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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151281/skeletal-muscle-performance-and-ageing
#1
REVIEW
Michael Tieland, Inez Trouwborst, Brian C Clark
The world population is ageing rapidly. As society ages, the incidence of physical limitations is dramatically increasing, which reduces the quality of life and increases healthcare expenditures. In western society, ~30% of the population over 55 years is confronted with moderate or severe physical limitations. These physical limitations increase the risk of falls, institutionalization, co-morbidity, and premature death. An important cause of physical limitations is the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, also referred to as sarcopenia...
November 19, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151274/effect-of-hmg-coa-reductase-inhibitors-on-the-development-of-chronic-lung-allograft-dysfunction
#2
Amanda Szczepanik, Amanda Hulbert, Hui-Jie Lee, Clark Benedetti, Laurie Snyder, Jennifer Byrns
Lung transplant recipients (LR) have a reduced median five-year survival of approximately 55% primarily due to chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). Statins have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects that may facilitate CLAD prevention. This study sought to evaluate statin effect on CLAD development. Adult bilateral LR from January 2004-October 2013 were included. Statin group included recipients with early statin use and continued for minimum 6 months. Propensity score matching was performed for age, gender and native lung disease to select matched non-statin group...
November 19, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151257/oral-cancer-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-among-dentists-in-khartoum-state-sudan
#3
Nada H M Ahmed, Sudeshni Naidoo
The dental professions hold an important responsibility in the control of oral cancer and the early diagnosis highly depends on their knowledge. The present study was developed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of dentists in Khartoum State regarding oral cancer prevention and early detection. An administered questionnaire was structured and sent to all licensed 130 dentists working in public dental clinics in Khartoum State. Responses to the questionnaire were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151254/evaluation-of-the-implementation-of-hospital-antibiotic-policy-in-oncosurgery-ward-a-six-year-experience
#4
Aneta Nitsch-Osuch, Damian Okruciński, Magdalena Dawgiałło, Izabela Gołębiak, Ernest Kuchar
The hospital antibiotic policy should be implemented to rationalize the antibiotic use and to decrease the risk of spread of resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to describe the antibiotic consumption patterns in a single oncosurgery ward before and after the implementation of hospital antibiotic policy. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the antibiotic use at the oncosurgery ward in Warsaw, Poland, in the years 2011-2016. Calculations were based on daily defined doses (DDD), DDD/100 hospitalizations, and DDD/100 person-days...
November 19, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151244/identification-of-rare-noncoding-sequence-variants-in-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-a-receptor-alpha-4-subunit-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
Anthony J Griswold, Derek Van Booven, Michael L Cuccaro, Jonathan L Haines, John R Gilbert, Margaret A Pericak-Vance
Alterations of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling system has been strongly linked to the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Genetic associations of common variants in GABA receptor subunits, in particular GABRA4 on chromosome 4p12, with ASD have been replicated by several studies. Moreover, molecular investigations have identified altered transcriptional and translational levels of this gene and protein in brains of ASD individuals. Since the genotyped common variants are likely not the functional variants contributing to the molecular consequences or underlying ASD phenotype, this study aims to examine rare sequence variants in GABRA4, including those outside the protein coding regions of the gene...
November 18, 2017: Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151242/a-qualitative-examination-of-increased-alcohol-use-after-bariatric-surgery-among-racially-ethnically-diverse-young-adults
#6
Christine E Spadola, Eric F Wagner, Leah M Varga, Jennifer L Syvertsen, Nestor F De La Cruz Munoz, Sarah E Messiah
INTRODUCTION: Mounting evidence suggests that bariatric surgery, or weight loss surgery (WLS), patients might be vulnerable to developing post-operative alcohol use problems. While the majority of published research offers information concerning the prevalence of problematic alcohol use post-WLS, the literature lacks comprehensive, qualitative explorations examining why alcohol misuse might emerge after WLS. Such data-driven hypotheses are needed to effectively target this emerging concern...
November 19, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151237/health-risk-contamination-of-heavy-metals-in-yolk-and-albumen-of-duck-eggs-collected-in-central-and-western-thailand
#7
P Aendo, R Netvichian, S Tippayalak, A Sanguankiat, T Khuntamoon, T Songserm, P Tulayakul
Two hundred duck egg samples were collected from 20 farms in Central and Western Thailand. The levels of Zn, Co, Mn, Fe, and Cr in yolks were found significantly higher than in albumen, whereas the levels of Cd and Cu contaminations in egg albumen were significantly higher than in yolks. The mean level of Pb contamination in whole eggs was 4.06 ± 2.70 mg kg(-1) dry weight. This level was higher than the Thai agricultural standard no. 6703-2005 for duck eggs set at 0.1 ppm for the magnitude of 40.6 times...
