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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029220/effect-of-host-traits-and-land-use-changes-on-the-gut-microbiota-of-the-namibian-black-backed-jackal-canis-mesomelas
#1
Sebastian Menke, Matthias Meier, John K E Mfune, Joerg Melzheimer, Bettina Wachter, Simone Sommer
Host traits and environmental factors drive the natural variation in gut microbiota and disruption in homeostasis can cause infections and chronic diseases. African wildlife is increasingly facing human-induced agricultural habitats, which also amplifies the contact probability with livestock with unknown consequences for wildlife gut microbiotas and the risk of transmission of potentially pathogenic bacteria. We applied high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and microsatellite genotyping to investigate the impact of host traits and habitat use on the gut microbiotas of black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas)...
September 25, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029075/improving-health-systems-performance-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-system-dynamics-model-of-the-pay-for-performance-initiative-in-afghanistan
#2
O Alonge, S Lin, T Igusa, D H Peters
System dynamics methods were used to explore effective implementation pathways for improving health systems performance through pay-for-performance (P4P) schemes. A causal loop diagram was developed to delineate primary causal relationships for service delivery within primary health facilities. A quantitative stock-and-flow model was developed next. The stock-and-flow model was then used to simulate the impact of various P4P implementation scenarios on quality and volume of services. Data from the Afghanistan national facility survey in 2012 was used to calibrate the model...
September 23, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028622/virtual-reality-balance-training-for-elderly-similar-skiing-games-elicit-different-challenges-in-balance-training
#3
Aijse W de Vries, Gert Faber, Ilse Jonkers, Jaap H Van Dieen, Sabine M P Verschueren
BACKGROUND: Virtual Reality (VR) balance training may have advantages over regular exercise training in older adults. However, results so far are conflicting potentially due to the lack of challenge imposed by the movements in those games. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess to which extent two similar skiing games challenge balance, as reflected in center of mass (COM) movements relative to their Functional Limits of Stability (FLOS). METHODS: Thirty young and elderly participants performed two skiing games, one on the Wii Balance board (Wiiski), which uses a force plate, and one with the Kinect sensor (Kinski), which performs motion tracking...
October 5, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028445/return-to-sport-specific-performance-after-primary-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-a-systematic-review
#4
Nicholas G Mohtadi, Denise S Chan
BACKGROUND: Physicians counseling athletes on the prognosis of sport-specific performance outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) depend on the published literature. However, critical appraisal of the validity and biases in these studies is required to understand how ACLR affects an athlete's ability to return to sport, the athlete's sport-specific performance, and his or her ability to achieve preinjury levels of performance. PURPOSE: This review identifies the published prognostic studies evaluating sport-specific performance outcomes after ACLR...
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028264/teacheng-a-teaching-engine-for-genomics
#5
Minji Kim, Yeonsung Kim, Lei Qian, Jun S Song
Motivation: Bioinformatics is a rapidly growing field that has emerged from the synergy of computer science, statistics and biology. Given the interdisciplinary nature of bioinformatics, many students from diverse fields struggle with grasping bioinformatic concepts only from classroom lectures. Interactive tools for helping students reinforce their learning would be thus desirable. Here, we present an interactive online educational tool called TeachEnG (acronym for Teaching Engine for Genomics) for reinforcing key concepts in sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree reconstruction...
October 15, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028240/tobacco-still-a-major-killer-will-we-achieve-the-end-game
#6
Luis Saboga-Nunes, Diane Levin-Zamir, Vance Rabius
The game of tobacco use began in Europe in 1560 when the first tobacco seeds were sent from Lisbon to the king of France, by Jean Nicot. From kings' and nobles' exclusive use, it gradually and progressively became popular among the public, as a new player. Eighty-eight years ago (1929), Fritz Linkint, an extraordinary researcher in Germany, while reviewing existing evidence regarding a wide range of cancers potentially caused by smoking, indicated that smoking was a cause of respiratory disease. Despite the overwhelming accumulated evidence of the negative effects of nicotine intake, the prevalence of tobacco use is not expected to decline in the near future...
October 1, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027469/bucking-the-current-trend-in-bioelectrochemical-systems-a-case-for-bioelectroanalytics
#7
Thomas William Seviour, Jamie Hinks
Turning wastewater directly into electricity is alluring, widespread use of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to achieve this at industrial scale appears increasingly unlikely despite intense research efforts lasting over a decade. Such endeavors have not been futile, however, and game-changing discoveries have resulted from these well-intentioned, scientifically rigorous but ultimately frustrated attempts to resolve the Waste-Energy dichotomy. The appeal of MFCs is largely of conceptual elegance rather than financial competitiveness, based on the green ideal that bacteria can be turned into cost effective bio-batteries...
