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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811349/brain-macrophages-in-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-antiretroviral-suppressed-macaques-a-functional-latent-reservoir
#1
Claudia R Avalos, Celina M Abreu, Suzanne E Queen, Ming Li, Sarah Price, Erin N Shirk, Elizabeth L Engle, Ellen Forsyth, Brandon T Bullock, Feilim Mac Gabhann, Stephen W Wietgrefe, Ashley T Haase, M Christine Zink, Joseph L Mankowski, Janice E Clements, Lucio Gama
A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection cure requires an understanding of the cellular and anatomical sites harboring virus that contribute to viral rebound upon treatment interruption. Despite antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are reported in HIV-infected individuals on ART. Biomarkers for macrophage activation and neuronal damage in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of HIV-infected individuals demonstrate continued effects of HIV in brain and suggest that the central nervous system (CNS) may serve as a viral reservoir...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810245/the-etiology-of-hoarding-disorder-a-review
#2
Mary E Dozier, Catherine R Ayers
This article will review the evidence of various proposed factors that contribute to the onset and maintenance of hoarding disorder (HD). Data suggests that hoarding is a chronic condition that starts early in life and does not remit if left untreated. There is emerging evidence that a number of factors contribute to the expression of HD symptoms, including genetics, neurocognitive functioning, attachments to possessions, beliefs, avoidance, personality factors, and life events. The extent to which each etiological factor uniquely contributes to hoarding is still unknown...
August 16, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809653/effectiveness-of-environment-based-interventions-that-address-behavior-perception-and-falls-in-people-with-alzheimer-s-disease-and-related-major-neurocognitive-disorders-a-systematic-review
#3
Lou Jensen, René Padilla
OBJECTIVE: This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of environment-based interventions that address behavior, perception, and falls in the home and other settings for people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related major neurocognitive disorders (NCDs). METHOD: Database searches were limited to outcomes studies published in English in peer-reviewed journals between January 2006 and April 2014. RESULTS: A total of 1,854 articles were initially identified, of which 42 met inclusion criteria...
September 2017: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809652/effectiveness-of-interventions-for-caregivers-of-people-with-alzheimer-s-disease-and-related-major-neurocognitive-disorders-a-systematic-review
#4
Catherine Verrier Piersol, Kerry Canton, Susan E Connor, Ilana Giller, Stacy Lipman, Suzanne Sager
OBJECTIVE: The goal of the evidence review was to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for caregivers of people with Alzheimer's disease and related major neurocognitive disorders that facilitate the ability to maintain participation in the caregiver role. METHOD: Scientific literature published in English between January 2006 and April 2014 was reviewed. Databases included MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, OTseeker, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews...
September 2017: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809651/effectiveness-of-occupational-therapy-interventions-to-enhance-occupational-performance-for-adults-with-alzheimer-s-disease-and-related-major-neurocognitive-disorders-a-systematic-review
#5
Stacy Smallfield, Cindy Heckenlaible
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review was to describe the evidence for the effectiveness of interventions designed to establish, modify, and maintain occupations for adults with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related neurocognitive disorders. METHOD: Titles and abstracts of 2,597 articles were reviewed, of which 256 were retrieved for full review and 52 met inclusion criteria. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force levels of certainty and grade definitions were used to describe the strength of evidence...
September 2017: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809650/supporting-adults-with-alzheimer-s-disease-and-related-major-neurocognitive-disorders-and-their-caregivers-effective-occupational-therapy-interventions
#6
Stacy Smallfield
Occupational therapy practitioners play a significant role in supporting adults with Alzheimer's disease and related major neurocognitive disorders, as well as their caregivers, through all phases of the disease process. This editorial highlights the systematic reviews completed in collaboration with the American Occupational Therapy Association's Evidence-Based Practice Project that summarize the evidence for the effectiveness of interventions within the scope of occupational therapy practice for this population...
September 2017: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807191/cognitive-and-motor-performance-in-congolese-children-with-konzo-during-4-years-of-follow-up-a-longitudinal-analysis
#7
Michael J Boivin, Daniel Okitundu, Bumoko Makila-Mabe, Marie-Therese Sombo, Dieudonne Mumba, Alla Sikorskii, Banea Mayambu, Desire Tshala-Katumbay
BACKGROUND: Konzo is an irreversible upper-motor neuron disorder affecting children dependent on bitter cassava for food. The neurocognitive ability of children with konzo over time has yet to be fully documented. METHODS: We did a longitudinal study in a konzo outbreak zone continuously affected by konzo since 1990, in the district of Kahemba, southern Bandundu Province, Congo. We enrolled children with a record of neurological diagnosis of konzo in Kahemba town...