November 18, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151228/previously-implanted-intra-peritoneal-mesh-increases-morbidity-during-re-laparoscopy-a-retrospective-case-matched-cohort-study
#8
A Sharma, P Chowbey, N S Kantharia, M Baijal, V Soni, R Khullar
PURPOSE: Laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR) with intra-peritoneal mesh placement is standard surgical treatment of abdominal wall hernias. During laparoscopic re-intervention, we examined adhesions that develop after previous intra-peritoneal mesh placement and ascertained morbidity and risk of adverse events. METHODS: This is a retrospective, case-matched comparison of three patient groups-previous intra-peritoneal mesh (Group A), previous abdominal surgery (Group B) and no previous abdominal surgery (Group C)...
November 18, 2017: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151227/significance-of-prostate-specific-antigen-kinetics-after-three-dimensional-conformal-radiotherapy-with-androgen-deprivation-therapy-in-patients-with-localized-prostate-cancer
#9
Wataru Fukuokaya, Sangji Kim, Takao Natsuyama, Kanako Matsuzaki, Homare Shiomi, Hiroki Kitoh, Nobuko Utsumi, Hiromasa Kurosaki, Masafumi Inoue, Koichiro Akakura
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the relationship between biochemical recurrence and post-radiation prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics in patients with localized prostate cancer treated by radiotherapy with various durations of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). METHODS: We reviewed our single-institution, retrospectively maintained data of 144 patients with T1c-T3N0M0 prostate cancer who underwent three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) between December 2005 and December 2015 and 113 patients were fulfilled the inclusion criteria...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151225/association-between-different-dietary-polyphenol-subclasses-and-the-improvement-in-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-evidence-from-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#10
Claudia Vetrani, Marilena Vitale, Lutgarda Bozzetto, Giuseppe Della Pepa, Sara Cocozza, Giuseppina Costabile, Anna Mangione, Paola Cipriano, Giovanni Annuzzi, Angela A Rivellese
AIMS: Due to their different chemical structures and metabolism, polyphenol subclasses may have specific impact on cardiometabolic risk factors. Our aim was to evaluate whether the intake of different polyphenol subclasses is associated with clinical outcomes beneficially improved by polyphenols in a nutritional trial performed by our group (postprandial lipid response, glucose homeostasis, early insulin secretion and oxidative stress). METHODS: The present study is a secondary analysis of a nutritional intervention study with a diet naturally rich in polyphenols...
November 18, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151200/a-closer-look-at-racism-and-heterosexism-in-medical-students-clinical-decision-making-related-to-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-implications-for-prep-education
#11
Sarah K Calabrese, Valerie A Earnshaw, Douglas S Krakower, Kristen Underhill, Wilson Vincent, Manya Magnus, Nathan B Hansen, Trace S Kershaw, Kenneth H Mayer, Joseph R Betancourt, John F Dovidio
Social biases among healthcare providers could limit PrEP access. In this survey study of 115 US medical students, we examined associations between biases (racism and heterosexism) and PrEP clinical decision-making and explored prior PrEP education as a potential buffer. After viewing a vignette about a PrEP-seeking MSM patient, participants reported anticipated patient behavior (condomless sex, extra-relational sex, and adherence), intention to prescribe PrEP to the patient, biases, and background characteristics...
November 18, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151198/high-substance-use-and-hiv-risk-behavior-among-young-argentine-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#12
Iván C Balán, Timothy Frasca, María A Pando, Rubén O Marone, Victoria Barreda, Curtis Dolezal, Alex Carballo-Diéguez, María M Ávila
In the United States young men who have sex with men have higher rates of substance use, higher HIV incidence, and less frequent HIV testing than their heterosexual counterparts and older MSM. Less is known about comparable populations in Latin America. As part of an epidemiological study, MSM were recruited through Respondent Driven Sampling in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina and answered a computerized behavioral survey. From the total of 500 MSM enrolled, a sub-sample of 233 aged 18-25 was analyzed...
November 18, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151195/risk-factors-in-preschool-children-for-predicting-asthma-during-the-preschool-age-and-the-early-school-age-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Yixia Bao, Zhimin Chen, Enmei Liu, Li Xiang, Deyu Zhao, Jianguo Hong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to identify risk factors of asthma among children < 6 years old (preschool age) for predicting asthma during the preschool age and early school age (≤ 10 years of age). METHOD OF THE STUDY: MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched until June 30, 2017. Prospective or retrospective cohort and case-control studies were included. Studies had to have evaluated risk factors or a predictive model for developing asthma in children ≤ 6 years of age or persistent asthma in early school age...
