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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915304/invasive-aspergillosis-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-are-we-making-progress-in-reducing-mortality
#1
Giulia Dragonetti, Marianna Criscuolo, Luana Fianchi, Livio Pagano
The incidence of invasive fungal disease (IFD) has varied during the last decades. However, over the years, we have observed a progressive reduction of mortality, mainly due to wider use of prophylactic antifungal therapy (i.e., new azoles, such as posaconazole), the development of new and more effective antifungal drugs (lipid compounds of amphotericin B, candins, and azoles of the previous generation) and improvement of diagnostic tools. Based on a number of international studies across three decades, the attributable mortality rate for IFD and invasive aspergillosis (IA) among patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has progressively declined...
December 2, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915302/givinostat-exhibits-in-vitro-synergy-with-posaconazole-against-aspergillus-spp
#2
Yi Sun, Lujuan Gao, Chengyan He, Qingzhi Wu, Ming Li, Tongxiang Zeng
In vitro interactions of givinostat, a hydroxamate-derived histone deacetylase inhibitor, and antifungals including itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin against Aspergillus spp. were assessed via broth microdilution checkerboard technique system. A total of 30 isolates of Aspergillus spp., including 20 strains of A. fumigatus and 10 strains of A. flavus were studied. The results revealed favorable synergistic effects between givinostat and posaconazole (83.3%) against Aspergillus isolates...
December 2, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911896/different-mutations-in-a-p-type-atpase-transporter-in-leishmania-parasites-are-associated-with-cross-resistance-to-two-leading-drugs-by-distinct-mechanisms
#3
Christopher Fernandez-Prada, Isabel M Vincent, Marie-Christine Brotherton, Mathew Roberts, Gaétan Roy, Luis Rivas, Philippe Leprohon, Terry K Smith, Marc Ouellette
Leishmania infantum is an etiological agent of the life-threatening visceral form of leishmaniasis. Liposomal amphotericin B (AmB) followed by a short administration of miltefosine (MF) is a drug combination effective for treating visceral leishmaniasis in endemic regions of India. Resistance to MF can be due to point mutations in the miltefosine transporter (MT). Here we show that mutations in MT are also observed in Leishmania AmB-resistant mutants. The MF-induced MT mutations, but not the AmB induced mutations in MT, alter the translocation/uptake of MF...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910191/tintelnotia-a-new-genus-in-phaeosphaeriaceae-harbouring-agents-of-cornea-and-nail-infections-in-humans
#4
S A Ahmed, W Hofmüller, M Seibold, G S de Hoog, H Harak, I Tammer, A D van Diepeningen, W Behrens-Baumann
Phaeosphaeriaceae is a family in the order Pleosporales containing numerous plant pathogens, endophytes, lichenised fungi, and environmental saprobes. A novel genus, Tintelnotia is introduced containing two species, one of which caused an eye infection and several nail infections in humans. All species of Tintelnotia produce conidia in soft pycnidia with a wide ostiole. The generic type species is T. opuntiae causing necrotic spots on cactus plants. The isolates of the human opportunist T. destructans showed variable susceptibility pattern to a panel of common antifungal agents...
December 1, 2016: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906059/a-mitochondrial-hsp70-hspa9b-is-linked-to-miltefosine-resistance-and-stress-response-in-leishmania-donovani
#5
P Vacchina, B Norris-Mullins, E S Carlson, M A Morales
BACKGROUND: Protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania are responsible for leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease affecting millions worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by Leishmania donovani, is the most severe form of leishmaniasis with high rates of mortality if left untreated. Current treatments include pentavalent antimonials and amphotericin B. However, high toxicity and emergence of resistance hinder the success of these options. Miltefosine (HePC) is the first oral treatment available for leishmaniasis...
December 1, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906037/integrated-therapy-for-hiv-and-cryptococcosis
#6
REVIEW
Sirawat Srichatrapimuk, Somnuek Sungkanuparph
Cryptococcosis has been one of the most common opportunistic infections and causes of mortality among HIV-infected patients, especially in resource-limited countries. Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common form of cryptococcosis. Laboratory diagnosis of cryptococcosis includes direct microscopic examination, isolation of Cryptococcus from a clinical specimen, and detection of cryptococcal antigen. Without appropriate treatment, cryptococcosis is fatal. Early diagnosis and treatment is the key to treatment success...
November 29, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905900/prevalence-clinical-and-economic-burden-of-mucormycosis-related-hospitalizations-in-the-united-states-a-retrospective-study
#7
Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis, Hongbo Yang, Jinlin Song, Sneha S Kelkar, Xi Yang, Nkechi Azie, Rachel Harrington, Alan Fan, Edward Lee, James R Spalding
BACKGROUND: Mucormycosis is a rare but devastating fungal infection primarily affecting immunocompromised patients such as those with hematological malignancy, bone marrow and solid organ transplantation, and patients with diabetes, and, even more rarely, immunocompetent patients. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and burden, both clinical and economic, of mucormycosis among hospitalized patients in the U.S. METHODS: This is a retrospective study using the Premier Perspective(TM) Comparative Database, with more than 560 participating hospitals covering 104 million patients (January 2005-June 2014)...
