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Elisabeth M Weiss, Walther Parson, Harald Niederstätter, Josef Marksteiner, Astrid Lampe
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder following a severe traumatic experience and is characterized by high rates of comorbidity with related psychiatric disorders. However, even for individuals experiencing the same trauma, there is considerable inter-individual variability in the risk of PTSD, and this is largely thought to be determined by biological processes, such as genetic predisposition and epigenetic mechanism. In this review we will summarize recent research on genetics of PTSD, primarily focusing on candidate gene-association studies, targeting on functional genetic variants in the monoaminergic system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
July 19, 2018: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Rhys Spangler, Timo Rantalainen, Paul B Gastin, Daniel Wundersitz
Considering the large and repetitive loads associated with jumping in team sports, automatic detection and quantification of jumping may show promise in reducing injury risks. The aim of this study was to validate commercially available inertial-movement analysis software to detect and quantify jumping in team sports. In addition, the test-retest reliability of the software to quantify jumping was assessed. Seventy-six healthy male participants completed a team sport circuit six times containing seven common movements (including three countermovement and two single-leg jumps) whilst wearing an inertial sensor (Catapult Sports, Australia)...
July 19, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Willemien S Kalteren, Hendrik J Ter Horst, Anne E den Heijer, Leanne de Vetten, Elisabeth M W Kooi, Arend F Bos
BACKGROUND: Perinatal anemia may cause perinatal asphyxia. Its pathophysiology and neurodevelopmental effects are theoretically different from other causes of perinatal asphyxia. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to determine whether perinatal anemia results in different short-term and long-term outcomes than other causes of perinatal asphyxia treated with therapeutic hypothermia. METHODS: We retrospectively included infants with moderate to severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, born between May 2009 and October 2015...
July 19, 2018: Neonatology
Rasha Khatib, Yurany A Arevalo, Mark A Berendsen, Shyam Prabhakaran, Mark D Huffman
AIMS: We performed a systematic review to evaluate stroke presentation, evaluation, management, and outcomes among studies conducted in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). METHODS: We searched MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase (Elsevier), and the Global Health (EBSCOhost) databases between January 2005 and June 2017 for studies conducted in LMICs defined by the World Bank. We pooled prevalence estimates using an inverse-variance weighting method and stratified by the country income group...
July 19, 2018: Neuroepidemiology
Paolo Spagnolo, Michael Kreuter, Toby M Maher, Wim Wuyts, Francesco Bonella, Tamera J Corte, Stefan Kopf, Derek Weycker, Klaus-Uwe Kirchgaessler, Christopher J Ryerson
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a possible risk factor for the development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), yet the effect of antidiabetic therapy on the course of IPF is unknown. OBJECTIVES: This post hoc analysis assessed the effect of metformin on clinically relevant outcomes in patients with IPF. METHODS: For the primary analysis, patients randomized to placebo (n = 624) in 3 phase 3, double-blind, controlled trials of pirfenidone (CAPACITY [NCT00287716 and NCT00287729]; ASCEND [NCT01366209]) were categorized by baseline metformin use...
July 19, 2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Paula Jimenez-Fonseca, Sebastian Krug, Gianluca Tamagno, F Fierro Maya, A Monleon Getino, C I Rodriguez Casado, Frederico Costa, Wouter W de Herder, Henning Jann
<br>Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (pNETs) represent rare neoplasms of all NETs often presenting without functional activity. Many sporadic non-functioning pNET patients are already metastatic at the time of diagnosis, and the therapeutic approach to such patients is mostly palliative. In this international, multicenter, retrospective cohort study we assessed the prognostic value of a set of anthropometric, clinical, biochemical, radiological, and pathological parameters at baseline and the impact of the therapeutic strategies on the survival of patients with sporadic grade 1/2, stage IV, non-functioning pNETs...
July 19, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Feng-Jiao Peng, Noël J Diepens, Chang-Gui Pan, Sally A Bracewell, Guang-Guo Ying, Daniel Salvito, Henriette Selck, Paul J Van den Brink
Triclosan (TCS) is an antibacterial agent that is commonly used in personal care products. Because of its sediment-binding properties, TCS exposure presents a potential threat to sediment-dwelling aquatic organisms. Currently our knowledge of the fate and effects of sediment-associated TCS in aquatic systems is limited. To understand the impact of sediment-associated TCS, we used microcosms to assess effects of TCS exposure on a diverse range of organisms selected to mimic a subtropical community, with an exposure period of 28 days...
