keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Cognitive bias and decision making

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907171/correction-beyond-rational-decision-making-modelling-the-influence-of-cognitive-biases-on-the-dynamics-of-vaccination-coverage
#1
Marina Voinson, Sylvain Billiard, Alexandra Alvergne
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0142990.].
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875163/the-attraction-effect-in-information-visualization
#2
Evanthia Dimara, Anastasia Bezerianos, Pierre Dragicevic
The attraction effect is a well-studied cognitive bias in decision making research, where one's choice between two alternatives is influenced by the presence of an irrelevant (dominated) third alternative. We examine whether this cognitive bias, so far only tested with three alternatives and simple presentation formats such as numerical tables, text and pictures, also appears in visualizations. Since visualizations can be used to support decision making - e.g., when choosing a house to buy or an employee to hire - a systematic bias could have important implications...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836921/non-pharmacological-treatment-of-depression-a-systematic-review-and-evidence-map
#3
REVIEW
Wigdan H Farah, Mouaz Alsawas, Maria Mainou, Fares Alahdab, Magdoleen H Farah, Ahmed T Ahmed, Essa A Mohamed, Jehad Almasri, Michael R Gionfriddo, Ana Castaneda-Guarderas, Khaled Mohammed, Zhen Wang, Noor Asi, Craig N Sawchuk, Mark D Williams, Larry J Prokop, M Hassan Murad, Annie LeBlanc
BACKGROUND: The comparative effectiveness of non-pharmacological treatments of depression remains unclear. METHODS: We conducted an overview of systematic reviews to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the efficacy and adverse effects of non-pharmacological treatments of depression. We searched multiple electronic databases through February 2016 without language restrictions. Pairs of reviewers determined eligibility, extracted data and assessed risk of bias...
November 11, 2016: Evidence-based Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832071/approach-induced-biases-in-human-information-sampling
#4
Laurence T Hunt, Robb B Rutledge, W M Nishantha Malalasekera, Steven W Kennerley, Raymond J Dolan
Information sampling is often biased towards seeking evidence that confirms one's prior beliefs. Despite such biases being a pervasive feature of human behavior, their underlying causes remain unclear. Many accounts of these biases appeal to limitations of human hypothesis testing and cognition, de facto evoking notions of bounded rationality, but neglect more basic aspects of behavioral control. Here, we investigated a potential role for Pavlovian approach in biasing which information humans will choose to sample...
November 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830753/lucky-rhythms-in-orbitofrontal-cortex-bias-gambling-decisions-in-humans
#5
Pierre Sacré, Matthew S D Kerr, Kevin Kahn, Jorge Gonzalez-Martinez, Juan Bulacio, Hyun-Joo Park, Matthew A Johnson, Susan Thompson, Jaes Jones, Vikram S Chib, John T Gale, Sridevi V Sarma
It is well established that emotions influence our decisions, yet the neural basis of this biasing effect is not well understood. Here we directly recorded local field potentials from the OrbitoFrontal Cortex (OFC) in five human subjects performing a financial decision-making task. We observed a striking increase in gamma-band (36-50 Hz) oscillatory activity that reflected subjects' decisions to make riskier choices. Additionally, these gamma rhythms were linked back to mismatched expectations or "luck" occurring in past trials...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829041/cognitive-bias-in-ambiguity-judgements-using-computational-models-to-dissect-the-effects-of-mild-mood-manipulation-in-humans
#6
Kiyohito Iigaya, Aurelie Jolivald, Wittawat Jitkrittum, Iain D Gilchrist, Peter Dayan, Elizabeth Paul, Michael Mendl
Positive and negative moods can be treated as prior expectations over future delivery of rewards and punishments. This provides an inferential foundation for the cognitive (judgement) bias task, now widely-used for assessing affective states in non-human animals. In the task, information about affect is extracted from the optimistic or pessimistic manner in which participants resolve ambiguities in sensory input. Here, we report a novel variant of the task aimed at dissecting the effects of affect manipulations on perceptual and value computations for decision-making under ambiguity in humans...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820975/rigid-patterns-of-effortful-choice-behavior-after-acute-stress-in-rats
#7
Evan E Hart, Alexandra Stolyarova, Michael A Conoscenti, Thomas R Minor, Alicia Izquierdo
Physical effort is a common cost of acquiring rewards, and decreased effort is a feature of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Stress affects performance on several tests of cognition and decision-making in both humans and nonhumans. Only a few recent reports show impairing effects of stress in operant tasks involving effort and cognitive flexibility. Brain regions affected by stress such as the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala are also implicated in mediating effortful choices. Here we assessed effort-based decision-making after an acute stress procedure known to induce persistent impairment in shuttle escape and elevated plasma corticosterone...
