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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574573/mass-media-interventions-for-preventing-smoking-in-young-people
#1
REVIEW
Kristin V Carson, Faisal Ameer, Kourosh Sayehmiri, Khin Hnin, Joseph Em van Agteren, Fatemeh Sayehmiri, Malcolm P Brinn, Adrian J Esterman, Anne B Chang, Brian J Smith
BACKGROUND: Mass media interventions can be used as a way of delivering preventive health messages. They have the potential to reach and modify the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of a large proportion of the community. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of mass media interventions on preventing smoking in young people, and whether it can reduce smoking uptake among youth (under 25 years), improve smoking attitudes, intentions and knowledge, improve self-efficacy/self-esteem, and improve perceptions about smoking, including the choice to follow positive role models...
June 2, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379069/exposure-to-advertising-and-perception-interest-and-use-of-e-cigarettes-among-adolescents-findings-from-the-us-national-youth-tobacco-survey
#2
Jia Pu, Xiao Zhang
OBJECTIVE: US adolescents are exposed to high levels of advertisements for electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). This study aimed to examine the associations between exposure to e-cigarette advertisements and perception, interest, and use of e-cigarettes among US middle school and high school students. METHODS: Data from the 2014 cross-sectional National Youth Tobacco Survey were used. Logistic regressions were conducted to model four outcomes, including perception of reduced harmfulness compared to regular cigarettes, perception of reduced addictiveness, intention to use, and current use of e-cigarettes...
April 1, 2017: Perspectives in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289369/associations-of-attitudes-towards-electronic-cigarettes-with-advertisement-exposure-and-social-determinants-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Benjamin Reinhold, Rebecca Fischbein, Surya Sruthi Bhamidipalli, Jennifer Bryant, Deric R Kenne
BACKGROUND: The exposure of young adults to electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) advertisements has risen rapidly. E-cigarette ads have been shown to increase short term perceived acceptability of using e-cigarettes in places where traditional cigarettes are banned. We set out to investigate if advertising exposure was related to perceptions of harm, addictiveness, and acceptability of use of e-cigarettes in places where traditional cigarettes are banned. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, 6037 students at a large Midwestern university between the ages of 18-24 were surveyed about e-cigarette use and smoking status...
2017: Tobacco Induced Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194203/behavioral-activation-and-inhibition-system-s-role-in-predicting-addictive-behaviors-of-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-of-roozbeh-psychiatric-hospital
#4
Moslem Abbasi, Hasan Sadeghi, Zabih Pirani, Leyla Vatandoust
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, prevalence of addictive behaviors among bipolar patients is considered to be a serious health threat by the World Health Organization. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of behavioral activation and inhibition systems in predicting addictive behaviors of male patients with bipolar disorder at the Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The research method used in this study is correlation. The study population consisted of 80 male patients with bipolar disorder referring to the psychiatrics clinics of Tehran city in 2014 who were referred to the Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141727/-media-addiction-in-a-10-year-old-boy
#5
Scott Brown, Michael A Scharf, Cristina Bustos, Denise Chavira, Martin T Stein
Bryan is a 10-year-old boy who is brought to his pediatrician by his parents with concerns about oppositional behaviors. Bryan's parents report that he has always been hyperactive and oppositional since a very young age. He has been previously diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and has been treated with appropriate stimulant medications for several years; however, despite this, his parents feel increasingly unable to manage his difficult behaviors. He refuses to do chores or follow through with household routines...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646845/pharmacological-neuroenhancement-teachers-knowledge-and-attitudes-results-from-a-survey-study-among-teachers-in-germany
#6
Andreas G Franke, Sophie Lehmberg, Michael Soyka
BACKGROUND: Pharmacological neuroenhancement (PN) is a topic of increasing importance. Its prevalence rates range from 1 % to more than 20 %. Students are a group that shows exceptionally high prevalence rates. However, little is known about teachers' knowledge, management, attitudes and ethical judgements regarding PN. METHODS: A web-based survey containing 40 closed questions was developed. All teachers working at all private and public schools in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, a state in northeastern Germany, were invited to participate after their respective school offices were contacted by telephone, email and mail...
September 20, 2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612147/a-novel-technique-to-reconstruct-tricuspid-valve-anterior-leaflet-in-massive-endocarditis
#7
Gabriele Di Giammarco, Daniele Marinelli, Massimiliano Foschi, Michele Di Mauro
Tricuspid valve (TV) endocarditis is a common complication in intravenous drug addicts. In case of TV replacement, the main issue is the high risk of new endocarditis on TV prosthesis. On November 2014, a 44 year-old male patient with a history of intravenous drug addiction was referred for TV endocarditis owing to Staphylococcus aureus and severe regurgitation complicated by pulmonary embolism and heart failure. Preoperative echocardiography showed a large vegetation of the anterior leaflet (1.95 × 0.92 cm) covering a huge hole in the leaflet itself...
