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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905916/study-protocol-a-dose-escalating-phase-2-study-of-oral-lisdexamfetamine-in-adults-with-methamphetamine-dependence
#1
Nadine Ezard, Adrian Dunlop, Brendan Clifford, Raimondo Bruno, Andrew Carr, Alexandra Bissaker, Nicholas Lintzeris
BACKGROUND: The treatment of methamphetamine dependence is a continuing global health problem. Agonist type pharmacotherapies have been used successfully to treat opioid and nicotine dependence and are being studied for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. One potential candidate is lisdexamfetamine, a pro-drug for dexamphetamine, which has a longer lasting therapeutic action with a lowered abuse potential. The purpose of this study is to determine the safety of lisdexamfetamine in this population at doses higher than those currently approved for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or binge eating disorder...
December 1, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903830/early-life-sugar-consumption-affects-the-rat-microbiome-independently-of-obesity
#2
Emily E Noble, Ted M Hsu, Roshonda B Jones, Anthony A Fodor, Michael I Goran, Scott E Kanoski
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome has been implicated in various metabolic and neurocognitive disorders and is heavily influenced by dietary factors, but there is a paucity of research on the effects of added sugars on the gut microbiome. OBJECTIVE: With the use of a rodent model, our goal was to determine how added-sugar consumption during the juvenile and adolescent phase of development affects the gut microbiome. METHODS: Forty-two juvenile male Sprague-Dawley rats [postnatal day (PND) 26; 50-70 g] were given access to 1 of 3 different 11%-carbohydrate solutions designed to model a range of monosaccharide ratios commonly consumed in sugar-sweetened beverages: 1) 35% fructose:65% glucose, 2) 50% fructose:50% glucose, 3) 65% fructose:35% glucose, and 4) control (no sugar)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901515/neurocognitive-and-clinical-correlates-of-gambling-behavior-based-on-mode-of-gambling
#3
Eric W Leppink, Austin W Blum, Samuel Chamberlain, Jon E Grant
BACKGROUND: Gambling opportunities have expanded greatly in recent years, with ever-increasing availability via the internet as well as land-based options (eg, casinos). Although some research suggests that internet gamblers have higher rates of disordered gambling than land-based only gamblers, the clinical and cognitive importance of these findings is unknown. METHODS: We recruited 542 young adults (age 18 to 29) and compared land- based only (n = 385 [70.8%]) and mixed internet/land-based gamblers (LBGs) (n = 157 [28...
November 2016: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901245/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-for-treatment-resistant-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-report-on-two-cases-and-proposal-for-a-randomized-sham-controlled-trial
#4
Renata de Melo Felipe da Silva, André Russowsky Brunoni, Eurípedes Constantino Miguel, Roseli Gedanke Shavitt
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Neuromodulation techniques for treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have expanded through greater understanding of the brain circuits involved in this disorder. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive technique, has been studied as an alternative for treatment-resistant OCD. We describe the design of a clinical trial using tDCS for OCD and report on the outcomes from two patients with primary OCD who were resistant to cognitive-behavioral therapy and to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and who received tDCS in an open manner during the training phase for the study procedures...
September 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899165/cognitive-dysfunction-in-body-dysmorphic-disorder-new-implications-for-nosological-systems-and-neurobiological-models
#5
Kiri Jefferies-Sewell, Samuel R Chamberlain, Naomi A Fineberg, Keith R Laws
: Introduction Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a debilitating disorder, characterized by obsessions and compulsions relating specifically to perceived appearance, and which has been newly classified within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders grouping. Until now, little research has been conducted into the cognitive profile of this disorder. METHODS: Participants with BDD (n=12) and participants without BDD (n=16) were tested using a computerized neurocognitive battery investigating attentional set-shifting (Intra/Extra Dimensional Set Shift Task), decision-making (Cambridge Gamble Task), motor response-inhibition (Stop-Signal Reaction Time Task), and affective processing (Affective Go-No Go Task)...
November 30, 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898590/reactivation-of-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-reservoirs-in-the-brain-of-virally-suppressed-macaques
#6
Lucio Gama, Celina M Abreu, Erin N Shirk, Sarah L Price, Ming Li, Greg M Laird, Kelly A Metcalf Pate, Stephen W Wietgrefe, Shelby L O'Connor, Luiz Pianowski, Ashley T Haase, Carine Van Lint, Robert F Siliciano, Janice E Clements
OBJECTIVE: Resting CD4 T cells have been recognized as the major cell reservoir of latent HIV-1 during antiretroviral therapy (ART). Using an simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/macaque model for AIDS and HIV-related neurocognitive disorders we assessed the contribution of the brain to viral latency and reactivation. DESIGN: Pigtailed macaques were dual inoculated with SIVDeltaB670 and SIV17E-Fr and treated with an efficacious central nervous system-penetrant ART...
