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Cognitive bias and decision making

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773755/expectations-do-not-alter-early-sensory-processing-during-perceptual-decision-making
#1
Nuttida Rungratsameetaweemana, Sirawaj Itthipuripat, Annalisa Salazar, John T Serences
Two factors play an important role in shaping perception: the allocation of selective attention to behaviorally relevant sensory features, and prior expectations about regularities in the environment. Signal detection theory proposes distinct roles of attention and expectation on decision-making such that attention modulates early sensory processing whereas expectation influences the selection and execution of motor responses. Challenging this classic framework, recent studies suggest that expectations about sensory regularities enhance the encoding and accumulation of sensory evidence during decision-making...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772072/the-forensic-confirmation-bias-a-comparison-between-experts-and-novices
#2
Claire A J van den Eeden, Christianne J de Poot, Peter J van Koppen
A large body of research has described the influence of context information on forensic decision-making. In this study, we examined the effect of context information on the search for and selection of traces by students (N = 36) and crime scene investigators (N = 58). Participants investigated an ambiguous mock crime scene and received prior information indicating suicide, a violent death or no information. Participants described their impression of the scene and wrote down which traces they wanted to secure...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764270/drunk-decisions-alcohol-shifts-choice-from-habitual-towards-goal-directed-control-in-adolescent-intermediate-risk-drinkers
#3
Elisabeth Obst, Daniel J Schad, Quentin Jm Huys, Miriam Sebold, Stephan Nebe, Christian Sommer, Michael N Smolka, Ulrich S Zimmermann
BACKGROUND: Studies in humans and animals suggest a shift from goal-directed to habitual decision-making in addiction. We therefore tested whether acute alcohol administration reduces goal-directed and promotes habitual decision-making, and whether these effects are moderated by self-reported drinking problems. METHODS: Fifty-three socially drinking males completed the two-step task in a randomised crossover design while receiving an intravenous infusion of ethanol (blood alcohol level=80 mg%), or placebo...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731705/the-temptation-of-zero-price-event-related-potentials-evidence-of-how-price-framing-influences-the-purchase-of-bundles
#4
Haiying Ma, Zan Mo, Huijun Zhang, Cuicui Wang, Huijian Fu
Studies have revealed that consumers are susceptible to price framing effect, a common cognitive bias, due to their limited capacity in processing information. The effect of price framing in a bundling context and its neural correlates, however, remain not clearly characterized. The present study applied the event-related potentials (ERPs) approach to investigate the role of price framing in information processing and purchase decision making in a bundling context. Three price frames were created with practically identical total prices (with a maximum difference of ¥0...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709580/increased-conflict-induced-slowing-but-no-differences-in-conflict-induced-positive-or-negative-prediction-error-learning-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#5
Matthew A Albrecht, James A Waltz, James F Cavanagh, Michael J Frank, James M Gold
People with schizophrenia (PSZ) often fail to pursue rewarding activities despite largely intact in-the-moment hedonic experiences. Deficits in effort-based decision making in PSZ may be related to enhanced effects of cost or reduced reward, i.e., through the amplification of negative prediction errors or by dampened positive prediction errors (here, positive and negative prediction errors refer to outcomes that are better or worse than expected respectively). We administered a modified Simon task to people with schizophrenia (PSZ; N=46) and healthy controls (N=32)...
April 27, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698044/recollection-is-fast-and-slow
#6
C J Brainerd, K Nakamura, W-F A Lee
We implemented a new approach to measuring the relative speeds of different cognitive processes, one that extends multinomial models of memory and reasoning from discrete decisions to latencies. We applied it to the dual-process prediction that familiarity is faster than recollection. Relative to prior work on this prediction, the advantages of the new approach are that it jointly measures specific retrieval processes and their latencies, provides separate sets of latency-retrieval parameters for list items and related distractors, and supplies latency parameters for bias processes as well as retrieval processes...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696602/translational-shifts-in-preclinical-models-of-depression-implications-for-biomarkers-for-improved-treatments
#7
Chloe Slaney, Justyna K Hinchcliffe, Emma S J Robinson
Understanding the neurobiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) remains one of the major challenges in neuroscience. The disease is heterogeneous in nature, and patients present with a varied symptom profile. Studies seeking to identify biomarkers for MDD diagnosis and treatment have not yet found any one candidate which achieves sufficient sensitivity and specificity. In this article, we consider whether neuropsychological impairments, specifically affective biases, could provide a behavioural biomarker...
