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Cognitive bias and decision making

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054819/comparing-integral-and-incidental-emotions-testing-insights-from-emotions-as-social-information-theory-and-attribution-theory
#1
Annika Hillebrandt, Laurie J Barclay
Studies have indicated that observers can infer information about others' behavioral intentions from others' emotions and use this information in making their own decisions. Integrating emotions as social information (EASI) theory and attribution theory, we argue that the interpersonal effects of emotions are not only influenced by the type of discrete emotion (e.g., anger vs. happiness) but also by the target of the emotion (i.e., how the emotion relates to the situation). We compare the interpersonal effects of emotions that are integral (i...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003681/poverty-and-economic-decision-making-evidence-from-changes-in-financial-resources-at-payday
#2
Leandro S Carvalho, Stephan Meier, Stephanie W Wang
We study the effect of financial resources on decision-making. Low-income U.S. households are randomly assigned to receive an online survey before or after payday. The survey collects measures of cognitive function and administers risk and intertemporal choice tasks. The study design generates variation in cash, checking and savings balances, and expenditures. Before-payday participants behave as if they are more present-biased when making intertemporal choices about monetary rewards but not when making intertemporal choices about non-monetary real-effort tasks...
February 2016: American Economic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965330/approach-to-risk-identification-in-undifferentiated-mental-disorders
#3
REVIEW
José Silveira, Patricia Rockman, Casey Fulford, Jon Hunter
OBJECTIVE: To provide primary care physicians with a novel approach to risk identification and related clinical decision making in the management of undifferentiated mental disorders. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: We conducted a review of the literature in PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar using the search terms diagnostic uncertainty, diagnosis, risk identification, risk assessment/methods, risk, risk factors, risk management/methods, cognitive biases and psychiatry, decision making, mental disorders/diagnosis, clinical competence, evidence-based medicine, interviews as topic, psychiatry/education, psychiatry/methods, documentation/methods, forensic psychiatry/education, forensic psychiatry/methods, mental disorders/classification, mental disorders/psychology, violence/prevention and control, and violence/psychology...
December 2016: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964726/cognition-in-chronic-kidney-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Israel Berger, Sunny Wu, Philip Masson, Patrick J Kelly, Fiona A Duthie, William Whiteley, Daniel Parker, David Gillespie, Angela C Webster
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is common in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Subtle changes can impact engagement with healthcare, comprehension, decision-making, and medication adherence. We aimed to systematically summarise evidence of cognitive changes in CKD. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE (March 2016) for cross-sectional, cohort or randomised studies that measured cognitive function in people with CKD (PROSPERO, registration number CRD42014015226)...
December 14, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956065/effects-of-deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-on-perceptual-decision-making
#5
Tino Zaehle, Caroline Wagenbreth, Jürgen Voges, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Imke Galazky
When faced with difficult decisions, people prefer to stay with the default. This status quo bias often leads to suboptimal choice behavior. Neurophysiological evidence suggests a pivot role of the Subthalamic Nucleus (STN) for overcoming such status quo bias in difficult decisions, but causal evidence is lacking. The present study investigated whether subthalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) influences the status quo bias. Eighteen PD patients treated with STN-DBS performed a difficult perceptual decision task incorporating intrinsic status quo option...
December 9, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933418/temporal-characteristics-of-eeg-microstates-mediate-trial-by-trial-risk-taking
#6
Andreas Pedroni, Lorena R R Gianotti, Thomas Koenig, Dietrich Lehmann, Pascal Faber, Daria Knoch
People seem to have difficulties when perceiving events whose outcome has no influence on the outcome of future events. This illusion that patterns exist where there are none may lead to adverse consequences, such as escalating losses in financial trading or gambling debt. Despite the enormous social consequences of these cognitive biases, however, their neural underpinnings are poorly understood. Attempts to investigate them have so far relied on evoked neural activity, whereas spontaneous brain activity has been treated as noise to be averaged out...
January 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907171/correction-beyond-rational-decision-making-modelling-the-influence-of-cognitive-biases-on-the-dynamics-of-vaccination-coverage
#7
Marina Voinson, Sylvain Billiard, Alexandra Alvergne
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0142990.].