January 2, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894373/cognitive-effects-of-adjunctive-n-acetyl-cysteine-in-psychosis
#7
M Rapado-Castro, S Dodd, A I Bush, G S Malhi, D R Skvarc, Z X On, M Berk, O M Dean
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are predictors of functional outcome in patients with psychosis. While conventional antipsychotics are relatively effective on positive symptoms, their impact on negative and cognitive symptoms is limited. Recent studies have established a link between oxidative stress and neurocognitive deficits in psychosis. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a glutathione precursor with glutamatergic properties, has shown efficacy on negative symptoms and functioning in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, respectively...
November 29, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892704/the-effects-of-a-16-week-aerobic-exercise-programme-on-cognitive-function-in-people-living-with-hiv
#8
Adam McDermott, Lilia Zaporojan, Patricia McNamara, Colin P Doherty, Janice Redmond, Cuisle Forde, John Gormley, Mikel Egaña, Colm Bergin
High levels of cardiovascular fitness and physical activity are associated with higher levels of cognitive function in people with HIV, thus, they may reduce the risk of developing HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). This study aimed to investigate the effects of a 16-week aerobic exercise intervention on cognitive function in people with HIV. Eleven participants living with HIV were recruited into the study. Participants were randomised into either an exercise group (n = 5), that completed a 16-week aerobic exercise programme training, 3 times per week (2 supervised sessions and one unsupervised session) or a control group (n = 6) that received no intervention...
November 28, 2016: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890805/predicting-brain-age-from-multimodal-imaging-data-captures-cognitive-impairment
#9
Franziskus Liem, Gaël Varoquaux, Jana Kynast, Frauke Beyer, Shahrzad Kharabian Masouleh, Julia M Huntenburg, Leonie Lampe, Mehdi Rahim, Alexandre Abraham, R Cameron Craddock, Steffi Riedel-Heller, Tobias Luck, Markus Loeffler, Matthias L Schroeter, Anja Veronica Witte, Daniel S Margulies
The disparity between the chronological age of an individual and their brain-age measured based on biological information has the potential to offer clinically-relevant biomarkers of neurological syndromes that emerge late in the lifespan. While prior brain-age prediction studies have relied exclusively on either structural or functional brain data, here we investigate how multimodal brain-imaging data improves age prediction. Using cortical anatomy and whole-brain functional connectivity on a large adult lifespan sample (N=2354, age 19-82), we found that multimodal data improves brain-based age prediction, resulting in a mean absolute prediction error of 4...
November 23, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888531/fate-of-microglia-during-hiv-1-infection-from-activation-to-senescence
#10
REVIEW
Natalie C Chen, Andrea T Partridge, Christian Sell, Claudio Torres, Julio Martín-García
Microglia support productive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and disturbed microglial function could contribute to the development of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Better understanding of how HIV-1 infection and viral protein exposure modulate microglial function during the course of infection could lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets for both the eradication of HIV-1 reservoir and treatment of neurocognitive deficits. This review first describes microglial origins and function in the normal central nervous system (CNS), and the changes that occur during aging...
November 26, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882392/-the-special-requirements-of-old-age-in-terms-of-dying
#11
Andreas Kruse
It is expected that the rising average life expectancy will leave ever more people with chronic progressive diseases of the body and brain. This then means not only having to deal with increasingly longer periods of care, but also possibly distinct neurocognitive disorders in the years prior to death and dying. The aim of this study is to report epidemiological data on the causes of death, as well as on the places of death. In addition, the attitudes and behaviour towards death and dying, as well as the different places of death will be discussed...
November 23, 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881854/the-neural-and-computational-bases-of-semantic-cognition
#12
Matthew A Lambon Ralph, Elizabeth Jefferies, Karalyn Patterson, Timothy T Rogers
Semantic cognition refers to our ability to use, manipulate and generalize knowledge that is acquired over the lifespan to support innumerable verbal and non-verbal behaviours. This Review summarizes key findings and issues arising from a decade of research into the neurocognitive and neurocomputational underpinnings of this ability, leading to a new framework that we term controlled semantic cognition (CSC). CSC offers solutions to long-standing queries in philosophy and cognitive science, and yields a convergent framework for understanding the neural and computational bases of healthy semantic cognition and its dysfunction in brain disorders...
