-and-beamforming
#20
Ana-Sofía Hincapié, Jan Kujala, Jérémie Mattout, Annalisa Pascarella, Sebastien Daligault, Claude Delpuech, Domingo Mery, Diego Cosmelli, Karim Jerbi
Despite numerous important contributions, the investigation of brain connectivity with magnetoencephalography (MEG) still faces multiple challenges. One critical aspect of source-level connectivity, largely overlooked in the literature, is the putative effect of the choice of the inverse method on the subsequent cortico-cortical coupling analysis. We set out to investigate the impact of three inverse methods on source coherence detection using simulated MEG data. To this end, thousands of randomly located pairs of sources were created...
May 4, 2017: NeuroImage
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