October 13, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025874/effect-of-pok%C3%A3-mon-go-on-incidence-of-fatal-traffic-injuries-a-population-based-quasi-experimental-study-using-the-national-traffic-collisions-database-in-japan
#8
Sachiko Ono, Yosuke Ono, Nobuaki Michihata, Yusuke Sasabuchi, Hideo Yasunaga
Pokémon GO (Niantic Labs, released on 22 July 2016 in Japan) is an augmented reality game that gained huge popularity worldwide. Despite concern about Pokémon GO-related traffic collisions, the effect of playing Pokémon GO on the incidence of traffic injuries remains unknown. We performed a population-based quasi-experimental study using national data from the Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis, Japan. The outcome was incidence of traffic injuries. Of 127 082 000 people in Japan, 886 fatal traffic injuries were observed between 1 June and 31 August in 2016...
October 12, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025696/usability-test-of-exercise-games-designed-for-rehabilitation-of-elderly-patients-after-hip-replacement-surgery-pilot-study
#9
Yun Ling, Louis P Ter Meer, Zerrin Yumak, Remco C Veltkamp
BACKGROUND: Patients who receive rehabilitation after hip replacement surgery are shown to have increased muscle strength and better functional performance. However, traditional physiotherapy is often tedious and leads to poor adherence. Exercise games, provide ways for increasing the engagement of elderly patients and increase the uptake of rehabilitation exercises. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate Fietsgame (Dutch for cycling game), which translates existing rehabilitation exercises into fun exercise games...
October 12, 2017: JMIR Serious Games
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025298/twelve-tips-for-using-applied-improvisation-in-medical-education
#10
Krista Hoffmann-Longtin, Jonathan P Rossing, Elizabeth Weinstein
Future physicians will practice medicine in a more complex environment than ever, where skills of interpersonal communication, collaboration and adaptability to change are critical. Applied improvisation (or AI) is an instructional strategy which adapts the concepts of improvisational theater to teach these types of complex skills in other contexts. Unique to AI is its very active teaching approach, adapting theater games to help learners meet curricular objectives. In medical education, AI is particularly helpful when attempting to build students' comfort with and skills in complex, interpersonal behaviors such as effective listening, person-centeredness, teamwork and communication...
October 12, 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024959/limb-laterality-recognition-score-a-reliable-clinical-measure-related-to-phantom-limb-pain
#11
Christopher Kevin Wong, Caitlin Kimberly Wong
Objective: To explore the usefulness of the limb laterality recognition score as a clinical measure of phantom limb pain, regarding test-retest reliability and association of limb laterality recognition scores with phantom limb pain measures. Design: Retrospective cohort. Setting: Community support group. Subjects: Eleven adults who averaged 4.8 years since lower limb amputation due to vascular pathologies (N = 9), trauma (N = 1), and cancer (N = 1)...
August 24, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024605/hip-and-ankle-kinematics-in-noncontact-anterior-cruciate-ligament-injury-situations-video-analysis-using-model-based-image-matching
#12
Hideyuki Koga, Atsuo Nakamae, Yosuke Shima, Roald Bahr, Tron Krosshaug
BACKGROUND: Detailed kinematic descriptions of real anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury situations are limited to the knee only. PURPOSE: To describe hip and ankle kinematics as well as foot position relative to the center of mass (COM) in ACL injury situations through use of a model-based image-matching (MBIM) technique. The distance between the projection of the COM on the ground and the base of support (BOS) (COM_BOS) normalized to the femur length was also evaluated...
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024156/relationships-between-the-second-to-fourth-digit-ratio-2d-4d-and-game-related-statistics-in-semi-professional-female-basketball-players
#13
Makailah Dyer, Sandra E Short, Martin Short, John T Manning, Grant R Tomkinson
OBJECTIVE: Digit ratio (2D:4D) is a negative correlate of sports performance, although this relationship may be weak in open-skill sports such as basketball. The primary aim was to quantify relationships between 2D:4D and game-related statistics in semi-professional female basketball players. The secondary aim was to quantify the differences in mean 2D:4Ds between players based on their position in the starting lineup. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, 64 female basketball players who competed in the South Australian Premier League were measured in-season for height, mass, and 2D:4D, with game-related statistics collected end-season...