April 26, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692640/cognitive-bias-in-clinical-practice-nurturing-healthy-skepticism-among-medical-students
#8
EDITORIAL
Alysha Bhatti
Errors in clinical reasoning, known as cognitive biases, are implicated in a significant proportion of diagnostic errors. Despite this knowledge, little emphasis is currently placed on teaching cognitive psychology in the undergraduate medical curriculum. Understanding the origin of these biases and their impact on clinical decision making helps stimulate reflective practice. This article outlines some of the common types of cognitive biases encountered in the clinical setting as well as cognitive debiasing strategies...
2018: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680185/a-dual-process-perspective-on-advances-in-cognitive-science-and-alcohol-use-disorder
#9
REVIEW
Kristen P Lindgren, Christian S Hendershot, Jason J Ramirez, Edward Bernat, Mauricio Rangel-Gomez, Kirsten P Peterson, James G Murphy
There is a tremendous global and national (US) burden associated with alcohol misuse and alcohol use disorder (AUD). Further, of the mental health disorders, AUD has the widest treatment gap. Thus, there is a critical need for improved understanding of the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of AUD. The application of cognitive science to the study of AUD has a longstanding history of attempting to meet this need. In this selective review, we identified and focused on four domains of recent (i.e., in the last decade) applications of cognitive science to the study of AUD: implicit cognitive biases, executive function, behavioral economic approaches to alcohol decision making, and functional connectivity neuroimaging...
April 11, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623864/-clinical-drug-profiles-an-instrument-to-improve-shared-decision-making
#10
P J Jongen
Doctors and patients are increasingly choosing treatment options by means of the shared decision-making process. However, human decisions are subject to cognitive bias, i.e. systematic and predictable errors in probability estimation and information synthesis. Decision-making may also be hampered by incomplete information. Clinical Drug Profiles (CDPs) aim to provide up-to-date, evidence-based and independent information about drug characteristics that are relevant to doctors and patients alike in the context of shared decision-making...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593518/task-relevant-information-modulates-primary-motor-cortex-activity-before-movement-onset
#11
Cristian B Calderon, Filip Van Opstal, Philippe Peigneux, Tom Verguts, Wim Gevers
Monkey neurophysiology research supports the affordance competition hypothesis (ACH) proposing that cognitive information useful for action selection is integrated in sensorimotor areas. In this view, action selection would emerge from the simultaneous representation of competing action plans, in parallel biased by relevant task factors. This biased competition would take place up to primary motor cortex (M1). Although ACH is plausible in environments affording choices between actions, its relevance for human decision making is less clear...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589333/effect-of-response-format-on-cognitive-reflection-validating-a-two-and-four-option-multiple-choice-question-version-of-the-cognitive-reflection-test
#12
Miroslav Sirota, Marie Juanchich
The Cognitive Reflection Test, measuring intuition inhibition and cognitive reflection, has become extremely popular because it reliably predicts reasoning performance, decision-making, and beliefs. Across studies, the response format of CRT items sometimes differs, based on the assumed construct equivalence of tests with open-ended versus multiple-choice items (the equivalence hypothesis). Evidence and theoretical reasons, however, suggest that the cognitive processes measured by these response formats and their associated performances might differ (the nonequivalence hypothesis)...
March 27, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582981/predicting-outcomes-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-science-humanity-or-both
#13
Kwok M Ho
Predicting long-term outcome after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is difficult, but accurate assessment is paramount for both families of the patients and medical decision- making, as well as quality assurance or research purposes. Many important prognostic factors for patients with severe TBI have been identified, but most - if not all - including the Glasgow Coma Score and magnetic resonance imaging are not accurate enough to be used alone to predict patient outcomes. Clinicians should also be wary about how their predictions and decision-making can be affected by heuristics and cognitive biases...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582512/common-and-distinct-neural-correlates-of-self-serving-and-prosocial-dishonesty
#14
Narun Pornpattananangkul, Shanshan Zhen, Rongjun Yu
People often anticipate certain benefits when making dishonest decisions. In this article, we aim to dissociate the neural-cognitive processes of (1) dishonest decisions that focus on overall benefits of being dishonest (regardless of whether the benefits are self-serving or prosocial) from (2) those that distinguish between self-serving and prosocial benefits. Thirty-one participants had the opportunity to maximize their monetary benefits by voluntarily making dishonest decisions while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
March 26, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568021/insufficient-evidence-to-support-or-reject-effect-of-conservative-tmd-therapies-on-otologic-signs-and-symptoms
#15
Gaston Federico Coutsiers Morell
Data sourcesThe search strategy focused on publications up to May 2015 in five electronic databases: PubMed, LILACS, Scopus, Web of Science and Science Direct. Furthermore, a partial grey literature search through Google Scholar and a hand-search of the references of the included studies were also performed.Study selectionThose studies including patients with TMD associated with otologic signs and symptoms treated with conservative therapies, such as physiotherapy or cognitive behavioural therapy. These studies needed to describe whether the conservative treatments affected the associated otologic signs and symptoms...
