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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212524/role-of-nrf2-and-protective-effects-of-metformin-against-tobacco-smoke-induced-cerebrovascular-toxicity
#1
Shikha Prasad, Ravi K Sajja, Mohammad Abul Kaisar, Jee Hyun Park, Heidi Villalba, Taylor Liles, Thomas Abbruscato, Luca Cucullo
Cigarette smoking (CS) is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction in a causative way primarily related to the TS content of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nicotine, and inflammation. TS promotes glucose intolerance and increases the risk of developing type-2 diabetes mellitus (2DM) with which it shares other pathogenic traits including the high risk of cerebrovascular and neurological disorders like stroke via ROS generation, inflammation, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment. Herein we provide evidence of the role played by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) in CS-induced cerebrobvascular/BBB impairments and how these cerebrovascular harmful effects can be circumvented by the use of metformin (MF; a widely prescribed, firstline anti-diabetic drug) treatment...
February 12, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211989/timothy-syndrome-1-genotype-without-syndactyly-and-major-extracardiac-manifestations
#2
Róbert Sepp, Lidia Hategan, Attila Bácsi, Judit Cseklye, László Környei, János Borbás, Márta Széll, Tamás Forster, István Nagy, Zoltán Hegedűs
Timothy syndrome 1 (TS1) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by multisystem abnormalities including QT prolongation, congenital heart defects, facial dysmorphism, episodic hypoglycemia, and neurological symptoms. A morphological hallmark of TS1 is syndactyly, present in all cases. TS1 is caused by the canonical p.Gly406Arg mutation in the alternatively spliced exon 8A in the CACNA1C gene, encoding for the main cardiac L-type calcium channel. A variant case of TS1 is reported. The proband had intermittent fetal bradycardia with heart rate of 72 bpm...
March 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211789/the-cortical-connectivity-of-the-periaqueductal-gray-and-the-conditioned-response-to-the-threat-of-breathlessness
#3
Olivia K Faull, Kyle Ts Pattinson
Previously we observed differential activation in individual columns of the periaqueductal grey (PAG) during breathlessness and its conditioned anticipation (Faull et al., 2016). Here, we have extended this work by determining how the individual columns of the PAG interact with higher cortical centres, both at rest and in the context of breathlessness threat. Activation was observed in ventrolateral PAG (vlPAG) and lateral PAG (lPAG), where activity scaled with breathlessness intensity ratings, revealing a potential interface between sensation and cognition during breathlessness...
February 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211137/energy-transfer-dynamics-of-formate-decomposition-on-cu-110
#4
Jiamei Quan, Takahiro Kondo, Guichang Wang, Junji Nakamura
Energy transfer dynamics of formate (HCOOa ) decomposition on a Cu(110) surface has been studied by measuring the angle-resolved intensity and translational energy distributions of CO2 emitted from the surface in a steady-state reaction of HCOOH and O2 . The angular distribution of CO2 shows a sharp collimation with the direction perpendicular to the surface, as represented by cos(n) θ (n=6). The mean translational energy of CO2 is measured to be as low as 100 meV and is independent of the surface temperature (Ts )...
February 17, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208741/mechanisms-of-post-replication-dna-repair
#5
REVIEW
Yanzhe Gao, Elizabeth Mutter-Rottmayer, Anastasia Zlatanou, Cyrus Vaziri, Yang Yang
Accurate DNA replication is crucial for cell survival and the maintenance of genome stability. Cells have developed mechanisms to cope with the frequent genotoxic injuries that arise from both endogenous and environmental sources. Lesions encountered during DNA replication are often tolerated by post-replication repair mechanisms that prevent replication fork collapse and avert the formation of DNA double strand breaks. There are two predominant post-replication repair pathways, trans-lesion synthesis (TLS) and template switching (TS)...