November 8, 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790170/cognitive-abilities-monitoring-confidence-and-control-thresholds-explain-individual-differences-in-heuristics-and-biases
#8
Simon A Jackson, Sabina Kleitman, Pauline Howie, Lazar Stankov
In this paper, we investigate whether individual differences in performance on heuristic and biases tasks can be explained by cognitive abilities, monitoring confidence, and control thresholds. Current theories explain individual differences in these tasks by the ability to detect errors and override automatic but biased judgments, and deliberative cognitive abilities that help to construct the correct response. Here we retain cognitive abilities but disentangle error detection, proposing that lower monitoring confidence and higher control thresholds promote error checking...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778303/will-the-conscious-subconscious-pacing-quagmire-help-elucidate-the-mechanisms-of-self-paced-exercise-new-opportunities-in-dual-process-theory-and-process-tracing-methods
#9
Dominic Micklewright, Sue Kegerreis, John Raglin, Florentina Hettinga
The extent to which athletic pacing decisions are made consciously or subconsciously is a prevailing issue. In this article we discuss why the one-dimensional conscious-subconscious debate that has reigned in the pacing literature has suppressed our understanding of the multidimensional processes that occur in pacing decisions. How do we make our decisions in real-life competitive situations? What information do we use and how do we respond to opponents? These are questions that need to be explored and better understood, using smartly designed experiments...
October 25, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749166/the-ethics-of-organ-donor-registration-policies-nudges-and-respect-for-autonomy
#10
Douglas MacKay, Alexandra Robinson
Governments must determine the legal procedures by which their residents are registered, or can register, as organ donors. Provided that governments recognize that people have a right to determine what happens to their organs after they die, there are four feasible options to choose from: opt-in, opt-out, mandated active choice, and voluntary active choice. We investigate the ethics of these policies' use of nudges to affect organ donor registration rates. We argue that the use of nudges in this context is morally problematic...
November 2016: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713710/cognitive-reflection-decision-biases-and-response-times
#11
Carlos Alós-Ferrer, Michele Garagnani, Sabine Hügelschäfer
We present novel evidence on response times and personality traits in standard questions from the decision-making literature where responses are relatively slow (medians around half a minute or above). To this end, we measured response times in a number of incentivized, framed items (decisions from description) including the Cognitive Reflection Test, two additional questions following the same logic, and a number of classic questions used to study decision biases in probability judgments (base-rate neglect, the conjunction fallacy, and the ratio bias)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709981/deontological-coherence-a-framework-for-commonsense-moral-reasoning
#12
Keith J Holyoak, Derek Powell
We review a broad range of work, primarily in cognitive and social psychology, that provides insight into the processes of moral judgment. In particular, we consider research on pragmatic reasoning about regulations and on coherence in decision making, both areas in which psychological theories have been guided by work in legal philosophy. Armed with these essential prerequisites, we sketch a psychological framework for how ordinary people make judgments about moral issues. Based on a literature review, we show how the framework of deontological coherence unifies findings in moral psychology that have often been explained in terms of a grab-bag of heuristics and biases...
