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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646845/pharmacological-neuroenhancement-teachers-knowledge-and-attitudes-results-from-a-survey-study-among-teachers-in-germany
#1
Andreas G Franke, Sophie Lehmberg, Michael Soyka
BACKGROUND: Pharmacological neuroenhancement (PN) is a topic of increasing importance. Its prevalence rates range from 1 % to more than 20 %. Students are a group that shows exceptionally high prevalence rates. However, little is known about teachers' knowledge, management, attitudes and ethical judgements regarding PN. METHODS: A web-based survey containing 40 closed questions was developed. All teachers working at all private and public schools in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, a state in northeastern Germany, were invited to participate after their respective school offices were contacted by telephone, email and mail...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612147/a-novel-technique-to-reconstruct-tricuspid-valve-anterior-leaflet-in-massive-endocarditis
#2
Gabriele Di Giammarco, Daniele Marinelli, Massimiliano Foschi, Michele Di Mauro
Tricuspid valve (TV) endocarditis is a common complication in intravenous drug addicts. In case of TV replacement, the main issue is the high risk of new endocarditis on TV prosthesis. On November 2014, a 44 year-old male patient with a history of intravenous drug addiction was referred for TV endocarditis owing to Staphylococcus aureus and severe regurgitation complicated by pulmonary embolism and heart failure. Preoperative echocardiography showed a large vegetation of the anterior leaflet (1.95 × 0.92 cm) covering a huge hole in the leaflet itself...
July 2016: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25524052/safety-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-tv-1380-a-novel-mutated-butyrylcholinesterase-treatment-for-cocaine-addiction-after-single-and-multiple-intramuscular-injections-in-healthy-subjects
#3
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Orit Cohen-Barak, Jacqueline Wildeman, Jeroen van de Wetering, Judith Hettinga, Petra Schuilenga-Hut, Aviva Gross, Shane Clark, Merav Bassan, Yossi Gilgun-Sherki, Boaz Mendzelevski, Ofer Spiegelstein
Human plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) contributes to cocaine metabolism and has been considered for use in treating cocaine addiction and cocaine overdose. TV-1380 is a recombinant protein composed of the mature form of human serum albumin fused at its amino terminus to the carboxy-terminus of a truncated and mutated BChE. In preclinical studies, TV-1380 has been shown to rapidly eliminate cocaine in the plasma thus forestalling entry of cocaine into the brain and heart. Two randomized, blinded phase I studies were conducted to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of TV-1380, following single and multiple administration in healthy subjects...
May 2015: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25098151/-the-characteristics-of-and-social-support-for-pathological-gamblers-among-pachinko-or-slot-users-in-japan
#4
Takashi Kumagami
AIM: In Japan, there are one to two million people suspected of being pathological gamblers according to the definition in DSM-IV-TR. Almost all of them use "pachinko" or "slot," which are gambling stores, throughout Japan, that number 12,000 in total. However, the characteristics and ratio of pathological "pachinko" and "slot" gamblers have not been investigated. The author aimed to determine the characteristics, ratio, and social support available for these users. METHODS: The author administered an internet survey for users of "pachinko" or "slot...
2014: Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi, Psychiatria et Neurologia Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25083294/hidden-addiction-television
#5
Steve Sussman, Meghan B Moran
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The most popular recreational pastime in the U.S. is television viewing. Some researchers have claimed that television may be addictive. We provide a review of the definition, etiology, prevention and treatment of the apparent phenomenon of television addiction. METHODS: Selective review. RESULTS: We provide a description of television (TV) addiction, including its negative consequences, assessment and potential etiology, considering neurobiological, cognitive and social/cultural factors...
September 2013: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24589040/behavioral-addictions-a-novel-challenge-for-psychopharmacology
#6
REVIEW
Donatella Marazziti, Silvio Presta, Stefano Baroni, Stefano Silvestri, Liliana Dell'Osso
Although addictive syndromes have been traditionally related to substance-use disorders, during the last few decades a novel addictive group, including the so-called "behavioral or no-drug addictions," has been recognized and has attracted increasing attention for its relevant social impact. This group includes pathological gambling, compulsive shopping, TV/Internet/social network/videogame addictions, workaholism, sex and relationship addictions, orthorexia, and overtraining syndrome. Substance and behavioral addictions show similar phenomenological features, such as craving, dependence, tolerance, and abstinence, and perhaps they share a common possible pathophysiology...
December 2014: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23751889/-media-addiction-in-a-10-year-old-boy
#7
Scott Brown, Michael A Scharf, Cristina Bustos, Denise Chavira, Martin T Stein
Bryan is a 10-year-old boy who is brought to his pediatrician by his parents with concerns about oppositional behaviors. Bryan's parents report that he has always been hyperactive and oppositional since a very young age. He has been previously diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and has been treated with appropriate stimulant medications for several years; however, despite this, his parents feel increasingly unable to manage his difficult behaviors. He refuses to do chores or follow through with household routines...
