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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934584/principles-and-benefits-of-explicitly-designed-medical-device-safety-architecture
#1
Brian R Larson, Paul Jones, Yi Zhang, John Hatcliff
The complexity of medical devices and the processes by which they are developed pose considerable challenges to producing safe designs and regulatory submissions that are amenable to effective reviews. Designing an appropriate and clearly documented architecture can be an important step in addressing this complexity. Best practices in medical device design embrace the notion of a safety architecture organized around distinct operation and safety requirements. By explicitly separating many safety-related monitoring and mitigation functions from operational functionality, the aspects of a device most critical to safety can be localized into a smaller and simpler safety subsystem, thereby enabling easier verification and more effective reviews of claims that causes of hazardous situations are detected and handled properly...
2017: Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932930/understanding-and-resolving-conflicting-traditions-a-macintyrean-approach-to-shared-deliberation-in-medical-ethics
#2
Jessica Adkins
The position of clinical ethicist exists to help resolve conflicts in the hospital. Sometimes these conflicts arise because of fundamental cultural differences between the patient and the medical team, and such cases present special challenges. Should the ideology of modern medicine reject the wishes of those who hold ideologies from differing cultures? How can the medical ethicist help resolve such conflicts? To answer these questions, I rely on the works of Alasdair MacIntyre. Using MacIntyre's philosophy, we can better understand why traditions exist, how conflicts arise, and how opposing traditions can collaborate in shared decision making...
September 20, 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923126/-drawing-aside-the-curtain-natural-childbirth-on-screen-in-1950s-britain
#3
Salim Al-Gailani
This article recovers the importance of film, and its relations to other media, in communicating the philosophies and methods of 'natural childbirth' in the post-war period. It focuses on an educational film made in South Africa around 1950 by controversial British physician Grantly Dick-Read, who had achieved international fame with bestselling books arguing that relaxation and education, not drugs, were the keys to freeing women from pain in childbirth. But he soon came to regard the 'vivid' medium of film as a more effective means of disseminating the 'truth of [his] mission' to audiences who might never have read his books...
September 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918826/islamic-medicine-in-the-middle-ages
#4
EDITORIAL
Hawa Edriss, Brittany N Rosales, Connie Nugent, Christian Conrad, Kenneth Nugent
The Islamic culture flourished between the 9th and 13th centuries. Scholars from this era made significant contributions in mathematics, science and medicine. Caliphs and physicians built hospitals that provided universal care and the foundation for medical education. Physician-scientists made significant advances in medical care, surgery and pharmacology. Notable authorities include al-Razi (865-925 CE) who wrote the Kitab al-Hawi fi al-tibb (The Comprehensive Book on Medicine), a 23-volume textbook that provided the main medical curriculum for European schools into the 14th century...
September 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879310/education-that-allows-south-korean-colleges-of-dentistry-to-teach-emergency-care
#5
REVIEW
Jeongwan Kang
As the medical environment and dental services change, the importance of educating dentists in responses to systemic emergencies is increasing. The current student-oriented education paradigm is moving towards training students in the abilities required to address the daily crises they will face, while also providing them with the ability to deliver knowledge. Before addressing a patient's situation, emergency physicians begin by diagnosing symptoms. As they must decide on the tests and treatments that are immediately required and must solve problems through interdisciplinary treatment, emergency physicians require additional skills and communication abilities besides clinical knowledge...
December 2016: J Dent Anesth Pain Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876995/benefits-and-challenges-of-developing-a-customized-rubric-for-curricular-review-of-a-residency-program-in-laboratory-animal-medicine
#6
Tiffany L Whitcomb, Ronald P Wilson
Rigorous curricular review of post-graduate veterinary medical residency programs is in the best interest of program directors in light of the requirements and needs of specialty colleges, graduate school administrations, and other stakeholders including prospective students and employers. Although minimum standards for training are typically provided by specialty colleges, mechanisms for evaluation are left to the discretion of program directors. The paucity of information available describing best practices for curricular assessment of veterinary medical specialty training programs makes resources from other medical fields essential to informing the assessment process...
