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Medical philosophy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132499/use-of-medical-emergency-call-data-as-a-marker-of-quality-of-emergency-department-care-in-the-post-national-emergency-access-target-era
#1
Lorraine Westacott, Judy Graves, Mohsina Khatun, John Burke
Objectives Any new model of care should always be accompanied by rigorous monitoring to ensure that there are no negative consequences, especially any that impact upon patient safety. In 2013, 'THERMoSTAT' (Two- Hour Evaluation and Referral Model for Shorter Turnaround Times), an emergency department model of care developed by Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital staff was launched to gain efficiencies and improve hospital National Emergency Access Target (NEAT) compliance. The aim of this study was to trial the use of medical emergency call data as a novel marker of the quality of care delivered by our emergency department...
November 14, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128431/peer-teaching-from-method-to-philosophy
#2
Olle Ten Cate
Peer teaching or peer-assisted learning is a popular topic in the medical education literature. While not one method of education, a categorization is possible according to (a) the developmental distance between learner and peer teacher, (b) the scale or group size of learners in peer teaching arrangements and (c) the extent of formality or structure of the arrangement. That yields many different forms of peer teaching. Viewing peer teaching as a multifaceted method shows several benefits. On a deeper level however peer teaching may be viewed as a philosophy of medical education that has historical roots but aligns well with current thinking of teaching and learning across the continuum of medical education...
November 9, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120205/university-counseling-service-for-improving-students-mental-health
#3
Francesca Vescovelli, Paolo Melani, Chiara Ruini, Pio Enrico Ricci Bitti, Fiorella Monti
The main aims of this study were to provide an initial sociodemographic and clinical characterization of university students' academic and psychological functioning and to investigate and compare the feasibility and clinical utility of psychotherapies (cognitive behavior vs. psychodynamic) delivered at a large University in Northern Italy for improving university students' mental health, using self and observer-report measures. One hundred forty-9 students (102 women; MAge = 24.55, SD = 3.35) were consecutively interviewed and extensively assessed by independent clinicians of the Service before and after the intervention, using the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation and the Global Assessment Scale...
November 2017: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105237/scientism-conflicts-of-interest-and-the-marginalization-of-ethics-in-medical-education
#4
Christopher Mayes, Jane Williams, Ian Kerridge, Wendy Lipworth
AIM: This paper reports on the findings from 6 focus groups conducted with Australian medical students. The focus groups sought students' perspectives on how the influence of commercial interests on medical practice and education could be managed. METHOD: We conducted 6 focus groups with medical students in New South Wales, Australia. Participants were recruited via student-run medical society and faculty e-mail lists. Forty-nine students from 6 medical schools in New South Wales participated...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098665/received-view-of-addiction-relapse-and-treatment
#5
Yamikani Ndasauka, Zhengde Wei, Xiaochu Zhang
It is important to highlight that attempts at understanding and explaining addiction have been made for centuries. It is, however, just five decades ago, with the growth of science and technology that more interest has been observed in this field. This chapter examines different views and theories that have been posited to understand and explain addiction. More attention will be given to prominent views that seem to draw consensus among researchers and medical practitioners. The first section of the chapter introduces the addiction debate, the different theories that have been provided to explain it from different perspectives and disciplines such as neurosciences, philosophy and psychology...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084324/entrustable-professional-activities-for-entering-residency-establishing-common-osteopathic-performance-standards-in-the-transition-from-medical-school-to-residency
#6
Pamela M Basehore, Luke H Mortensen, Emmanuel Katsaros, Machelle Linsenmeyer, Elizabeth K McClain, Patricia S Sexton, Nicole Wadsworth
Entrustable professional activities (EPAs) are measurable units of observable professional practice that can be entrusted to an unsupervised trainee. They were first introduced as a method of operationalizing competency-based medical education in graduate medical education. The American Association of Medical Colleges subsequently used EPAs to establish the core skills that medical students must be able to perform before they enter residency training. A recently published guide provides descriptions, guidelines, and rationale for implementing and assessing the core EPAs from an osteopathic approach...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072512/ibn-mandevaih-isfahani-949-983-ad-a-physician-from-isfahan-s-medical-school
#7
Mahboobeh Farkhondehzadeh, Seyyed Alireza Golshani, Mohammad Reza Sanaye, Babak Daneshfard
There have arisen a number of prominent Iranian-Islamic physicians throughout the history of the fertile medicine landscape of Iran, some of whom are not very well known. Abu Ali Ahmad ibn Abd al-Rahman Mandevaih Isfahani (949-983(?) AD) was a great medical figure with scientific activities in the Hospital of Isfahan and al-Adudi Hospital of Baghdad in the golden age of Iranian-Islamic history, culture, and civilization during the reign of the Buyid dynasty and Abbasid Caliphate. He was also a prominent physician during the reign of Adud al-Dawla Deylami (949-983 AD)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Biography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068813/the-shared-goals-and-distinct-strengths-of-the-medical-humanities-can-the-sum-of-the-parts-be-greater-than-the-whole
#8
Jeremy A Greene, David S Jones
Since the 1960s, faculty from diverse fields have banded together under the banner of the medical humanities, a term which unites art, literature, history, anthropology, religious studies, philosophy, and other disciplines. Arguments for the relevance of medical humanities often emphasize contributions that any of these disciplines can make to medical education, whether those involve empathy, professionalism, critical reasoning, or tolerating ambiguity. The authors argue that the constituent disciplines of the medical humanities are not interchangeable parts, but represent different perspectives and methodologies that offer their own distinct contributions to medical training...