July 11, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
L F Estrella, V B Ferreira, C Gallistl, M G R Alves, W Vetter, O Malm, F D B Abadio Finco, J P M Torres
Natural compounds from the metabolism of marine organisms have been detected at high concentrations in environmental samples which are not the producers of these compounds. These natural substances are known as halogenated natural products (HNPs). HNPs are possibly toxic halogenated compounds analogous to POPs that may bioaccumulate and biomagnify along the food web and pose a further risk to human and environmental health. The present study analyzed the occurrence of HNPs in the edible muscle of the three most consumed commercial fish species in the state of Rio de Janeiro: sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis), whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri) and mullet (Mugil liza) from the highly polluted Guanabara Bay (GB) and the less polluted Ilha Grande Bay (IGB)...
July 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Dominique Belpomme, Lennart Hardell, Igor Belyaev, Ernesto Burgio, David O Carpenter
Exposure to low frequency and radiofrequency electromagnetic fields at low intensities poses a significant health hazard that has not been adequately addressed by national and international organizations such as the World Health Organization. There is strong evidence that excessive exposure to mobile phone-frequencies over long periods of time increases the risk of brain cancer both in humans and animals. The mechanism(s) responsible include induction of reactive oxygen species, gene expression alteration and DNA damage through both epigenetic and genetic processes...
July 6, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Erik Hanson-Viana, Mónica González-Rodríguez, Diego García-Vivanco, Mariel González-Calatayud
INTRODUCTION: Popliteal injuries are significant health risk that could induce permanent functional impairment, limb loss, and in some cases death. Currently, there is a controversy about the required treatment between amputation and a limb salvage surgery, which in some cases could cause more prominent functional impairment than the amputation. Different indicators help to predict, in some extent, the risk of amputation, however most of them were described two decades ago. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A patient with a prolonged hot ischemia and in critical conditions, which had no favorable clinical indicators for revascularization is shown and discussed...
June 20, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Massimiliano Orri, Lea C Perret, Gustavo Turecki, Marie-Claude Geoffroy
BACKGROUND: Irritability is gaining considerable attention as a risk factor for suicide-related outcomes (suicide mortality, attempt, and ideation). However, the evidence of this association is scant. We conducted a systematic review of the evidence regarding the associations between irritability and suicide-related outcomes across the life-course. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search on Medline and PsycINFO (up to January 2018) for original articles published in English investigating the association between irritability and suicide-related outcomes...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Claudia Leite de Moraes, Paula Florence Sampaio, Michael Eduardo Reichenheim, Gloria Valéria da Veiga
Adolescence is a vulnerable period for mental health problems. Although child abuse and neglect (CAN) are known risk factors for some of them, it is not clear if the negative consequences on mental health also occur in families where CAN and a warm parent-child relationship coexist. The aim of this study is to explore this gap and investigate the effects of different types of CAN according to levels of warmth in the parent-child relationship on common mental disorders (CMD) in adolescence. This is a cross-sectional study encompassing 487 adolescents attending the ninth grade at 2 public and 4 private schools in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
July 16, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Aya Isumi, Takeo Fujiwara, Nobutoshi Nawa, Manami Ochi, Tsuguhiko Kato
Child poverty is well known as a major risk factor for child maltreatment. However, it is not known whether parental psychological distress and individual-level social capital mediate the association. We examined the mediation effect of these two factors on the association between child poverty and maltreatment. In the Adachi Child Health Impact of Living Difficulty (A-CHILD) Study, a questionnaire was administered to all caregivers of first-grade children in every public elementary school in Adachi City between July and November 2015, and valid responses were used for analysis (N = 3944)...