July 2016: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25524052/safety-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-tv-1380-a-novel-mutated-butyrylcholinesterase-treatment-for-cocaine-addiction-after-single-and-multiple-intramuscular-injections-in-healthy-subjects
#8
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Orit Cohen-Barak, Jacqueline Wildeman, Jeroen van de Wetering, Judith Hettinga, Petra Schuilenga-Hut, Aviva Gross, Shane Clark, Merav Bassan, Yossi Gilgun-Sherki, Boaz Mendzelevski, Ofer Spiegelstein
Human plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) contributes to cocaine metabolism and has been considered for use in treating cocaine addiction and cocaine overdose. TV-1380 is a recombinant protein composed of the mature form of human serum albumin fused at its amino terminus to the carboxy-terminus of a truncated and mutated BChE. In preclinical studies, TV-1380 has been shown to rapidly eliminate cocaine in the plasma thus forestalling entry of cocaine into the brain and heart. Two randomized, blinded phase I studies were conducted to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of TV-1380, following single and multiple administration in healthy subjects...
May 2015: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25098151/-the-characteristics-of-and-social-support-for-pathological-gamblers-among-pachinko-or-slot-users-in-japan
#9
Takashi Kumagami
AIM: In Japan, there are one to two million people suspected of being pathological gamblers according to the definition in DSM-IV-TR. Almost all of them use "pachinko" or "slot," which are gambling stores, throughout Japan, that number 12,000 in total. However, the characteristics and ratio of pathological "pachinko" and "slot" gamblers have not been investigated. The author aimed to determine the characteristics, ratio, and social support available for these users. METHODS: The author administered an internet survey for users of "pachinko" or "slot...
2014: Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi, Psychiatria et Neurologia Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25083294/hidden-addiction-television
#10
Steve Sussman, Meghan B Moran
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The most popular recreational pastime in the U.S. is television viewing. Some researchers have claimed that television may be addictive. We provide a review of the definition, etiology, prevention and treatment of the apparent phenomenon of television addiction. METHODS: Selective review. RESULTS: We provide a description of television (TV) addiction, including its negative consequences, assessment and potential etiology, considering neurobiological, cognitive and social/cultural factors...
September 2013: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24589040/behavioral-addictions-a-novel-challenge-for-psychopharmacology
#11
REVIEW
Donatella Marazziti, Silvio Presta, Stefano Baroni, Stefano Silvestri, Liliana Dell'Osso
Although addictive syndromes have been traditionally related to substance-use disorders, during the last few decades a novel addictive group, including the so-called "behavioral or no-drug addictions," has been recognized and has attracted increasing attention for its relevant social impact. This group includes pathological gambling, compulsive shopping, TV/Internet/social network/videogame addictions, workaholism, sex and relationship addictions, orthorexia, and overtraining syndrome. Substance and behavioral addictions show similar phenomenological features, such as craving, dependence, tolerance, and abstinence, and perhaps they share a common possible pathophysiology...
December 2014: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23751889/-media-addiction-in-a-10-year-old-boy
#12
Scott Brown, Michael A Scharf, Cristina Bustos, Denise Chavira, Martin T Stein
Bryan is a 10-year-old boy who is brought to his pediatrician by his parents with concerns about oppositional behaviors. Bryan's parents report that he has always been hyperactive and oppositional since a very young age. He has been previously diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and has been treated with appropriate stimulant medications for several years; however, despite this, his parents feel increasingly unable to manage his difficult behaviors. He refuses to do chores or follow through with household routines...
June 2013: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23336089/neuropsychiatric-genetics-of-happiness-friendships-and-politics-hypothesizing-homophily-birds-of-a-feather-flock-together-as-a-function-of-reward-gene-polymorphisms
#13
Kenneth Blum, Marlene Oscar-Berman, Abdalla Bowirrat, John Giordano, Margaret Madigan, Eric R Braverman, Debmayla Barh, Mary Hauser, Joan Borsten, Thomas Simpatico
Mindful of the new evolutionary ideas related to an emerging scientific focus known as omics, we propose that spiritual, social, and political behaviors may be tied in part to inheritable reward gene polymorphisms, as has been demonstrated for the addictions. If so, analyses of gene polymorphisms may assist in predicting liberalism or conservatism in partisan attachments. For example, both drinking (alcohol) and obesity seem to cluster in large social networks and are influenced by friends having the same genotype, in particular the DRD2 A1 allele...
April 13, 2012: Journal of Genetic Syndrome & Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23200613/-tunisian-mothers-beliefs-about-their-child-s-first-psychotic-episode
#14
S Bourgou, S Halayem, A Bouden, M B Halayem
INTRODUCTION: Initiating psychiatric treatment depends on several factors including clinical, personal, familial and economic factors. In the case of a first psychotic episode in an adolescent, parents, especially mothers, have a critical role in initiating psychiatric treatment for their child. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated mothers' beliefs about their child's first psychotic episode. METHODS: Participants were adolescents consulting the department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of the Razi hospital in Tunisia...