February 8, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207416/are-aromatase-inhibitors-in-boys-with-predicted-short-stature-and-or-rapidly-advancing-bone-age-effective-and-safe
#6
Jessica A Ferris, Mitchell E Geffner
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess aromatase inhibitor (AI) efficacy in increasing predicted adult height (PAH) and to describe clinical and biochemical safety profiles of AI-treated boys. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted at an academic children's hospital endocrinology clinic. Twenty-one boys with predicted short stature and/or rapidly advancing bone age, divided as Tanner stage (TS) I-III Group 1 (G1, n=9) and TS IV-V Group 2 (G2, n=12), were treated with AIs, either letrozole or anastrozole (mean duration, G1: 2...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201901/comparing-van-der-waals-dft-methods-for-water-on-nacl-001-and-mgo-001
#7
Getachew G Kebede, Daniel Spångberg, Pavlin D Mitev, Peter Broqvist, Kersti Hermansson
In this work, a range of van der Waals type density functionals are applied to the H2O/NaCl(001) and H2O/MgO(001) interface systems to explore the effect of an explicit dispersion treatment. The functionals we use are the self-consistent vdW functionals vdW-DF, vdW-DF2, optPBE-vdW, optB88-vdW, optB86b-vdW, and vdW-DF-cx, as well as the dispersion-corrected PBE-TS and PBE-D2 methods; they are all compared with the standard PBE functional. For both NaCl(001) and MgO(001), we find that the dispersion-flavoured functionals stabilize the water-surface interface by approximately 20%-40% compared to the PBE results...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198403/noninvasive-quantification-of-blood-potassium-concentration-from-ecg-in-hemodialysis-patients
#8
Cristiana Corsi, Marilisa Cortesi, Giulia Callisesi, Johan De Bie, Carlo Napolitano, Antonio Santoro, David Mortara, Stefano Severi
Blood potassium concentration ([K(+)]) influences the electrocardiogram (ECG), particularly T-wave morphology. We developed a new method to quantify [K(+)] from T-wave analysis and tested its clinical applicability on data from dialysis patients, in whom [K(+)] varies significantly during the therapy. To elucidate the mechanism linking [K(+)] and T-wave, we also analysed data from long QT syndrome type 2 (LQT2) patients, testing the hypothesis that our method would have underestimated [K(+)] in these patients...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197282/fragmented-qrs-as-a-marker-of-electrical-dyssynchrony-to-predict-inter-ventricular-conduction-defect-by-subsequent-echocardiographic-assessment-in-symptomatic-patients-of-non-ischemic-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#9
Santosh Kumar Sinha, Kush Bhagat, Mohammad Asif, Karandeep Singh, Mohit Sachan, Vikas Mishra, Nasar Afdaali, Mukesh Jitendra Jha, Ashutosh Kumar, Shravan Singh, Rupesh Sinha, Dibbendhu Khanra, Ramesh Thakur, Chandra Mohan Varma, Vinay Krishna, Umeshwar Pandey
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony frequently occurs in patients with heart failure (HF). QRS ≥ 120 ms is a surrogate marker of electrical dyssynchrony, which occurs in only 30% of HF patients. In contrary, in those with normal QRS (nQRS) duration, LV dyssynchrony has been reported in 20-50%. This study was carried out to investigate the role of fragmented QRS (fQRS) on the surface electrocardiography (ECG) as a marker of electrical dyssynchrony to predict the presence of significant intraventricular dyssynchrony (IVD) by subsequent echocardiographic assessment...
August 2016: Cardiology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195621/histopathologic-analysis-of-the-posterior-segment-for-terson-s-syndrome-the-giobiopsy-technique
#10
Jerome V Giovinazzo, Vincent J Giovinazzo, Codrin Iacob, Richard B Rosen, Paul T Finger
The purpose of this study was to report on a case of Terson's syndrome (TS) using a novel instrument and technique to harvest posterior pole pathology from a postmortem eye. A modified ocular clamp was used to remove the posterior pole from the postmortem enucleated eye. Gross photographs were taken and an ocular sample of the posterior pole was sent to The New York Eye and Ear Pathology Laboratory. TS was identified from gross pathology and histologic examinations. The case history was consistent with that diagnosis...