December 1, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904878/de-novo-pyrimidine-biosynthesis-connects-cell-integrity-to-amphotericin-b-susceptibility-in-cryptococcus-neoformans
#8
Dithi Banerjee, Timothy C Umland, John C Panepinto
The use of amphotericin B (AmB) in conjunction with 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) is known to be the optimal therapy for treating cryptococcosis, but the mechanism by which 5-FC synergizes with AmB is unknown. In this study, we generated a Cryptococcus neoformans ura1Δ mutant lacking dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), which demonstrated temperature-sensitive growth due to a defect in cell integrity and sensitivity to cell wall-damaging agents. In addition, sensitivity to AmB was greatly increased. Inclusion of uracil or uridine in the medium did not suppress the cell wall or AmB phenotype, whereas complementation with the wild-type URA1 gene complemented the mutant phenotype...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904816/an-unusual-presentation-of-nocardiosis-in-an-allogeneic-transplant-recipient
#9
Uroosa Ibrahim, Amina Saqib, Farhan Mohammad, Terenig Terjanian
Nocardiosis is a rare cause of opportunistic infection post hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) occurring in about 0.3% of patients. The risk factors include delayed immune reconstitution, prolonged neutropenia, and graft-versus-host disease. The most common site of infection is the lung, followed by the brain and the skin. Concomitant pulmonary and central nervous system (CNS) nocardiosis is an extremely rare entity as presented in our case. We present the case of a 72-year-old male at 137 days post transplant presenting with complaints of headache and slurred speech...
October 17, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904738/recent-developments-in-the-management-of-invasive-fungal-infections-in-patients-with-oncohematological-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Markus Ruhnke, Stefan Schwartz
Patients with hematological cancer have a high risk of invasive fungal diseases (IFDs). These infections are mostly life threatening and an early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy are essential for the clinical outcome. Most commonly, Aspergillus and Candida species are involved. However, other non-Aspergillus molds are increasingly be identified in cases of documented IFDs. Important risk factors are long lasting granulocytopenia with neutrophil counts below 500/μl for more than 10 days or graft-versus-host disease resulting from allogeneic stem-cell transplantation...
December 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904061/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-mucormycosis-in-patients-with-hematological-malignancies
#11
Yuki Asano-Mori
The risk of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) is extremely high in patients with hematological malignancies due to the prolonged and profound neutropenia and immunosuppression after chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. There has been increasing interest in mucormycosis despite its relatively uncommon occurrence, because occasional breakthrough infections have been observed under anti-aspergillus prophylaxis. The aggressive nature of mucormycosis easily leads to high mortality because of delays in diagnosis and incorrect treatment decisions, which are due in part to lack of adjunctive diagnostic tools and having similar clinical and radiological features with aspergillosis...
2016: Medical Mycology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904055/the-first-isolation-of-aspergillus-allahabadii-from-a-cormorant-with-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#12
Sue Yee Lim, Rui Kano, Kenji Ooya, Shunta Kimura, Tokuma Yanai, Atsuhiko Hasegawa, Hiroshi Kamata
In this study, we report the first isolation of Aspergillus allahabadii from a Japanese cormorant with pulmonary aspergillosis. We performed molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility testing with the E-test. A 7-month-old male cormorant died because of uric acid deposition secondary to dehydration. Whitish nodular lesions were present on the caudal thoracic air sac in the right thoracic cavity. Histopathology revealed multifocal pyogranulomatous necrotic lesions with numerous fungal hyphae in the thoracic air sac...
2016: Medical Mycology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900242/management-of-rhinomaxillary-mucormycosis-with-posaconazole-in-immunocompetent-patients
#13
Sachin Rai, Shikha Yadav, Dinesh Kumar, Vijay Kumar, Vidya Rattan
Mucormycosis is an opportunistic, uncommon and serious systemic fungal infection mostly presenting in immunocompromised patients. The combination of surgical debridement, parenteral therapy with Amphotericin B and management of the underlying systemic disease is the standard treatment modality for mucormycosis. The drawback of this regime is the need for long hospitalization due to the serious side effects of Amphotericin B requiring regular monitoring. Oral Posaconazole is one of the newer antifungals that have shown promising results...
November 2016: Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897041/novel-antifungal-agents-a-patent-review-2013-present
#14
María Victoria Castelli, Marcos Gabriel Derita, Silvia Noelí López
Superficial infections involving the skin and mucosa are the most common fungal disease in humans. Fungi can also produce invasive infections (IFI), which are increasing in incidence among the growing population of immunocompromised patients, and are characterized by a high mortality rate. Amphotericin B, new triazoles and echinocandins have improved treatment options in IFI. However, the frequency of less common and more resistant fungi, the limited activity of available antifungal drugs and their undesirable side effects reflect the urgent need for the development of new therapeutic strategies...