2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859347/a-hospital-based-committee-of-moral-philosophy-to-revive-ethics
#7
Margaux Illy, Pierre Le Coz, Jean-Louis Mege
The Méditerranée Infection Foundation's primary goal is supporting a research hospital for the treatment of infectious diseases in Marseille. The main objective of this innovative center is to understand the mechanisms of contagion and face them. The Foundation will include a committee on moral philosophy that will accompany and supervise biomedical research. This is not a conventional ethics committee, frequently giving rise to a board's bureaucratic excesses, which might slow down creative biomedical clinical research without necessarily restricting abuses...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855796/medical-decision-making-processes-and-online-behaviors-among-cannabis-dispensary-staff
#8
Nicholas C Peiper, Camille Gourdet, Angélica Meinhofer, Amanda Reiman, Nicco Reggente
BACKGROUND: Most cannabis patients engage with dispensary staff, like budtenders, for medical advice on cannabis. Yet, little is known about these interactions and how the characteristics of budtenders affect these interactions. This study investigated demographics, workplace characteristics, medical decision-making, and online behaviors among a sample of budtenders. METHODS: Between June and September 2016, a cross-sectional Internet survey was administered to budtenders in the San Francisco Bay Area and Greater Los Angeles...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852938/medicalising-short-children-with-growth-hormone-ethical-considerations-of-the-underlying-sociocultural-aspects
#9
Maria Cristina Murano
In 2003, the Food and Drug Administration approved the use of growth hormone treatment for idiopathic short stature children, i.e. children shorter than average due to an unknown medical cause. Given the absence of any pathological conditions, this decision has been contested as a case of medicalisation. The aim of this paper is to broaden the debate over the reasons for and against the treatment, to include considerations of the sociocultural phenomenon of the medicalisation of short stature, by means of a critical understanding of the concept of medicalisation...
August 29, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851261/do-lower-risk-thyroid-cancer-patients-who-live-in-regions-with-more-aggressive-treatments-have-better-outcomes
#10
Stephen Hall, Jonathan C Irish, Patti A Groome, Rebecca Griffiths, David Hurlbut
BACKGROUND: The management of differentiated thyroid cancer has traditionally consisted of total thyroidectomy with or without adjuvant radioactive iodine. However, in the last two decades this approach has been challenged with the consideration of more conservative approaches such as less radical surgery and deferring adjuvant treatment especially in lower risk patients. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of current treatment options by comparing the survival outcomes from different geographic regions with different treatment philosophies...
August 29, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835027/-periodontology-from-the-perspective-of-holistic-integrative-medicine
#11
Q X Luan
Medical diciplines have been gradually differentiated and specialized during its developement, and problems due to deep specialization have been increasingly apparent. Its performance is as follows: dental specialists tends to focus on a certain narrow area and ignore neither the patients as a whole existence nor the role of the environmental factors. In this article, the author tries to show the holistic integrative medicine (HIM) from the point of view of periodontal specialty. In fact, the pathogenesis, the differential diagnosis and the treatment of periodontal diseases along with the role of preventive dentistry and basic medicine for periodontology must be considered as a whole using the philosophy of HIM...
August 9, 2017: Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818834/designing-and-implementing-a-physiology-course-for-a-new-doctoral-occupational-therapy-program-with-student-feedback
#12
Barbara E Goodman, Moses N Ikiugu
Recently, the Occupational Therapy Department requested a custom-designed medical physiology course for the students in the new occupational therapy doctoral program. The first author, a physiologist with extensive experience in teaching both undergraduate preprofessional and medical students in human physiology, was recruited to design and implement the course. The course was designed to be consistent with the constructivist philosophy that guides the occupational therapy curriculum. The course was offered for the first time during fall/spring 2015/2016 and included both first- and second-year occupational therapy doctoral students...
September 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812979/truth-in-research-labelling
#13
John H Noble
This report describes the background and context of a currently circulating petition to the US Congress that seeks amendment of Section 801 of the Public Health Services Act (42 U.S.C. 282) to close a loophole in existing law which makes possible post hoc adjustment of randomised controlled trial (RCT) results reported to the Food and Drug Administration that differ from those reported to ClinicalTrials.gov and to medical journals. The report describes the petition's rationale, underlying assumptions, and support for its proposed remedy in deontological, consequentialist, and casuist philosophical ethics theories...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801760/the-need-for-authenticity-based-autonomy-in-medical-ethics
#14
Lucie White
The notion of respect for autonomy dominates bioethical discussion, though what qualifies precisely as autonomous action is notoriously elusive. In recent decades, the notion of autonomy in medical contexts has often been defined in opposition to the notion of autonomy favoured by theoretical philosophers. Where many contemporary theoretical accounts of autonomy place emphasis on a condition of "authenticity", the special relation a desire must have to the self, bioethicists often regard such a focus as irrelevant to the concerns of medical ethics, and too stringent for use in practical contexts...