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875163/the-attraction-effect-in-information-visualization
#8
Evanthia Dimara, Anastasia Bezerianos, Pierre Dragicevic
The attraction effect is a well-studied cognitive bias in decision making research, where one's choice between two alternatives is influenced by the presence of an irrelevant (dominated) third alternative. We examine whether this cognitive bias, so far only tested with three alternatives and simple presentation formats such as numerical tables, text and pictures, also appears in visualizations. Since visualizations can be used to support decision making - e.g., when choosing a house to buy or an employee to hire - a systematic bias could have important implications...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836921/non-pharmacological-treatment-of-depression-a-systematic-review-and-evidence-map
#9
REVIEW
Wigdan H Farah, Mouaz Alsawas, Maria Mainou, Fares Alahdab, Magdoleen H Farah, Ahmed T Ahmed, Essa A Mohamed, Jehad Almasri, Michael R Gionfriddo, Ana Castaneda-Guarderas, Khaled Mohammed, Zhen Wang, Noor Asi, Craig N Sawchuk, Mark D Williams, Larry J Prokop, M Hassan Murad, Annie LeBlanc
BACKGROUND: The comparative effectiveness of non-pharmacological treatments of depression remains unclear. METHODS: We conducted an overview of systematic reviews to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the efficacy and adverse effects of non-pharmacological treatments of depression. We searched multiple electronic databases through February 2016 without language restrictions. Pairs of reviewers determined eligibility, extracted data and assessed risk of bias...
December 2016: Evidence-based Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832071/approach-induced-biases-in-human-information-sampling
#10
Laurence T Hunt, Robb B Rutledge, W M Nishantha Malalasekera, Steven W Kennerley, Raymond J Dolan
Information sampling is often biased towards seeking evidence that confirms one's prior beliefs. Despite such biases being a pervasive feature of human behavior, their underlying causes remain unclear. Many accounts of these biases appeal to limitations of human hypothesis testing and cognition, de facto evoking notions of bounded rationality, but neglect more basic aspects of behavioral control. Here, we investigated a potential role for Pavlovian approach in biasing which information humans will choose to sample...
November 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830753/lucky-rhythms-in-orbitofrontal-cortex-bias-gambling-decisions-in-humans
#11
Pierre Sacré, Matthew S D Kerr, Kevin Kahn, Jorge Gonzalez-Martinez, Juan Bulacio, Hyun-Joo Park, Matthew A Johnson, Susan Thompson, Jaes Jones, Vikram S Chib, John T Gale, Sridevi V Sarma
It is well established that emotions influence our decisions, yet the neural basis of this biasing effect is not well understood. Here we directly recorded local field potentials from the OrbitoFrontal Cortex (OFC) in five human subjects performing a financial decision-making task. We observed a striking increase in gamma-band (36-50 Hz) oscillatory activity that reflected subjects' decisions to make riskier choices. Additionally, these gamma rhythms were linked back to mismatched expectations or "luck" occurring in past trials...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829041/cognitive-bias-in-ambiguity-judgements-using-computational-models-to-dissect-the-effects-of-mild-mood-manipulation-in-humans
#12
Kiyohito Iigaya, Aurelie Jolivald, Wittawat Jitkrittum, Iain D Gilchrist, Peter Dayan, Elizabeth Paul, Michael Mendl
Positive and negative moods can be treated as prior expectations over future delivery of rewards and punishments. This provides an inferential foundation for the cognitive (judgement) bias task, now widely-used for assessing affective states in non-human animals. In the task, information about affect is extracted from the optimistic or pessimistic manner in which participants resolve ambiguities in sensory input. Here, we report a novel variant of the task aimed at dissecting the effects of affect manipulations on perceptual and value computations for decision-making under ambiguity in humans...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820975/rigid-patterns-of-effortful-choice-behavior-after-acute-stress-in-rats
#13
Evan E Hart, Alexandra Stolyarova, Michael A Conoscenti, Thomas R Minor, Alicia Izquierdo
Physical effort is a common cost of acquiring rewards, and decreased effort is a feature of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Stress affects performance on several tests of cognition and decision-making in both humans and nonhumans. Only a few recent reports show impairing effects of stress in operant tasks involving effort and cognitive flexibility. Brain regions affected by stress such as the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala are also implicated in mediating effortful choices. Here we assessed effort-based decision-making after an acute stress procedure known to induce persistent impairment in shuttle escape and elevated plasma corticosterone...