November 29, 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896234/frequency-and-associated-factors-of-amphotericin-b-nephrotoxicity-in-hospitalized-patients-in-hematology-oncology-wards-in-the-southwest-of-iran
#15
Iman Karimzadeh, Marziyeh Heydari, Mani Ramzi, Mohammad Mahdi Sagheb
BACKGROUND: Nephrotoxicity is the most clinically significant adverse reaction of amphotericin B. Different aspects of amphotericin B (AmB) nephrotoxicity have not been studied well in our population. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency, time onset, and possible associated factors of AmB nephrotoxicity in hospitalized patients in hematology-oncology wards in the southwest of Iran. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional, observational study was performed over a period of 9 months at 2 hematology-oncology and 1 hematopoietic stem cell transplantation wards at Namazi Hospital...
September 2016: Nephro-urology Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895625/evaluation-of-virulence-factors-in-vitro-resistance-to-osmotic-stress-and-antifungal-susceptibility-of-candida-tropicalis-isolated-from-the-coastal-environment-of-northeast-brazil
#16
Diana L Zuza-Alves, Sayama S T Q de Medeiros, Luanda B F C de Souza, Walicyranison P Silva-Rocha, Elaine C Francisco, Maria C B de Araújo, Reginaldo G Lima-Neto, Rejane P Neves, Analy S de Azevedo Melo, Guilherme M Chaves
Several studies have been developed regarding human health risks associated with the recreational use of beaches contaminated with domestic sewage. These wastes contain various micro-organisms, including Candida tropicalis. In this context, the objective of this study was to characterize C. tropicalis isolates from the sandy beach of Ponta Negra, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, regarding the expression of in vitro virulence factors, adaptation to osmotic stress and susceptibility to antifungal drugs. We analyzed 62 environmental isolates and observed a great variation among them for the various virulence factors evaluated...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889906/interventions-for-the-management-of-denture-stomatitis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Juliana Balbinot Hilgert, Jessye Melgarejo do Amaral Giordani, Raphael Freitas de Souza, Eliana Márcia Da Ros Wendland, Otavio Pereira D'Avila, Fernando Neves Hugo
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of different interventions for treating or preventing denture stomatitis (DS). DESIGN: Systematic review. SETTING: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing any agent or procedure prescribed to treat or prevent DS in adults. PARTICIPANTS: Older adults with denture stomatitis. MEASUREMENTS: There were two main outcomes reported in the trials included in this review: clinical signs of DS and remaining presence of yeast...
November 27, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888011/antiproliferative-and-ultrastructural-effects-of-phenethylamine-derivatives-on-promastigotes-and-amastigotes-of-leishmania-leishmania-infantum-chagasi
#18
Paula Ferreira Brasil, Júlia Araújo de Freitas, Anna Léa Silva Barreto, Camila Marques Adade, Leandro Figueira Reis de Sá, Pamella Constantino-Teles, Fabiano Travanca Toledo, Bruno A de Sousa, Augusto Cesar Gonçalves, Maria Teresa Villela Romanos, João V Comasseto, Alcindo A Dos Santos, Ana Claudia Tessis, Thais Souto-Padrón, Rosangela Maria A Soares, Antonio Ferreira-Pereira
Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi is one of the agents that cause visceral leishmaniasis. This disease occurs more frequently in third world countries, such as Brazil. The treatment is arduous, and is dependent on just a few drugs like the antimonial derivatives and amphotericin B. Moreover, these drugs are not only expensive, but they can also cause severe side effects and require long-term treatment. Therefore, it is very important to find new compounds that are effective against leishmaniasis. In the present work we evaluated a new group of synthetic amides against the promastigote and amastigote forms of L...
November 22, 2016: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885340/acute-kidney-injury-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Vinod Krishnappa, Mohit Gupta, Gurusidda Manu, Shivani Kwatra, Osei-Tutu Owusu, Rupesh Raina
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a highly effective treatment strategy for lymphoproliferative disorders and bone marrow failure states including aplastic anemia and thalassemia. However, its use has been limited by the increased treatment related complications, including acute kidney injury (AKI) with an incidence ranging from 20% to 73%. AKI after HSCT has been associated with an increased risk of mortality. The incidence of AKI reported in recipients of myeloablative allogeneic transplant is considerably higher in comparison to other subclasses mainly due to use of cyclosporine and development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in allogeneic groups...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883958/antimicrobial-activity-and-bioguided-fractionation-of-rumex-tingitanus-extracts-for-meat-preservation
#20
Dhekra Mhalla, Amira Bouaziz, Karim Ennouri, Rachid Chawech, Slim Smaoui, Raoudha Jarraya, Slim Tounsi, Mohamed Trigui
: This study was undertaken to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal activities of Rumex tingitanus leaves extracts as well as the identification of bioactive components and their performance in meat preservation. Total phenolics and flavonoids showed the highest content of phenolics and flavonoids in the ethyl acetate fraction (Rt EtOAcF). For antimicrobial efficacy, leaves extract and derived fraction were tested for their capacity to inhibit bacterial and fungal proliferation in vitro and in vivo...
November 17, 2016: Meat Science
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