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Vera Francisco, Jesús Pino, Victor Campos-Cabaleiro, Clara Ruiz-Fernández, Antonio Mera, Miguel A Gonzalez-Gay, Rodolfo Gómez, Oreste Gualillo
Obesity is an epidemic disease characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation associated with a dysfunctional fat mass. Adipose tissue is now considered an extremely active endocrine organ that secretes cytokine-like hormones, called adipokines, either pro- or anti-inflammatory factors bridging metabolism to the immune system. Leptin is historically one of most relevant adipokines, with important physiological roles in the central control of energy metabolism and in the regulation of metabolism-immune system interplay, being a cornerstone of the emerging field of immunometabolism...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Ruma G Singh, Sayali A Pendharkar, Aya Cervantes, Jaelim Cho, Victor Miranda-Soberanis, Maxim S Petrov
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence indicates that individuals after an episode of acute pancreatitis (AP) are at an increased risk of developing metabolic derangements. While the link between general obesity and insulin resistance (IR) is well established, only a few studies have investigated the association between abdominal obesity and IR. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between abdominal obesity and several indices of IR in individuals after an episode of AP. METHODS: Patients were eligible for this cross-sectional study if they were previously admitted with a primary diagnosis of AP based on the recent international guidelines...
May 1, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
Lali Tsiklauri, Janina Werner, Marian Kampschulte, Klaus W Frommer, Lucija Berninger, Martina Irrgang, Kristina Glenske, Dirk Hose, Thaqif El Khassawna, Jörn Pons-Kühnemann, Stefan Rehart, Sabine Wenisch, Ulf Müller-Ladner, Elena Neumann
OBJECTIVES: Age-related bone loss is associated with bone marrow adiposity. Adipokines (e.g. visfatin, resistin, leptin) are adipocyte-derived factors with immunomodulatory properties and might influence differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in osteoarthritis (OA) and osteoporosis. Thus, the presence of adipokines and MMPs in bone marrow and their effects on MSC differentiation were analyzed. METHODS: MSC and RNA were isolated from femoral heads after hip replacement surgery of OA or osteoporotic femoral neck fracture (FF) patients...
June 13, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Anna Damanaki, Marjan Nokhbehsaim, Kanishka Hiththetiya, Svenja Memmert, Jinlong Gao, Ky-Anh Nguyen, Werner Götz, Andreas Jäger, Gerhard Wahl, James Deschner
OBJECTIVES: Obesity is associated with periodontitis, but the mechanisms underlying this association have yet to be unraveled. The present investigation was to evaluate a common rat model, in which obesity is induced by high-fat, high-sucrose diet (HFSD), for its applicability in periodontal research. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten male Wistar rats were fed a 3-month HFSD along with a matching control group. Afterwards, the body weight, adipocyte morphology, leptin and adiponectin levels in adipose tissue, gingiva, and serum as well as the serum levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, and glucose were analyzed...
June 16, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Stephanie W Watts, Emma S Darios, Adam E Mullick, Hannah Garver, Thomas L Saunders, Elizabeth D Hughes, Wanda E Filipiak, Michael G Zeidler, Nichole McMullen, Christopher J Sinal, Ramya K Kumar, David J Ferland, Gregory D Fink
Measures of the adipokine chemerin are elevated in multiple cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, but little mechanistic work has been done to implicate chemerin as being causative in such diseases. The chemerin knockout (KO) rat was created to test the hypothesis that removal of chemerin would reduce pressure in the normal and hypertensive state. Western analyses confirmed loss of chemerin in the plasma and tissues of the KO vs. wild-type (WT) rats. Chemerin concentration in plasma and tissues was lower in WT females than in WT males, as determined by Western analysis...
June 15, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Rohith N Thota, Jessica J A Ferguson, Kylie A Abbott, Cintia B Dias, Manohar L Garg
Lower incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Greenland Inuit, Northern Canada and Japan has been attributed to their consumption of seafood rich in long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFA). While a large majority of pre-clinical and intervention trials have demonstrated heart health benefits of LCn-3PUFA, some studies have shown no effects or even negative effects. LCn-3PUFA have been shown to favourably modulate blood lipid levels, particularly a reduction in circulating levels of triglycerides...
June 15, 2018: Food & Function
Aleksandra Derra, Martyna Bator, Tomasz Menżyk, Michał Kukla
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is intrahepatic ectopic lipid deposition which is present despite a lack of other causes of secondary hepatic fat accumulation. It is the most common chronic liver disorder in the welldeveloped countries. NAFLD is a multidisciplinary disease that affects various systems and organs and is inextricably linked to simple obesity, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and overt diabetes mellitus type 2. The positive energy balance related to obesity leads to a variety of systemic changes including modified levels of insulin, insulin- like growth factor-1, adipokines, hepatokines and cytokines...