July 16, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Cora Bartelink, Erik J Knorth, Mónica López López, Carien Koopmans, Ingrid J Ten Berge, Cilia L M Witteman, Tom A van Yperen
Child welfare and child protection workers regularly make placement decisions in child abuse cases, but how they reach these decisions is not well understood. This study focuses on workers' rationales. The aim was to investigate the kinds of arguments provided in placement decisions and whether these arguments were predictors for the decision, in addition to the decision-makers' risk assessment, work experience and attitudes towards placement. The sample consisted of 214 professionals and 381 students from the Netherlands...
July 16, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Susann Regber, Jovanna Dahlgren, Staffan Janson
OBJECTIVE: To explore key person's perspectives of foster home placement or notification of risk of harm to Social Services of children with severe obesity. METHODS: This case study research was performed in the southwest of Sweden and based on interviews with nine informants: a foster home youth, two foster parents, a social worker, two hospital social workers, a pediatric physician, a pediatric nurse, and a psychologist. Content analysis was used for narrative evaluations, within- and cross case analyses and displays...
July 16, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Xia Zhao, Dan Zhang, Menglian Wu, Yang Yang, Hui Xie, Yuqin Li, Jihui Jia, Yonggang Su
Loneliness has been identified as a risk factor for depressive symptoms. Resilience and social support have been regarded as underlying protective factors. Little is known about the complex relations among these factors in the nursing home elderly. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of depressive symptoms, explore whether resilience mediated the association between loneliness and depressive symptoms, and investigate whether social support moderated the indirect or direct effect of mediation model. A total of 323 nursing home elderly were recruited in Jinan City, China...
July 9, 2018: Psychiatry Research
C Kelaidi, T Braun, R Arana, A Marceau-Renaut, G Lazarian, J Soret, S Cereja, R Letestu, V Eclache, D Lusina, F Baran-Marszak, L Ades, C Preudhomme, A Martin, P Fenaux, C Gardin
Immunosuppressive treatment is a disease-modifying therapy for lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). However, IST is relatively rarely used and long-term outcomes of patients are seldom reported. We retrospectively studied outcomes of 20 patients with lower-risk non del 5q MDS with transfusion dependency, with horse or rabbit antithymocyte globulin ± ciclosporine A, and frontline eltrombopag in two of them. IPSS-R was low, intermediate and high in 30%, 55% and 10% of the patients, respectively. Fifty-five percent of the patients had hypocellular bone marrow (BM)...
May 29, 2018: Leukemia Research
Pingping Ning, Fayun Hu, Baiyuan Yang, Qiuyan Shen, Quanzhen Zhao, Hongyan Huang, Ran An, Yalan Chen, Hui Wang, Xinglong Yang, Yanming Xu
OBJECTIVE: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is related to the demyelination of intracranial nerves at multiple sites, while restless legs syndrome (RLS) appears to be caused by dysfunction of the dopaminergic system. Since RLS prevalence is higher among MS patients than in the general population, we carried out an updated meta-analysis to understand whether the two diseases might be associated. METHOD: Web of Science, PubMed, Embase, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and SinoMed databases were searched for observational and case-controlled studies of RLS prevalence in MS...
June 20, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Alexandra Perrot, Carole Castanier, Pauline Maillot, Haifa Zitari
INTRODUCTION: Among the tools assessing fall related self-efficacy, the Modified-Falls Efficacy Scale (M-FES) seems to be a comprehensive and sensitive scale. However, no validated French version exists to this day. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to translate the M-FES and validate this French translation (M-FES Fr). METHOD: The validation steps used to translate and validate the M-FES Fr were i) forward - backward translation, ii) examination of the internal structure and reliability, iii) evaluation of the convergent validity...
July 4, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Luria Leslie Founou, Raspail Carrel Founou, Sabiha Yusuf Essack, Cyrille Finyom Djoko
Food animals can be reservoirs of methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) and are involved in their zoonotic transmission through the food chain. In Africa, there is a dearth of information about the food safety issues associated with their dissemination in the farm-to-plate continuum. This study sought to determine and compare the carriage, antimicrobial resistance profiles and clonal relatedness of circulating MRS strains among pigs and exposed workers in Cameroon and South Africa. A total of 288 nasal and rectal pooled samples collected from 432 pigs as well as nasal and hand swabs from 82 humans were cultured on mannitol salt agar supplemented with 6 mg/l cefoxitin...
July 16, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
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