November 18, 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151187/spatial-distributions-of-hexachlorobutadiene-in-agricultural-soils-from-the-yangtze-river-delta-region-of-china
#14
Jianteng Sun, Lili Pan, Yu Zhan, Lizhong Zhu
Hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) is one of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) listed by the Stockholm Convention and poses potential risks to human health and ecosystems. To reveal the regional-scale pollution status of HCBD in agricultural soils from fast-developing areas, an extensive investigation was conducted in the core Yangtze River Delta (YRD), China. The detectable concentrations of HCBD in 241 soil samples ranged from 0.07 to 8.47 ng g(-1) dry weight, with an average value of 0.32 ng g(-1) and a detection rate of 59...
November 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151173/the-relationship-between-childhood-trauma-and-alcohol-use-initiation-in-black-and-white-adolescent-girls-considering-socioeconomic-status-and-neighborhood-factors
#15
Carolyn E Sartor, Rachel L Bachrach, Stephanie D Stepp, Kimberly B Werner, Alison E Hipwell, Tammy Chung
PURPOSE: To assess whether the higher prevalence of childhood trauma exposure but lower prevalence of alcohol use in Black vs. White adolescent girls reflects a lower magnitude of association between trauma and alcohol use initiation in Black girls; and additionally, whether low socioeconomic status (SES) and neighborhood factors account in part for the link between trauma and early alcohol use. METHODS: Data were drawn from annual interviews conducted with an urban sample of girls and their primary caregivers from ages 5-8 (baseline) through age 17 (n = 2068, 57...
November 18, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151150/a-comparison-of-cancer-risk-assessment-and-testing-outcomes-in-patients-from-underserved-vs-tertiary-care-settings
#16
Huma Q Rana, Sarah R Cochrane, Elaine Hiller, Ruth N Akindele, Callie M Nibecker, Ludmila A Svoboda, Angel M Cronin, Judy E Garber, Christopher S Lathan
In cancer genetics, technological advances (next generation sequencing) and the expansion of genetic test options have resulted in lowered costs and increased access to genetic testing. Despite this, the majority of patients utilizing cancer genetics services lack diversity of gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Through retrospective chart review, we compared outcomes of cancer genetics consultations at a tertiary cancer center and a Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) (58 tertiary and 23 FQHC patients) from 2013 to 2015...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Community Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151147/the-relationship-of-five-boarding-school-experiences-and-physical-health-status-among-northern-plains-tribes
#17
Ursula Running Bear, Calvin D Croy, Carol E Kaufman, Zaneta M Thayer, Spero M Manson
PURPOSE: American Indian (AI) boarding school attendance is related to poor physical health status; however, little is known about how specific aspects of this experience contribute to poor health. Five experiences (age of first attendance, limited family visits, forced church attendance, prohibition on practicing AI culture and traditions, and punishment for use of AI language) may be independently associated with physical health status in adulthood. We expected the effect to be greater for those who began boarding school at older ages...
November 18, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151136/whole-milk-consumption-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-and-mortality-isfahan-cohort-study
#18
Mohammad Talaei, Naeimeh Hosseini, Rob M van Dam, Masoumeh Sadeghi, Shahram Oveisgharan, Minoo Dianatkhah, Nizal Sarrafzadegan
BACKGROUND: The association between milk intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality risk is still controversial but data from Middle-Eastern populations are scarce. We aimed to study these associations in an Iranian population. METHODS: We used the Isfahan Cohort Study, a population-based prospective study of 6504 adult Iranians. In this analysis, we included 5432 participants free of CVD at baseline with at least one follow-up. Data on whole milk intake and other dietary factors were collected by a food frequency questionnaire at baseline...
November 18, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151119/whole-body-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-detection-of-skeletal-metastases-in-children-and-young-people-with-primary-solid-tumors-systematic-review
#19
A M Smets, E E Deurloo, T J E Slager, J Stoker, S Bipat
BACKGROUND: Many solid neoplasms have a propensity for osteomedullary metastases of which detection is important for staging and subsequent treatment. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) has been shown to accurately detect osteomedullary metastases in adults, but these findings cannot be unconditionally extrapolated to staging of children with malignant solid tumors. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a literature review on the sensitivity of WB-MRI for detecting skeletal metastases in children with solid tumors...
November 18, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151117/risks-of-flexible-ureterorenoscopy-pathophysiology-and-prevention
#20
REVIEW
Palle J S Osther
Currently, indications for flexible ureterorenoscopy (fURS) are expanding, mainly due to technological advancements. Although data from clinical series definitely presents fURS as a safe procedure, serious complications including sepsis and ureteral lesions do occur. These complications seem to be a result of the unique elements of fURS, ureteral access and irrigation, pushing normal upper urinary tract physiology into pathophysiological processes, including intrarenal/pyelo-veneous backflow and ureteral contractions, potentially resulting in septic, haemorrhagic and ureteral lesional complications...
November 18, 2017: Urolithiasis
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