June 2013: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23336089/neuropsychiatric-genetics-of-happiness-friendships-and-politics-hypothesizing-homophily-birds-of-a-feather-flock-together-as-a-function-of-reward-gene-polymorphisms
#8
Kenneth Blum, Marlene Oscar-Berman, Abdalla Bowirrat, John Giordano, Margaret Madigan, Eric R Braverman, Debmayla Barh, Mary Hauser, Joan Borsten, Thomas Simpatico
Mindful of the new evolutionary ideas related to an emerging scientific focus known as omics, we propose that spiritual, social, and political behaviors may be tied in part to inheritable reward gene polymorphisms, as has been demonstrated for the addictions. If so, analyses of gene polymorphisms may assist in predicting liberalism or conservatism in partisan attachments. For example, both drinking (alcohol) and obesity seem to cluster in large social networks and are influenced by friends having the same genotype, in particular the DRD2 A1 allele...
April 13, 2012: Journal of Genetic Syndrome & Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23200613/-tunisian-mothers-beliefs-about-their-child-s-first-psychotic-episode
#9
S Bourgou, S Halayem, A Bouden, M B Halayem
INTRODUCTION: Initiating psychiatric treatment depends on several factors including clinical, personal, familial and economic factors. In the case of a first psychotic episode in an adolescent, parents, especially mothers, have a critical role in initiating psychiatric treatment for their child. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated mothers' beliefs about their child's first psychotic episode. METHODS: Participants were adolescents consulting the department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of the Razi hospital in Tunisia...
December 2012: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22667348/addictive-behavior-among-young-people-in-ukraine-a-pilot-study
#10
Igor V Linskiy, Aleksandr I Minko, Anatoliy Ph Artemchuk, Eugenia G Grinevich, Marianna V Markova, Georgiy A Musienko, Valeriy V Shalashov, Lyubov M Markozova, Elena S Samoilova, Valeriy N Kuzminov, Ilona V Shalashova, Vladimir I Ponomarev, Aleksey V Baranenko, Aleksey A Minko, Svetlana V Goltsova, Oksana V Sergienko, Ekaterina I Linskaya, Olga V Vyglazova, Nataliya Zhabenko, Olena Zhabenko
The AUDIT-like tests system was created for complex assessment and evaluation of the addictive status of adolescents in a Ukrainian population. The AUDIT-like tests system has been created from the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) developed by the World Health Organization. The AUDIT-like tests were minimally modified from the original AUDIT. Attention was brought to similarities between stages of different addictions (TV, computer games, the Internet, etc.) and alcohol addiction. Seventeen AUDIT-like tests were created to detect the different types of chemical and non-chemical addictions...
August 2012: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21781203/vested-interests-in-addiction-research-and-policy-alcohol-industry-use-of-social-aspect-public-relations-organizations-against-preventative-health-measures
#11
Peter G Miller, Florentine de Groot, Stephen McKenzie, Nicolas Droste
AIM: It has been proposed that alcohol industry 'social aspects/public relations' organizations (SAPROs) serve the agenda of lending credibility to industry claims of corporate responsibility while promoting ineffective industry-friendly interventions (such as school-based education or TV advertising campaigns) and creating doubt about interventions which have a strong evidence base (such as higher taxes on alcoholic beverages). This paper investigated whether submissions to Australia's National Preventative Health Taskforce (NPHT) from alcohol industry bodies regarding the Australian SAPRO, Drinkwise, have used this organization to demonstrate corporate responsibility while promoting industry-friendly interventions...
September 2011: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21769022/addictive-behaviors-in-comorbid-addiction-and-mental-illness-preliminary-results-from-a-self-report-questionnaire
#12
Jan Malat, Jane Collins, Bramilee Dhayanandhan, Frances Carullo, Nigel E Turner
OBJECTIVE: : The objective of this study was to pilot a new self-report screening instrument, the addictive behaviors questionnaire (ABQ), which screens for a broad range of impulsive-compulsive behaviors, in a treatment-seeking psychiatric population with comorbid addiction. METHODS: : Psychiatric outpatients (N = 94) being treated for comorbid addiction and mental illness were approached consecutively by their therapists to fill out a number of self-report measures, in addition to the ABQ, including the Addiction Severity Index, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and Reflective Activity Scale...
March 2010: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21734445/attitudes-of-lithuanian-secondary-school-children-toward-addictive-behaviors-their-promoting-and-preventive-factors-with-regard-to-the-age
#13
Darius Leskauskas, Rima Gudaitytė, Inga Kiudulaitė, Virginija Adomaitienė
The aim of this study was to evaluate the attitudes of Lithuanian secondary school children toward addictive behaviors, their promoting and preventive factors with regard to the age. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The study sample consisted of all 5th-, 9th-, and 12th-grade schoolchildren of 6 secondary schools in Kaunas and Šakiai (N=856). Schoolchildren were surveyed with a questionnaire consisting of the questions about their attitudes and experience regarding addictive behaviors and factors promoting and preventing such behaviors...