June 2018: Clinical and experimental hepatology
Saleem A Banihani, Rawan A Elmadhoun, Omar F Khabour, Karem H Alzoubi
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that arises because of complex environmental, immunological, and genetic interactions. Adipokines are bioactive mediators secreted from adipocytes of white adipose tissue and are known to have a role in body metabolism and regulation of immune responses. Leptin is a proinflammatory adipokine that functions mainly to regulate food intake and energy expenditure. Few studies have implicated adipokines in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. In this study, we investigated the association of three leptin gene polymorphisms: -2548G>A (rs7799039), -188 C/A (rs791620), and A19G (rs2167270), with the incidence of atopic dermatitis...
2018: Dermato-endocrinology
Sumihiko Hagita, Maximillian A Rogers, Tan Pham, Jennifer R Wen, Andrew K Mlynarchik, Masanori Aikawa, Elena Aikawa
The sorting receptor Sortilin functions in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Dysfunctional lipid uptake, storage, and metabolism contribute to several major human diseases including atherosclerosis and obesity. Sortilin associates with cardiovascular disease; however, the role of Sortilin in adipose tissue and lipid metabolism remains unclear. Here we show that in the low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr-/- ) atherosclerosis model, Sortilin deficiency (Sort1-/- ) in female mice suppresses Niemann-Pick type C1-Like 1 (Npc1l1) mRNA levels, reduces body and white adipose tissue weight, and improves brown adipose tissue function partially via transcriptional downregulation of Krüppel-like factor 4 and Liver X receptor...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lei Pei, Ting Wan, Sufan Wang, Mingtong Ye, Yun Qiu, Rui Jiang, Nengzhi Pang, Yuanling Huang, Yujia Zhou, Xuye Jiang, Wenhua Ling, Zhenfeng Zhang, Lili Yang
AIM: Cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside (Cy-3-G) the most abundant monomer of anthocyanins has multiple protective effects on many diseases. To date, whether Cy-3-G could regulate the function of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is still unclear and whether this regulation could influence the secretion of adipokines from BAT to prevent non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) indirectly remains to be explored. In this study we investigated the effect of Cy-3-G on BAT and the potential role of Cy-3-G to prevent fatty liver through regulating the secretion of BAT...
June 9, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Elsa De La Chesnaye, Leticia Manuel-Apolinar, Leticia Damasio, Aleida Olivares, Miguel Angel Palomino, Isis Santos, Juan Pablo Méndez
Numerous clinical studies have reported the association between high circulating levels of lipocalin-2 (LCN2) and metabolic diseases. However, only few studies have addressed sexually dimorphic, either in its circulating concentration or in its expression in other organs. To the best of our knowledge, LCN2 and the 24p3 receptor (24p3R), have not been identified in gonads; therefore, the present study analyzed their mRNA expression profile and cellular localization in gonads collected from fetal rats at 21 days post coitum, as well as from neonatal rats at 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 20 and 30 postnatal days...