September 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804465/personality-traits-related-to-binge-drinking-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Ana Adan, Diego A Forero, José Francisco Navarro
The pattern of alcohol consumption in the form of binge drinking (BD) or heavy episodic drinking has increased notably worldwide in recent years, especially among adolescent and young people, being currently recognized as a global health problem. Although only a minority of binge drinkers will develop a substance use disorder, BD may have negative personal and social consequences in the short and medium term. The objective of this article is to review the findings on personality traits related to binge drinkers and to emphasize the aspects that should be examined in order to make progress in this area...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803095/acute-effects-of-smoked-marijuana-in-marijuana-smokers-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis-a-preliminary-study
#9
Nehal P Vadhan, Cheryl M Corcoran, Gill Bedi, John G Keilp, Margaret Haney
Marijuana use is associated with psychosis, but its effects are understudied in individuals with preexisting risk for psychotic disorders. This preliminary study examined the acute psychological and physiological effects of smoked marijuana (0.0% or 5.5% Δ(9)-THC) in marijuana users at clinical high-risk (CHR; n = 6) to develop a psychotic disorder, and those not at risk (n = 6), under controlled laboratory conditions. CHR marijuana users exhibited temporary increases in psychotic-like states and decreases in neurocognitive performance during marijuana intoxication but control marijuana smokers did not...
August 1, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801223/limited-benefits-of-presymptomatic-cord-blood-transplantation-in-neurovisceral-acid-sphingomyelinase-deficiency-asmd-intermediate-type
#10
Oriane Mercati, Samia Pichard, Marie Ouachée, Roseline Froissart, Odile Fenneteau, Bastien Roche, Monique Elmaleh-Bergès, Yves Bertrand, Hélène Ogier de Baulny, Marie T Vanier, Manuel Schiff
Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) deficient Niemann-Pick disease is a lysosomal storage disorder resulting from mutations in the SMPD1 gene. The clinical spectrum distinguishes a severe infantile neurological form (type A), a non-neurological visceral form (type B) and a rare intermediate neurovisceral form. We report the first case of presymptomatic cord blood transplantation in a child with the intermediate type of ASM deficiency due to a homozygous Tyr369Cys mutation, whose affected elder brother had developed neurodevelopmental delay from 19 months of age, and had died from severe visceral complications at the age of 3...
July 29, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800423/relationship-of-executive-functioning-deficits-to-n-acetyl-aspartate-naa-and-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-gaba-in-youth-with-bipolar-disorder
#11
Rebekah S Huber, Douglas G Kondo, Xian-Feng Shi, Andrew P Prescot, Elaine Clark, Perry F Renshaw, Deborah A Yurgelun-Todd
BACKGROUND: Although cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder (BD) have been repeatedly observed, our understanding of these impairments at a mechanistic level remains limited. Few studies that investigated cognitive impairments in bipolar illness have examined the association with brain biochemistry. This pilot study utilized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to evaluate the relationship between neurocognitive performance and brain metabolites in youth with BD. METHODS: Thirty participants, twenty depressed BD participants and ten healthy comparison participants, ages 13-21, completed mood and executive function measures...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792291/executive-function-in-cancer-patients-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#12
Juan Yang, Juncheng Guo, Xiangling Jiang
Background Cancer patients with posttraumatic stress disorder can lead to their noncompliant behaviors. However, less is known about the neurocognitive functioning of posttraumatic stress disorder in general cancer types or patient populations. The current study attempted to examine the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder and their relationships with executive function in individuals with cancer. Methods A total of 285 cancer patients with posttraumatic stress disorder and 150 healthy individuals were recruited for the present study...
March 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783374/hiv-and-cognitive-impairment-in-clinical-practice-the-evaluation-of-a-stepwise-screening-protocol-in-relation-to-clinical-outcomes-and-management
#13
Charlotte S Hakkers, Jordan M Kraaijenhof, Esther B van Oers-Hazelzet, Anne J M A Visser-Meily, Andy I M Hoepelman, Joop E Arends, Roos E Barth
Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) is an increasingly important comorbidity in an ageing HIV+ population. Despite the lack of available treatment modalities, screening for NCI is recommended. In the UMC Utrecht, yearly NCI screening is done using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) tool and the HIV Dementia Scale (HDS). The aim of this study was to evaluate this screening protocol in relation to clinical outcomes and management. A retrospective cohort study was performed in suppressed adult HIV+ patients...