August 11, 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789681/study-protocol-on-comparative-effectiveness-of-mindfulness-meditation-and-qigong-on-psychophysiological-outcomes-for-patients-with-colorectal-cancer-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Rainbow T H Ho, Adrian H Y Wan, Jessie S M Chan, S M Ng, K F Chung, Cecilia L W Chan
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer imposes threats to patients' well-being. Although most physical symptoms can be managed by medication, psychosocial stressors may complicate survival and hamper quality of life. Mindfulness and Qigong, two kinds of mind-body exercise rooted in Eastern health philosophy, has been found effective in symptoms management, improving mental health, and reducing stress. With these potential benefits, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) is planned to investigate the comparative effectiveness of mindfulness and Baduanjin intervention on the bio-psychosocial wellbeing of people with colorectal cancer...
August 8, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782424/the-ideal-of-a-knowledge-society-in-dee-s-monas-hieroglyphica-1564-and-other-productions-by-willem-silvius
#16
Steven Vanden Broecke
It is well known that John Dee presented the Monas Hieroglyphica (1564) as the basis for a wholesale transformation of early modern knowledge culture - a claim that raises obvious issues of epistemic credibility. This paper discusses the social techniques that Dee proposed as a solution to these issues. First, our reconstruction of the "socio-epistemic imaginary" that Dee conveyed in the Monas shows how the marriage between a traditional rhetoric of secrecy and a courtly politicising of natural philosophy allowed Dee to invent social distinctions between credible and false purveyors of true knowledge...
August 6, 2017: Ambix
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752089/the-use-of-operational-excellence-principles-in-a-university-hospital
#17
Eric R Edelman, Ankie E W Hamaekers, Wolfgang F Buhre, Godefridus G van Merode
The introduction of Operational Excellence in the Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC+) has been the first of its kind and scale for a university hospital. The policy makers of the MUMC+ have combined different elements from various other business, management, and healthcare philosophies and frameworks into a unique mix. This paper summarizes the journey of developing this system and its most important aspects. Special attention is paid to the role of the operating rooms and the improvements that have taken place there, because of their central role in the working of the hospital...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746023/the-patient-centered-medical-home-as-a-community-based-strategy
#18
Berkeley A Franz, John W Murphy
Increasing attention has been devoted to the important role that primary care will play in improving population health. One innovation, the patient-centered medical home (PCMH), aims to unite a variety of professionals with patients in the prevention and treatment of illness. Although patient perspectives are critical to this model, this article questions whether the PCMH in practice is truly community-based. That is, do physicians, planners, and other health care professionals take seriously the value of integrating local knowledge into medical care? The argument presented is that community-based philosophy contains a foundational principle that the perspectives of health care practitioners and community members must be integrated...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741165/history-and-conceptual-developments-in-vascular-biology-and-angiogenesis-research-a-personal-view
#19
REVIEW
Andreas Bikfalvi
Vascular biology is an important scientific domain that has gradually penetrated many medical and scientific fields. Scientists are most often focused on present problems in their daily scientific work and lack awareness regarding the evolution of their domain throughout history and of how philosophical issues are related to their research field. In this article, I provide a personal view with an attempt to conceptualize vascular development research that articulates lessons taken from history, philosophy, biology and medicine...
July 24, 2017: Angiogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740949/good-surgeon-a-search-for-meaning
#20
REVIEW
Andrey L Akopov, Dmitri Y Artioukh
The art and philosophy of surgery are not as often discussed as scientific discoveries and technological advances in the modern era of surgery. Although these are difficult to teach and pass on to the next generations of surgeons they are no less important for training good surgeons and maintaining their high standards. The authors of this review and opinion article tried to define what being a good surgeon really means and to look into the subject by analysing the essential conditions for being a good surgeon and the qualities that such a specialist should possess...
2017: Turk J Surg
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