February 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193688/compulsive-social-behavior-emerges-after-selective-ablation-of-striatal-cholinergic-interneurons
#11
Yanina V Martos, Barbara Y Braz, Juan P Beccaria, M Gustavo Murer, Juan E Belforte
The mechanisms underlying social dysfunction in neuropsychiatric conditions like obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS) remain uncertain. Dysfunctions in basal ganglia, including reduced number of striatal cholinergic interneurons (SCIN), have been involved in their pathophysiology. To explore the role of SCIN in relation to perseverative behaviors we characterized a new transgenic mouse model in which inducible ablation of SCIN is achieved with high efficiency in a cell-type and region specific manner...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187946/inducible-caspase-9-selectively-modulates-the-toxicities-of-cd19-specific-chimeric-antigen-receptor-modified-t-cells
#12
Iulia Diaconu, Brandon Ballard, Ming Zhang, Yuhui Chen, John West, Gianpietro Dotti, Barbara Savoldo
Immunotherapy with T cells expressing the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for the CD19 antigen (CD19.CAR-Ts) is a very effective treatment in B cell lymphoid malignancies. However, B cell aplasia and cytokine release syndrome (CRS) secondary to the infusion of CD19.CAR-Ts remain significant drawbacks. The inclusion of safety switches into the vector encoding the CAR is seen as the safest method to terminate the effects of CD19.CAR-Ts in case of severe toxicities or after achieving long-term sustained remissions...
February 8, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187532/testicular-sperm-aspiration-tesa-for-infertile-couples-with-severe-or-complete-asthenozoospermia
#13
A H Al-Malki, K Alrabeeah, E Mondou, V Brochu-Lafontaine, S Phillips, A Zini
The aim of the study was to evaluate reproductive outcomes in a cohort of infertile couples with severe and complete asthenozoospermia undergoing TESA (testicular sperm aspiration) with ICSI. We conducted a retrospective study of 28 couples with complete or severe asthenozoospermia who underwent TESA between January 2010 and December 2015. We compared TESA-ICSI outcomes of these couples to ejaculate ICSI outcomes of 40 couples with severe asthenozoospermia treated during the same time period at our institution...
February 10, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187102/physical-activity-behavior-predicts-endogenous-pain-modulation-in-older-adults
#14
Kelly M Naugle, Thomas Ohlman, Keith E Naugle, Zachary A Riley, NiCole R Keith
Older adults compared with younger adults are characterized by greater endogenous pain facilitation and a reduced capacity to endogenously inhibit pain, potentially placing them at a greater risk for chronic pain. Previous research suggests that higher levels of self-reported physical activity are associated with more effective pain inhibition and less pain facilitation on quantitative sensory tests in healthy adults. However, no studies have directly tested the relationship between physical activity behavior and pain modulatory function in older adults...
March 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187000/malat1-is-a-prognostic-factor-in-glioblastoma-multiforme-and-induces-chemoresistance-to-temozolomide-through-suppressing-mir-203-and-promoting-thymidylate-synthase-expression
#15
Wei Chen, Xin-Ke Xu, Jun-Liang Li, Kuan-Kei Kong, Hui Li, Cheng Chen, Jing He, Fangyu Wang, Ping Li, Xiao-Song Ge, Fang-Cheng Li
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant brain tumor with limited therapeutic options. Temozolomide (TMZ) is a novel cytotoxic agent used as first-line chemotherapy for GBM, however, some individual cells can't be isolated for surgical resection and show treatment-resistance, thus inducing poor prognosis. By using the HiSeq sequencing and bioinformatics methods, we identified lncRNAs showing different expression levels in TMZ-resistant and non-resistant patients. RT-qPCR was then performed in tissues and serum samples, and lncRNA MALAT1 was finally identified to show considerable discriminating potential to identify responding patients from non-responding patients...