December 2012: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22667348/addictive-behavior-among-young-people-in-ukraine-a-pilot-study
#15
Igor V Linskiy, Aleksandr I Minko, Anatoliy Ph Artemchuk, Eugenia G Grinevich, Marianna V Markova, Georgiy A Musienko, Valeriy V Shalashov, Lyubov M Markozova, Elena S Samoilova, Valeriy N Kuzminov, Ilona V Shalashova, Vladimir I Ponomarev, Aleksey V Baranenko, Aleksey A Minko, Svetlana V Goltsova, Oksana V Sergienko, Ekaterina I Linskaya, Olga V Vyglazova, Nataliya Zhabenko, Olena Zhabenko
The AUDIT-like tests system was created for complex assessment and evaluation of the addictive status of adolescents in a Ukrainian population. The AUDIT-like tests system has been created from the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) developed by the World Health Organization. The AUDIT-like tests were minimally modified from the original AUDIT. Attention was brought to similarities between stages of different addictions (TV, computer games, the Internet, etc.) and alcohol addiction. Seventeen AUDIT-like tests were created to detect the different types of chemical and non-chemical addictions...
August 2012: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21781203/vested-interests-in-addiction-research-and-policy-alcohol-industry-use-of-social-aspect-public-relations-organizations-against-preventative-health-measures
#16
Peter G Miller, Florentine de Groot, Stephen McKenzie, Nicolas Droste
AIM: It has been proposed that alcohol industry 'social aspects/public relations' organizations (SAPROs) serve the agenda of lending credibility to industry claims of corporate responsibility while promoting ineffective industry-friendly interventions (such as school-based education or TV advertising campaigns) and creating doubt about interventions which have a strong evidence base (such as higher taxes on alcoholic beverages). This paper investigated whether submissions to Australia's National Preventative Health Taskforce (NPHT) from alcohol industry bodies regarding the Australian SAPRO, Drinkwise, have used this organization to demonstrate corporate responsibility while promoting industry-friendly interventions...
September 2011: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21769022/addictive-behaviors-in-comorbid-addiction-and-mental-illness-preliminary-results-from-a-self-report-questionnaire
#17
Jan Malat, Jane Collins, Bramilee Dhayanandhan, Frances Carullo, Nigel E Turner
OBJECTIVE: : The objective of this study was to pilot a new self-report screening instrument, the addictive behaviors questionnaire (ABQ), which screens for a broad range of impulsive-compulsive behaviors, in a treatment-seeking psychiatric population with comorbid addiction. METHODS: : Psychiatric outpatients (N = 94) being treated for comorbid addiction and mental illness were approached consecutively by their therapists to fill out a number of self-report measures, in addition to the ABQ, including the Addiction Severity Index, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and Reflective Activity Scale...
March 2010: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21734445/attitudes-of-lithuanian-secondary-school-children-toward-addictive-behaviors-their-promoting-and-preventive-factors-with-regard-to-the-age
#18
Darius Leskauskas, Rima Gudaitytė, Inga Kiudulaitė, Virginija Adomaitienė
The aim of this study was to evaluate the attitudes of Lithuanian secondary school children toward addictive behaviors, their promoting and preventive factors with regard to the age. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The study sample consisted of all 5th-, 9th-, and 12th-grade schoolchildren of 6 secondary schools in Kaunas and Šakiai (N=856). Schoolchildren were surveyed with a questionnaire consisting of the questions about their attitudes and experience regarding addictive behaviors and factors promoting and preventing such behaviors...
2011: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20944763/doctors-on-display-the-evolution-of-television-s-doctors
#19
Elliot B Tapper
Doctors have been portrayed on television for over 50 years. In that time, their character has undergone significant changes, evolving from caring but infallible supermen with smoldering good looks and impeccable bedside manners to drug-addicted, sex-obsessed antiheroes. This article summarizes the major programs of the genre and explains the pattern of the TV doctors' character changes. Articulated over time in the many permutations of the doctor character is a complex, constant conversation between viewer and viewed representing public attitudes towards doctors, medicine, and science...
October 2010: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20128901/the-impact-of-parental-migration-on-health-status-and-health-behaviours-among-left-behind-adolescent-school-children-in-china
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Yang Gao, Li Ping Li, Jean Hee Kim, Nathan Congdon, Joseph Lau, Sian Griffiths
BACKGROUND: One out of ten of China's population are migrants, moving from rural to urban areas. Many leave their families behind resulting in millions of school children living in their rural home towns without one or both their parents. Little is known about the health status of these left behind children (LBC). This study compares the health status and health-related behaviours of left behind adolescent school children and their counterparts in a rural area in Southern China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among middle school students in Fuyang Township, Guangdong, China (2007-2008)...
2010: BMC Public Health
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