August 7, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779819/cognitive-issues-decline-delirium-depression-dementia
#14
REVIEW
Melodee Harris
Cognitive decline in older persons can be pathologic or occur as a part of the normal aging process. Delirium, depression, and dementia are geriatric syndromes and neurocognitive disorders that are the result of cognitive decline associated with pathology. This overview is a brief guide on cognitive decline and how to identify, manage, and treat associated neurocognitive disorders, including delirium, depression, and dementia.
September 2017: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777028/preliminary-validation-of-a-clinical-staging-model-in-schizophrenia-and-related-disorders
#15
Amy Tedja, Eva Velthorst, Mirjam van Tricht, Lieuwe de Haan
Clinical staging for schizophrenia and related disorders might provide an ideal means to overcome some limitations of the current diagnostic system and to facilitate early intervention. This study aims to retrospectively explore 1) the validity of a staging model 2) the stability of staging over time, and 3) the clinical factors associated with transition to more chronic stages. Data were derived from the Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis study, a large cohort study of patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder...
August 4, 2017: Clinical Schizophrenia & related Psychoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771870/the-perception-and-attention-functions-test-battery-as-a-measure-of-neurocognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-suspected-central-disorders-of-hypersomnolence
#16
Markus Ramm, Arsalan Jafarpour, Matthias Boentert, Nelly Lojewsky, Peter Young, Anna Heidbreder
The aim of the current study was to evaluate an attention test as a discriminative tool to measure neurocognitive impairment in patients with disorders of hypersomnolence. Chronic excessive daytime sleepiness is the main symptom in central disorders of hypersomnolence. For diagnostic purposes and treatment evaluation, reliable assessment of excessive daytime sleepiness is required. Thirty-six patients with central disorders of hypersomnolence were compared with 20 healthy controls. All participants performed the 'Perception and Attention Functions' (WAF) of the Vienna Test System...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769544/personality-characteristics-and-neurocognitive-functions-in-parents-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Xiaojing Li, Qiang Wang, Yuejing Wu, Sherrie Wang, Yi Huang, Tao Li
BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of autism spectrum disorder in children and the huge family burdens have caused concern in the academic field as well as society. AIM: To study the personality characteristics and neurocognitive functions in the Chinese parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and compare them with the parents of well-developed children. METHOD: This study recruited 41 Chinese children who met the diagnostic criteria of autism spectrum disorder according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders-IV (DSM-IV)...
February 25, 2017: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768859/identification-of-emerging-mac-tropic-hiv-1-r5-variants-in-brain-tissue-of-patients-without-severe-neurological-complications
#18
Maria Paz Gonzalez-Perez, Paul J Peters, Olivia O'Connell, Nilsa Silva, Carole Harbison, Sheila Cummings Macri, Saravanan Kaliyaperumal, Katherine Luzuriaga, Paul R Clapham
Untreated HIV-1+ individuals frequently suffer from HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), with about 30% of AIDS patients suffering severe HIV associated dementias (HAD). Antiretroviral therapy has greatly reduced the incidence of HAND and HAD. However, there is a continuing problem of milder neurocognitive impairments in treated HIV+ patients that may be increasing with long term therapy.Here, we investigated whether envelope (env) genes could be amplified from proviral DNA or RNA derived from brain tissue of 12 individuals with normal neurology or minor neurological conditions (N/MC individuals)...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768147/production-of-human-recombinant-phenylalanine-hydroxylase-in-lactobacillus-plantarum-for-gastrointestinal-delivery
#19
Aura María Ramírez, Alexander Rodriguez-López, Andrea Ardila, Laura Beltran, Camilo Andres Patarroyo, Adelina Del Pilar Melendez, Oscar Fernando Sánchez, Carlos Javier Alméciga-Díaz
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a defective phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), which catalyzes the hydroxylation of l-phenylalanine (l-Phe) to l-tyrosine (l-Tyr) in presence of the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). Defective PAH causes accumulation of phenylalanine, which has neurotoxic effects and leads to dermatological, behavioral, and neurocognitive problems. Treatments for this disease consist in life-long diets that are hard for patients to keep, or supplementation with BH4...
July 30, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764796/anticholinergic-drugs-and-functional-cognitive-impairment-and-behavioral-disturbances-in-patients-from-a-memory-clinic-with-subjective-cognitive-decline-or-neurocognitive-disorders
#20
Virginie Dauphinot, Christelle Mouchoux, Sébastien Veillard, Floriane Delphin-Combe, Pierre Krolak-Salmon
BACKGROUND: Drugs with anticholinergic properties may be associated with various adverse clinical effects. The relationship between the anticholinergic (AC) burden and functional, global cognitive performance and behavior disturbances was assessed among elderly patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2012 and June 2014 in a memory clinic among outpatients living at home and with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) or neurocognitive disorders (NCD)...
August 1, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
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