October 24, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065751/assessing-staff-oriented-care-with-developmental-support-approach-in-iranian-nicus
#9
Zahra Eskandari, Mostajab Razavi Nejad, Forouzan Akrami, Amir Almasi-Hashiani, Mohammad Heidarzadeh
BACKGROUND: Regarding improvements in preterm infants survival rates, it is necessary the improvement of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICUs) status in order to provide comprehensive care. The aim of this study was to assess the aspects of staffing-oriented neonatal care in NICUs affiliated to Universities of Medical Sciences in Iran. METHODS: This survey is a cross-sectional study which was conducted in 23 NICUs of 9 type-1 Universities of Medical Sciences across country...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064773/can-a-unified-service-delivery-philosophy-be-identified-in-aging-and-disability-organizations-exploring-competing-service-delivery-models-through-the-voices-of-the-workforce-in-these-organizations
#10
Bronwyn Keefe
Services for older adults and younger people with disabilities are increasingly merging, as reflected in the creation of Aging and Disability Resource Centers (ADRCs). Using ADRCs to coordinate services is challenging, primarily because these fields have different service delivery philosophies. Independent living centers, who serve people with disabilities, have a philosophy that emphasizes consumer control and peer mentoring. Whereas the aging service delivery philosophy is based in a case management or medical model where the role of consumers directing their services is less pronounced...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Aging & Social Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052289/exploring-implementation-of-the-careful-nursing-philosophy-and-professional-practice-model-%C3%A2-in-hospital-based-practice
#11
Sinéad Murphy, Raphael Mc Mullin, Sinéad Brennan, Therese Connell Meehan
AIM: To explore the effectiveness and feasibility of implementing the two clinical dimensions of the Careful Nursing Philosophy and Professional Practice Model(©) (Careful Nursing) in an acute care hospital. BACKGROUND: Implementation of a professional practice model by nurses in hospitals supports nurses' control over their practice and enhances the quality of their contribution to patient care. Implementing such change is complex and initially best approached on a small scale...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Nursing Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030395/dignitarian-medical-ethics
#12
Linda Barclay
Philosophers and bioethicists are typically sceptical about invocations of dignity in ethical debates. Many believe that dignity is essentially devoid of meaning: either a mere rhetorical gesture used in the absence of good argument or a faddish term for existing values like autonomy and respect. On the other hand, the patient experience of dignity is a substantial area of research in healthcare fields like nursing and palliative care. In this paper, it is argued that philosophers have much to learn from the concrete patient experiences described in healthcare literature...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989165/the-role-of-doctors-in-hunger-strikes
#13
Yechiel Michael Barilan
In its Malta Declaration, The World Medical Association prohibits force-feeding of hunger strikers as "degrading and inhuman," even when this is the only way to save their lives. The European Court of Human Rights ruled that lifesaving force-feeding is compatible with the state's duty to protect the lives of prisoners. To understand how such extreme divergence of opinions has become possible, this paper offers a critical examination of the social history of prisoners' hunger strikes, the philosophy of nonviolence, and the debate on its medicalization...