July 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Marhazlina Mohamad, See Ling Loy, Poh Ying Lim, Yu Wang, Kah Leng Soo, Hamid Jan Jan Mohamed
The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing at an alarming rate in Malaysia. Metabolic changes during pregnancy are critical to the development of infant adiposity, due to imbalanced adipokines production. Hence, we aimed to investigate the association of maternal serum and breast milk adipokines with infant adiposity development. The study was conducted from April 2010 until December 2012. A total of 155 healthy pregnant mothers aged 19 to 40 years were recruited during the first and second trimester in Kelantan, Malaysia...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Zayani Nesrine, Hamdouni Haithem, Boumaiza Imen, Neffati Fadoua, Omezzine Asma, Najjar Mohamed Fadhel, Bouslama Ali
Adipose tissue is an important endocrine organ that secretes a number of adipokines, like Leptin (LEP). The aim this study was to investigate the prevalence of single nucleotide polymorphisms in LEP gene (LEP 3'UTR A/C, -2548 G/A) and LEPR (K109R and Q223R) and their association with Leptin level and obesity. We recruited 169 non-obese (body mass index [BMI] = 24.51-3.69 kg/m2 ) and 160 obese (BMI = 36-4.78 kg/m2 ) patients. Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, BMI was calculated, and Leptin level was measured by ELISA...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
Francesca A Ververs, Eric Kalkhoven, Belinda Van't Land, Marianne Boes, Henk S Schipper
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are lipid-reactive T cells with profound immunomodulatory potential. They are unique in their restriction to lipid antigens presented in CD1d molecules, which underlies their role in lipid-driven disorders such as obesity and atherosclerosis. In this review, we discuss the contribution of iNKT cell activation to immunometabolic disease, metabolic programming of lipid antigen presentation, and immunometabolic activation of iNKT cells. First, we outline the role of iNKT cells in immunometabolic disease...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jones Gyamfi, Yun-Hee Lee, Minseob Eom, Junjeong Choi
The tumour microenvironment is a key regulators of tumour progression through the secretion of growth factors that activate epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Induction of EMT is a key step for transition from a benign state to a metastatic tumour. Adipose tissue forms a bulk portion of the breast cancer microenvironment, emerging evidence indicates the potential for adipocytes to influence tumour progression through the secretion of adipokines that can induce EMT. The molecular mechanisms underlying how adipocytes enhance breast cancer progression is largely unknown...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ge Li, Dan Feng, Xiaoxue Qu, Junling Fu, Yonghui Wang, Lianxia Li, Lujiao Li, Lanwen Han, Issy C Esangbedo, Mingyao Li, Ming Li, Shan Gao
The mechanisms by which obesity increases the risk of psychosocial disorders remain unclear. We aimed at exploring the association between obesity and self-concept in Chinese youths and the role of adipokines. Data for 559 participants (aged 14-28 years) were analyzed. Self-concept was assessed by utilizing the Self-Description Questionnaire II (SDQ-II). Subjects with obesity had higher leptin, FGF21 and lower adiponectin levels (all p < 0.001). They also had lower SDQ-II scores especially in the domains of general school, physical abilities, physical appearance and opposite-sex relations (all p < 0...
June 8, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Valene H L See, Trevor A Mori, Susan L Prescott, Lawrence J Beilin, Sally Burrows, Rae-Chi Huang
BACKGROUND: Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LCPUFA) supplementation during infancy may reduce adult cardiovascular risk as observed in animals. We assessed the effect of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation in infancy on growth, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors at 5 years of age. METHODS: Infants were randomly assigned to a daily supplement of n-3 LCPUFA or olive oil (control) from birth to 6 months ( n = 420). Measurements included weight, length, cord blood adipokines at birth and anthropometry, skinfolds, blood pressure, heart rate, fasting blood adipokines, and biochemistry at 5 years...
June 8, 2018: Pediatrics
Laurence Britton, Kim Bridle, Janske Reiling, Nishreen Santrampurwala, Leesa Wockner, Helena Ching, Katherine Stuart, V Nathan Subramaniam, Gary Jeffrey, Tim St Pierre, Michael House, Joel Gummer, Robert Trengove, John Olynyk, Darrell Crawford, Leon Adams
Rodent and cell-culture models support a role for iron-related adipokine dysregulation and insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, substantial human data are lacking. We examined the relationship between measures of iron status, adipokines, and insulin resistance in patients with NAFLD in the presence and absence of venesection. This study forms part of the Impact of Iron on Insulin Resistance and Liver Histology in Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (IIRON2) study, a prospective randomized controlled trial of venesection for adults with NAFLD...
June 2018: Hepatology communications
Junyan Yue, Jie Chen, Qingwu Wu, Xiaohuan Liu, Meixia Li, Zheng Li, Yanjun Gao
OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to explore whether the omentin-1, a novel adipokine marker, could be a biomarker for stroke, as well as its association with stroke severity. METHODS: This study included 239 patients with ischemic stroke. The serum omentin-1 level was determined and the stroke was evaluated when the patients were hospitalized. The control groups consisted of 108 patients with matched age, gender and prior vascular risk factors and 120 health control with matched age and gender...
June 4, 2018: Cytokine
Simon Hohenester, Simon Christiansen, Jutta M Nagel, Ralf Wimmer, Renate Artmann, Gerald Denk, Monika Bischoff, Gert Bischoff, Christian Rust
Background The prevalence of obesity-related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is rising. NAFLD may result in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), progressing to liver cirrhosis. Weight loss is recommended to treat obesity-related NASH. Lifestyle intervention may improve NASH. However, pertinent trials have so far focused on overweight patients, while patients with obesity are at highest risk of developing NAFLD. Furthermore, reports of effects on liver fibrosis are scarce. We evaluated the effect of lifestyle intervention on NAFLD in a real-life cohort of morbidly obese patients...
June 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
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