February 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186903/construction-of-refined-protein-interaction-network-for-predicting-essential-proteins
#16
Min Li, Peng Ni, Xiaopei Chen, Jianxin Wang, Fangxiang Wu, Yi Pan
Identification of essential proteins based on protein interaction network (PIN) is a very important and hot topic in the post genome era. Up to now, a number of network-based essential protein discovery methods have been proposed. Generally, a static protein interaction network was constructed by using the protein-protein interactions obtained from different experiments or databases. Unfortunately, most of the network-based essential protein discovery methods are sensitive to the reliability of the constructed PIN...
February 7, 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186098/postnatal-height-and-adiposity-gain-childhood-blood-pressure-and-prehypertension-risk-in-an-asian-birth-cohort
#17
I M Aris, J Y Bernard, L-W Chen, M T Tint, W Y Lim, S E Soh, S-M Saw, Lp-C Shek, K M Godfrey, P D Gluckman, Y-S Chong, F Yap, M S Kramer, Y S Lee
OBJECTIVE: There have been hypotheses that early life adiposity gain may influence blood pressure (BP) later in life. We examined associations between timing of height, body mass index (BMI) and adiposity gains in early life with BP at 48 months in an Asian pregnancy-birth cohort. METHODS: In 719 children, velocities for height, BMI and abdominal circumference (AC) were calculated at five intervals [0-3, 3-12, 12-24, 24-36 and 36-48 months]. Triceps (TS) and subscapular skinfold (SS) velocities were calculated between 0-18, 18-36 and 36-48 months...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185383/spontaneous-coronary-artery-dissection-and-takotsubo-syndrome-the-chicken-or-the-egg-causality-dilemma
#18
Shams Y-Hassan, Raquel Themudo, Eva Maret
Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) including spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) has been reported to trigger its own clinical twin takotsubo syndrome (TS). The pathogenetic association between SCAD and TS remains to be elucidated. The two diseases afflict predominantly women and both conditions may be triggered by an emotional stress factor and an unusual extreme physical exercise. Herein, we describe a case of 54-year-old woman presenting with ACS caused by an obtuso-marginal SCAD. Concurrently, the patient had typical clinical features and course of mid-apical pattern of TS...
February 10, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185373/dual-anchor-internal-pulse-generator-technique-may-lower-risk-of-twiddler-s-syndrome-a-case-series-and-literature-review
#19
Michał Roman Sobstyl, Mirosław Ząbek, Grażyna Brzuszkiewicz-Kuźmicka, Tomasz Pasterski
BACKGROUND: Twiddler's syndrome (TS) is described as a spontaneous rotation or intentional external manipulation of implanted internal pulse generator (IPG) for neurological or cardiac disorders. There have been identified some predisposing factors of the development of TS such as: loose subcutaneous tissue, older age of individuals undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS) procedures, creation of too large pockets for IPG. Apart from these factors, the construction of IPG itself may predispose to the development of TS...
February 9, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185263/early-treatment-with-isoflurane-attenuates-left-ventricular-dysfunction-and-improves-survival-in-experimental-takotsubo
#20
J Oras, B Redfors, A Ali, J Alkhoury, H Seeman-Lodding, E Omerovic, S-E Ricksten
BACKGROUND: Takotsubo syndrome (TS) is an acute cardiac condition, often triggered by critical illness, for which no specific treatment exists. Previously, we showed that isoflurane can prevent experimental TS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential treatment effects of isoflurane. Our primary hypothesis was that early treatment with isoflurane attenuates left ventricular akinesia in experimental TS. METHOD: In propofol-sedated animals, TS was induced by an intraperitoneal bolus of isoprenaline (50 mg/kg)...
February 10, 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
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