2017: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969996/exploring-routine-hospital-antenatal-care-consultations-an-ethnographic-study
#14
Diane Wright, Jan Pincombe, Lois McKellar
BACKGROUND: Listening to women as part of their antenatal care has been recognized as valuable in understanding the woman's needs. Conversations as part of routine antenatal interactions offer ideal opportunities for women to express themselves and for midwives to learn about the woman's issues and concerns. The antenatal visit and the convention of antenatal consultations for midwives have not been well explored or defined and much of what takes place replicate medical consultative processes...
September 29, 2017: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960759/philosophical-determinants-of-obesity-as-a-disease
#15
REVIEW
D Kilov, G Kilov
Is obesity a disease? Much ink has been spilled over this debate and for good reasons. The global prevalence of obesity has more than doubled since the 1980s and is now of pandemic proportions. Whether obesity is a disease has consequences for what kind of treatments are appropriate, as well as how we ought to allocate funding and access to healthcare resources. In most cases, there is no dispute over the medical facts, yet disagreement persists. This is because whether obesity is a disease is not determined by medical facts alone; the issue is, in part, conceptual...
September 29, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960730/reasoning-evidence-and-clinical-decision-making-the-great-debate-moves-forward
#16
EDITORIAL
Michael Loughlin, Robyn Bluhm, Stephen Buetow, Kirstin Borgerson, Jonathan Fuller
When the editorial to the first philosophy thematic edition of this journal was published in 2010, critical questioning of underlying assumptions, regarding such crucial issues as clinical decision making, practical reasoning, and the nature of evidence in health care, was still derided by some prominent contributors to the literature on medical practice. Things have changed dramatically. Far from being derided or dismissed as a distraction from practical concerns, the discussion of such fundamental questions, and their implications for matters of practical import, is currently the preoccupation of some of the most influential and insightful contributors to the on-going evidence-based medicine debate...
October 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950021/competencies-for-the-provision-of-comprehensive-medication-management-services-in-an-experiential-learning-project
#17
Simone de Araújo Medina Mendonça, Erika Lourenço de Freitas, Djenane Ramalho de Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: To understand students' and tutors' perceptions of the development of clinical competencies for the delivery of comprehensive medication management services in an experiential learning project linked to a Brazilian school of pharmacy. METHODS: An autoethnographic qualitative study was carried out based on participant observation, focus groups and individual interviews with students and tutors involved in an experiential learning project. RESULTS: The study revealed the development of competencies related to the philosophy of practice, the pharmacotherapy workup of drug therapy and interprofessional relationships...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934584/principles-and-benefits-of-explicitly-designed-medical-device-safety-architecture
#18
Brian R Larson, Paul Jones, Yi Zhang, John Hatcliff
The complexity of medical devices and the processes by which they are developed pose considerable challenges to producing safe designs and regulatory submissions that are amenable to effective reviews. Designing an appropriate and clearly documented architecture can be an important step in addressing this complexity. Best practices in medical device design embrace the notion of a safety architecture organized around distinct operation and safety requirements. By explicitly separating many safety-related monitoring and mitigation functions from operational functionality, the aspects of a device most critical to safety can be localized into a smaller and simpler safety subsystem, thereby enabling easier verification and more effective reviews of claims that causes of hazardous situations are detected and handled properly...
2017: Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932930/understanding-and-resolving-conflicting-traditions-a-macintyrean-approach-to-shared-deliberation-in-medical-ethics
#19
Jessica Adkins
The position of clinical ethicist exists to help resolve conflicts in the hospital. Sometimes these conflicts arise because of fundamental cultural differences between the patient and the medical team, and such cases present special challenges. Should the ideology of modern medicine reject the wishes of those who hold ideologies from differing cultures? How can the medical ethicist help resolve such conflicts? To answer these questions, I rely on the works of Alasdair MacIntyre. Using MacIntyre's philosophy, we can better understand why traditions exist, how conflicts arise, and how opposing traditions can collaborate in shared decision making...
September 20, 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923126/-drawing-aside-the-curtain-natural-childbirth-on-screen-in-1950s-britain
#20
Salim Al-Gailani
This article recovers the importance of film, and its relations to other media, in communicating the philosophies and methods of 'natural childbirth' in the post-war period. It focuses on an educational film made in South Africa around 1950 by controversial British physician Grantly Dick-Read, who had achieved international fame with bestselling books arguing that relaxation and education, not drugs, were the keys to freeing women from pain in childbirth. But he soon came to regard the 'vivid' medium of film as a more effective means of disseminating the 'truth of [his] mission' to audiences who might never have read his books...
September 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
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