October 12, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024043/proteomic-analysis-of-the-venom-of-the-predatory-ant-pachycondyla-striata-hymenoptera-formicidae
#14
Pollyanna Pereira Santos, Patricia Dias Games, Dihego Oliveira Azevedo, Edvaldo Barros, Leandro Licursi de Oliveira, Humberto Josué de Oliveira Ramos, Maria Cristina Baracat-Pereira, José Eduardo Serrão
The ants use their venom for predation, defense, and communication. The venom of these insects is rich in peptides and proteins, and compared with other animal venoms, ant venoms remain poorly explored. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protein content of the venom in the Ponerinae ant Pachycondyla striata. Venom samples were collected by manual gland reservoir dissection, and samples were submitted to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and separation by ion-exchange and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrometry using tanden matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization with time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization-quadrupole with time-of-flight (ESI-Q/TOF) mass spectrometry for obtaining amino acid sequence...
October 10, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023773/motive-goal-congruence-moderates-the-use-of-automatic-self-regulation
#15
Florian Müller, Klaus Rothermund
OBJECTIVE: We tested whether the fit between individuals' motives and goal properties predicts efficiency of implicit self-regulation. METHOD: Participants'(German university students, mean age = 22, 64% female) implicit motives measurement (Multi-Motive-Grid) was followed by assessment of implicit self-regulation in differently framed tasks. In Study 1 (N = 45), positive implicit evaluations of stimuli relating to an achievement goal (studying) were used as an indicator of implicit self-regulation...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023546/steroid-hormones-and-psychological-responses-to-soccer-matches-insights-from-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Maamer Slimani, Julien S Baker, Foued Cheour, Lee Taylor, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi
The present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the perturbations in hormonal and psychological homeostasis in response to soccer match-play. These perturbations were explored according to match outcome (i.e., win versus loss), gender, type of contest (i.e., competitive versus non-competitive fixtures) and competitive level (i.e., novice versus high-level). The review was conducted according to the Population/Intervention or Exposure/Comparison/Outcome(s) (PICO) criteria and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023456/gait-parameters-are-differently-affected-by-concurrent-smartphone-based-activities-with-scaled-levels-of-cognitive-effort
#17
Carlotta Caramia, Ivan Bernabucci, Carmen D'Anna, Cristiano De Marchis, Maurizio Schmid
The widespread and pervasive use of smartphones for sending messages, calling, and entertainment purposes, mainly among young adults, is often accompanied by the concurrent execution of other tasks. Recent studies have analyzed how texting, reading or calling while walking-in some specific conditions-might significantly influence gait parameters. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of different smartphone activities on walking, evaluating the variations of several gait parameters. 10 young healthy students (all smartphone proficient users) were instructed to text chat (with two different levels of cognitive load), call, surf on a social network or play with a math game while walking in a real-life outdoor setting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023327/sodium-bicarbonate-supplementation-delays-neuromuscular-fatigue-without-changes-in-performance-outcomes-during-a-basketball-match-simulation-protocol
#18
Paul Ansdell, Jeanne Dekerle
PURPOSE: To investigate the development of neuromuscular fatigue during a basketball game simulation and ascertain whether sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation attenuates any neuromuscular fatigue that persists. METHODS: Ten participants ingested 0.2 g.kg of NaHCO3 (or an equimolar placebo dosage of sodium chloride [NaCl]) 90 and 60 minutes prior to commencing a basketball game simulation (ALK-T vs PLA-T). Isometric maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors (MVIC) and potentiated high (100 Hz) and low (10 Hz) frequency doublet twitches were recorded before and after each match quarter for both trials...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022516/folk-economic-beliefs-an-evolutionary-cognitive-model
#19
Pascal Boyer, Michael Bang Petersen
The domain of "folk-economics" consists in explicit beliefs about the economy held by laypeople, untrained in economics, about such topics as e.g., the causes of the wealth of nations, the benefits or drawbacks of markets and international trade, the effects of regulation, the origins of inequality, the connection between work and wages, the economic consequences of immigration, or the possible causes of unemployment. These beliefs are crucial in forming people's political beliefs, and in shaping their reception of different policies...
October 12, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021913/exergaming-can-be-an-innovative-way-of-enjoyable-high-intensity-interval-training
#20
Trine Moholdt, Stian Weie, Konstantinos Chorianopoulos, Alf Inge Wang, Kristoffer Hagen
OBJECTIVES: Exergames can replace sedentary time spent on computer gaming with physical activity. Previous research has found exergaming to elicit light-to-moderate exercise intensity. Our primary aim was to examine the exercise intensity of a newly developed biking exergame. METHODS: Eight males (23.9±0.6 years) played the exergame (PLAY) and walked (WALK) on three separate occasions, with the condition counterbalanced and in random sequence within each day. They were asked to PLAY and WALK for a minimum of 15 min and then continue for as long as they wanted...
2017: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
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