November 8, 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790170/cognitive-abilities-monitoring-confidence-and-control-thresholds-explain-individual-differences-in-heuristics-and-biases
#14
Simon A Jackson, Sabina Kleitman, Pauline Howie, Lazar Stankov
In this paper, we investigate whether individual differences in performance on heuristic and biases tasks can be explained by cognitive abilities, monitoring confidence, and control thresholds. Current theories explain individual differences in these tasks by the ability to detect errors and override automatic but biased judgments, and deliberative cognitive abilities that help to construct the correct response. Here we retain cognitive abilities but disentangle error detection, proposing that lower monitoring confidence and higher control thresholds promote error checking...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778303/will-the-conscious-subconscious-pacing-quagmire-help-elucidate-the-mechanisms-of-self-paced-exercise-new-opportunities-in-dual-process-theory-and-process-tracing-methods
#15
Dominic Micklewright, Sue Kegerreis, John Raglin, Florentina Hettinga
The extent to which athletic pacing decisions are made consciously or subconsciously is a prevailing issue. In this article we discuss why the one-dimensional conscious-subconscious debate that has reigned in the pacing literature has suppressed our understanding of the multidimensional processes that occur in pacing decisions. How do we make our decisions in real-life competitive situations? What information do we use and how do we respond to opponents? These are questions that need to be explored and better understood, using smartly designed experiments...
October 25, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749166/the-ethics-of-organ-donor-registration-policies-nudges-and-respect-for-autonomy
#16
Douglas MacKay, Alexandra Robinson
Governments must determine the legal procedures by which their residents are registered, or can register, as organ donors. Provided that governments recognize that people have a right to determine what happens to their organs after they die, there are four feasible options to choose from: opt-in, opt-out, mandated active choice, and voluntary active choice. We investigate the ethics of these policies' use of nudges to affect organ donor registration rates. We argue that the use of nudges in this context is morally problematic...
November 2016: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713710/cognitive-reflection-decision-biases-and-response-times
#17
Carlos Alós-Ferrer, Michele Garagnani, Sabine Hügelschäfer
We present novel evidence on response times and personality traits in standard questions from the decision-making literature where responses are relatively slow (medians around half a minute or above). To this end, we measured response times in a number of incentivized, framed items (decisions from description) including the Cognitive Reflection Test, two additional questions following the same logic, and a number of classic questions used to study decision biases in probability judgments (base-rate neglect, the conjunction fallacy, and the ratio bias)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709981/deontological-coherence-a-framework-for-commonsense-moral-reasoning
#18
Keith J Holyoak, Derek Powell
We review a broad range of work, primarily in cognitive and social psychology, that provides insight into the processes of moral judgment. In particular, we consider research on pragmatic reasoning about regulations and on coherence in decision making, both areas in which psychological theories have been guided by work in legal philosophy. Armed with these essential prerequisites, we sketch a psychological framework for how ordinary people make judgments about moral issues. Based on a literature review, we show how the framework of deontological coherence unifies findings in moral psychology that have often been explained in terms of a grab-bag of heuristics and biases...
October 6, 2016: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708591/cognitive-dysfunction-affective-states-and-vulnerability-to-nicotine-addiction-a-multifactorial-perspective
#19
Morgane Besson, Benoît Forget
Although smoking prevalence has declined in recent years, certain subpopulations continue to smoke at disproportionately high rates and show resistance to cessation treatments. Individuals showing cognitive and affective impairments, including emotional distress and deficits in attention, memory, and inhibitory control, particularly in the context of psychiatric conditions, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, and mood disorders, are at higher risk for tobacco addiction. Nicotine has been shown to improve cognitive and emotional processing in some conditions, including during tobacco abstinence...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695479/global-environmental-change-local-perceptions-understandings-and-explanations
#20
Aili Pyhälä, Álvaro Fernández-Llamazares, Hertta Lehvävirta, Anja Byg, Isabel Ruiz-Mallén, Matthieu Salpeteur, Thomas F Thornton
Global environmental change (GEC) is an increasingly discussed phenomenon in the scientific literature as evidence of its presence and impacts continues to grow. Yet, while the documentation of GEC is becoming more readily available, local perceptions of GEC- particularly in small-scale societies-and preferences about how to deal with it, are still largely overlooked. Local knowledge and perceptions of GEC are important in that agents make decisions (including on natural resource management) based on individual perceptions...
September 2016: Ecology and Society: a Journal of Integrative Science for Resilience and Sustainability
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