2011: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20944763/doctors-on-display-the-evolution-of-television-s-doctors
#14
Elliot B Tapper
Doctors have been portrayed on television for over 50 years. In that time, their character has undergone significant changes, evolving from caring but infallible supermen with smoldering good looks and impeccable bedside manners to drug-addicted, sex-obsessed antiheroes. This article summarizes the major programs of the genre and explains the pattern of the TV doctors' character changes. Articulated over time in the many permutations of the doctor character is a complex, constant conversation between viewer and viewed representing public attitudes towards doctors, medicine, and science...
October 2010: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20128901/the-impact-of-parental-migration-on-health-status-and-health-behaviours-among-left-behind-adolescent-school-children-in-china
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Yang Gao, Li Ping Li, Jean Hee Kim, Nathan Congdon, Joseph Lau, Sian Griffiths
BACKGROUND: One out of ten of China's population are migrants, moving from rural to urban areas. Many leave their families behind resulting in millions of school children living in their rural home towns without one or both their parents. Little is known about the health status of these left behind children (LBC). This study compares the health status and health-related behaviours of left behind adolescent school children and their counterparts in a rural area in Southern China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among middle school students in Fuyang Township, Guangdong, China (2007-2008)...
2010: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19465325/the-associations-between-aggressive-behaviors-and-internet-addiction-and-online-activities-in-adolescents
#16
Chih-Hung Ko, Ju-Yu Yen, Shu-Chun Liu, Chi-Fen Huang, Cheng-Fang Yen
PURPOSE: To evaluate (a) the association between Internet addiction and aggressive behaviors, as well as the moderating effects of gender, school, and depression on this association; and (b) to evaluate the association between Internet activities and aggressive behaviors. METHODS: A total of 9405 adolescents were recruited into this study and completed the questionnaires. Their aggressive behaviors, with or without Internet addiction, Internet activities, demographic data, with or without depression, self-esteem, family function, and the watching of violent TV were assessed...
June 2009: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19401247/depiction-of-food-as-having-drug-like-properties-in-televised-food-advertisements-directed-at-children-portrayals-as-pleasure-enhancing-and-addictive
#17
Randy M Page, Aaron Brewster
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to examine food commercials airing during children's TV programming for portrayals of behaviors associated with substance use, violence, disrespect, and stealing. It was hypothesized that these behaviors would be present and would be more frequent in commercials advertising specific products (e.g., ready-to-eat cereals) than for those advertising restaurants (e.g., fast food). METHOD: A content analysis of 147 food commercials televised during children's TV programming on U...
May 2009: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19370973/-internet-addiction-a-case-report
#18
Milica Pejović-Milovancević, Smiljka Popović-Deusić, Saveta Draganić-Gajić, Dusica Lecić-Tosevski
Some addictions cannot be connected with substance abuse (pathological gambling, video games playing, binge eating, compulsive physical activity, emotional relationship addiction, TV addiction). Since 1995, Internet addiction has been accepted as a clinical entity with profound negative effect on social, familial, educational and economical personal functioning. The diagnosis of Internet addiction could be established if the person spends more than 38 hours per week on the Internet exempting online professional needs...
January 2009: Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19189572/-tobacco-smoking-is-addictive-do-not-start-smoking
#19
Sylwia Kałucka
Tobacco smoking is addictive- do not start smoking, do not start smoking, each person buying a package of cigarettes can read this inscription. But does he really read it? Every year all over the world one million people try to stop smoking, but only for a few percent this attempt is successful. Giving up the habit of smoking is hard because it leads to biological and psychogenic addiction. The aim of this paper was to check which factors most motivated smokers to stop smoking? 50 active smokers, among them 5 former smokers, who have smoked at least 15 cigarettes a day for 15 years were classified to the preliminary study...
2008: Przegla̧d Lekarski
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/18690381/internet-addiction-in-chinese-adolescents-in-hong-kong-assessment-profiles-and-psychosocial-correlates
#20
Daniel T L Shek, Vera M Y Tang, C Y Lo
Internet addiction behavior was examined in 6,121 Chinese primary and secondary school students in Hong Kong based on the assessment frameworks of Ivan Goldberg and Kimberly Young. Results showed that scales derived from both frameworks (CIA-Goldberg Scale and CIA-Young Scale) were internally consistent and evidence supporting their validity was found. Descriptive statistical analyses revealed that roughly one-fifth of the respondents could be classified as Internet addicted based on either scale. Further analyses showed that Internet-addicted and -nonaddicted respondents differed in their Internet use and related behavior...
2008: TheScientificWorldJournal
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