November 24, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877102/inhibition-of-gabaergic-neurotransmission-by-hiv-1-tat-and-opioid-treatment-in-the-striatum-involves-%C3%AE-opioid-receptors
#13
Changqing Xu, Sylvia Fitting
Due to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is considered a chronic disease with high prevalence of mild forms of neurocognitive impairments, also referred to as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Although opiate drug use can exacerbate HIV-1 Tat-induced neuronal damage, it remains unknown how and to what extent opioids interact with Tat on the GABAergic system. We conducted whole-cell recordings in mouse striatal slices and examined the effects of HIV-1 Tat in the presence and absence of morphine (1 μM) and damgo (1 μM) on GABAergic neurotransmission...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877044/increased-mir-132-level-is-associated-with-visual-memory-dysfunction-in-patients-with-depression
#14
Ye Liu, Xiao Yang, Liansheng Zhao, Jian Zhang, Tao Li, Xiaohong Ma
BACKGROUND: Impaired visual memory seems to be a core feature of depression, while increased microRNA-132 (miR-132) levels have been widely reported in depression patients. The authors aimed to explore the relationship between miR-132 changes and visual memory deficits in unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 62 medication-free MDD patients and 73 matched healthy controls (HCs) were tested for miR-132 expression level in peripheral blood using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875832/remediating-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-via-cognitive-training-a-perspective-on-neurocognitive-aging
#15
David E Vance, Shameka L Cody, Linda Moneyham
Over 50% of adults with HIV exhibit some form of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, ranging from mild asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment to HIV-associated dementia. As adults age with HIV and become susceptible to cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities, the prevalence and severity of such neurocognitive disorders are likely to increase. With compromised renal and hepatic functioning often accompanying HIV, pharmaceutical interventions to address such neurocognitive disorders may not be the best strategy and are not without risks...
2017: Interdisciplinary Topics in Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874842/efficacy-of-video-music-therapy-on-quality-of-life-improvement-in-a-group-of-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-a-pre-post-study
#16
Ivan Rubbi, Daniela Magnani, Giada Naldoni, Rosaria Di Lorenzo, Valeria Cremonini, Patrizia Capucci, Giovanna Artioli, Paola Ferri
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: Alzheimer's disease is the most common degenerative dementia with a predominantly senile onset. The difficult management of altered behaviour related to this disorder, poorly responsive to pharmacological treatments, has stimulated growth in non-pharmacological interventions, such as music therapy, whose effectiveness has not been supported by the literature up to now. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of video-music therapy on quality of life improvement in Patients affected by Alzheimer's Disease (AD)...
November 22, 2016: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872673/the-relationship-between-neurocognitive-functioning-and-occupational-functioning-in-bipolar-disorder-a-literature-review
#17
REVIEW
Walace Duarte, Rodrigo Becerra, Kate Cruise
Neurocognitive impairment in Bipolar Disorder (BD) has been widely reported, even during remission. Neurocognitive impairment has been identified as a contributing factor towards unfavourable psychosocial functioning within this population. The objective of this review was to investigate the association between neurocognitive impairment and occupational functioning in BD. A literature review of English-language journal articles from January 1990 to November 2013 was undertaken utilising the PsychINFO, Scopus and Web of Knowledge databases...
November 2016: Europe's journal of psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872267/endophenotypes-epigenetics-polygenicity-and-more-irv-gottesman-s-dynamic-legacy
#18
David L Braff, Carol A Tamminga
First, we describe the hallmark contributions of Irv Gottesman's pioneering scholarship for schizophrenia research including concepts of polygenicity, gene × environment interactions, epigenetics and the endophenotype concept. Gottesman and colleagues' twin studies showed that genes, not social factors, mediate schizophrenia risk. He then showed that schizophrenia is highly polygenic. Next, he introduced the concept of epigenetics into schizophrenia research. Gottesman then introduced the quantitative endophenotype concept...
November 21, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869500/lower-frailty-is-associated-with-successful-cognitive-aging-among-older-adults-with-hiv
#19
Lindsay Mk Wallace, Maria Ferrara, Thomas D Brothers, Sara Garlassi, Susan A Kirkland, Olga Theou, Stefano Zona, Cristina Mussini, David J Moore, Kenneth Rockwood, Giovanni Guaraldi
BACKGROUND: Aging with HIV poses unique and complex challenges, including avoidance of neurocognitive disorder. Our objective here is to identify the prevalence and predictors of successful cognitive aging (SCA) in sample of older adults with HIV. METHODS: One hundred three HIV-infected individuals aged 50 and older were recruited from the Modena HIV Metabolic Clinic in Italy. Participants were treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for at least one year and had suppressed plasma HIV viral load...
November 21, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869058/relationship-of-amotivation-to-neurocognition-self-efficacy-and-functioning-in-first-episode-psychosis-a-structural-equation-modeling-approach
#20
W C Chang, V W Y Kwong, C L M Hui, S K W Chan, E H M Lee, E Y H Chen
BACKGROUND: Better understanding of the complex interplay among key determinants of functional outcome is crucial to promoting recovery in psychotic disorders. However, this is understudied in the early course of illness. We aimed to examine the relationships among negative symptoms, neurocognition, general self-efficacy and global functioning in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients using structural equation modeling (SEM). METHOD: Three hundred and twenty-one Chinese patients aged 26-55 years presenting with FEP to an early intervention program in Hong Kong were recruited...
November 21, 2016: Psychological Medicine
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