March 23, 2018: Evidence-based Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564026/a-gaze-bias-with-coarse-spatial-indexing-during-a-gambling-task
#16
Noha Mohsen Zommara, Muneyoshi Takahashi, Kajornvut Ounjai, Johan Lauwereyns
Researchers have used eye-tracking methods to infer cognitive processes during decision making in choice tasks involving visual materials. Gaze likelihood analysis has shown a cascading effect, suggestive of a causal role for the gaze in preference formation during evaluative decision making. According to the gaze bias hypothesis, the gaze serves to build commitment gradually towards a choice. Here, we applied gaze likelihood analysis in a two-choice version of the well-known Iowa Gambling Task. This task requires active learning of the value of different choice options...
April 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499084/physical-activity-diet-and-other-behavioural-interventions-for-improving-cognition-and-school-achievement-in-children-and-adolescents-with-obesity-or-overweight
#17
REVIEW
Anne Martin, Josephine N Booth, Yvonne Laird, John Sproule, John J Reilly, David H Saunders
BACKGROUND: The global prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity is high. Lifestyle changes towards a healthy diet, increased physical activity and reduced sedentary activities are recommended to prevent and treat obesity. Evidence suggests that changing these health behaviours can benefit cognitive function and school achievement in children and adolescents in general. There are various theoretical mechanisms that suggest that children and adolescents with excessive body fat may benefit particularly from these interventions...
March 2, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487542/cognition-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-the-suicidal-patient-approach
#18
REVIEW
Antônio Geraldo da Silva, Leandro Fernandes Malloy-Diniz, Marina Saraiva Garcia, Carlos Guilherme Silva Figueiredo, Renata Nayara Figueiredo, Alexandre Paim Diaz, António Pacheco Palha
The current considerations about completed suicides and suicide attempts in different cultures call the attention of professionals to this serious public health problem. Integrative approaches have shown that the confluence of multiple biological and social factors modulate various psychopathologies and dysfunctional behaviors, such as suicidal behavior. Considering the level of intermediate analysis, personality traits and cognitive functioning are also of great importance for understanding the suicide phenomenon...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475370/content-validation-of-the-patient-reported-hamilton-inventory-for-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-validit%C3%A3-de-contenu-du-hamilton-inventory-for-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-une-mesure-des-r%C3%A3-sultats-d%C3%A3-clar%C3%A3-s-par-le-patient
#19
Tara L Packham, Joy C MacDermid, Susan L Michlovitz, Norman Buckley
BACKGROUND: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a perplexing neurological condition, and persons with CRPS experience substantial loss of daily roles and activities. A condition-specific measure is being developed to evaluate CRPS. PURPOSE: We describe the use of cognitive interviews to examine content validity of this patient-reported outcome measure for CRPS. METHOD: Interviews with 44 persons with CRPS were analyzed to identify problems with wording and support content validation...
April 2018: Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy. Revue Canadienne D'ergothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470796/peers-influence-adolescent-reward-processing-but-not-response-inhibition
#20
Ashley R Smith, Gail M Rosenbaum, Morgan A Botdorf, Laurence Steinberg, Jason M Chein
Most adolescent risk taking occurs in the presence of peers. Prior research suggests that peers alter adolescents' decision making by increasing reward sensitivity and the engagement of regions involved in the processing of rewards, primarily the striatum. However, the potential influence of peers on the capacity for impulse control, and the associated recruitment of the brain's control circuitry, has not yet been adequately examined. In the current study, adolescents underwent functional neuroimaging while they completed interleaved rounds of risk-taking and response-inhibition tasks...
April 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
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