October 6, 2016: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708591/cognitive-dysfunction-affective-states-and-vulnerability-to-nicotine-addiction-a-multifactorial-perspective
#13
Morgane Besson, Benoît Forget
Although smoking prevalence has declined in recent years, certain subpopulations continue to smoke at disproportionately high rates and show resistance to cessation treatments. Individuals showing cognitive and affective impairments, including emotional distress and deficits in attention, memory, and inhibitory control, particularly in the context of psychiatric conditions, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, and mood disorders, are at higher risk for tobacco addiction. Nicotine has been shown to improve cognitive and emotional processing in some conditions, including during tobacco abstinence...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695479/global-environmental-change-local-perceptions-understandings-and-explanations
#14
Aili Pyhälä, Álvaro Fernández-Llamazares, Hertta Lehvävirta, Anja Byg, Isabel Ruiz-Mallén, Matthieu Salpeteur, Thomas F Thornton
Global environmental change (GEC) is an increasingly discussed phenomenon in the scientific literature as evidence of its presence and impacts continues to grow. Yet, while the documentation of GEC is becoming more readily available, local perceptions of GEC- particularly in small-scale societies-and preferences about how to deal with it, are still largely overlooked. Local knowledge and perceptions of GEC are important in that agents make decisions (including on natural resource management) based on individual perceptions...
September 2016: Ecology and Society: a Journal of Integrative Science for Resilience and Sustainability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694289/preparing-dental-students-and-residents-to-overcome-internal-and-external-barriers-to-evidence-based-practice
#15
Brandon G Coleman, Thomas M Johnson, Kenneth J Erley, Richard Topolski, Michael Rethman, Douglas D Lancaster
In recent years, evidence-based dentistry has become the ideal for research, academia, and clinical practice. However, barriers to implementation are many, including the complexity of interpreting conflicting evidence as well as difficulties in accessing it. Furthermore, many proponents of evidence-based care seem to assume that good evidence consistently exists and that clinicians can and will objectively evaluate data so as to apply the best evidence to individual patients' needs. The authors argue that these shortcomings may mislead many clinicians and that students should be adequately prepared to cope with some of the more complex issues surrounding evidence-based practice...
October 2016: Journal of Dental Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688007/individual-differences-in-exploratory-activity-relate-to-cognitive-judgement-bias-in-carpenter-ants
#16
Patrizia d'Ettorre, Claudio Carere, Lara Demora, Pauline Le Quinquis, Lisa Signorotti, Dalila Bovet
Emotional state may influence cognitive processes such as attention and decision-making. A cognitive judgement bias is the propensity to anticipate either positive or negative consequences in response to ambiguous information. Recent work, mainly on vertebrates, showed that the response to ambiguous stimuli might change depending on an individual's affective state, which is influenced by e.g. the social and physical environment. However, the response to ambiguous stimuli could also be affected by the individual's behavioural type (personality), a question that has been under-investigated...
September 27, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685771/effects-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-non-veridical-decision-making
#17
Jaan Tulviste, Elkhonon Goldberg, Kenneth Podell, Talis Bachmann
We test the emerging hypothesis that prefrontal cortical mechanisms involved in non-veridical decision making do not overlap with those of veridical decision making. Healthy female subjects performed an experimental task assessing free choice, agent-centered decision making (The Cognitive Bias Task) and a veridical control task related to visuospatial working memory (the Moving Spot Task). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied to the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) using 1 Hz and 10 Hz (intermittent) rTMS and sham protocols...
2016: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679585/model-complexity-in-diffusion-modeling-benefits-of-making-the-model-more-parsimonious
#18
Veronika Lerche, Andreas Voss
The diffusion model (Ratcliff, 1978) takes into account the reaction time distributions of both correct and erroneous responses from binary decision tasks. This high degree of information usage allows the estimation of different parameters mapping cognitive components such as speed of information accumulation or decision bias. For three of the four main parameters (drift rate, starting point, and non-decision time) trial-to-trial variability is allowed. We investigated the influence of these variability parameters both drawing on simulation studies and on data from an empirical test-retest study using different optimization criteria and different trial numbers...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677325/response-to-cognitive-impulsivity-and-the-behavioral-addiction-model-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-abramovitch-and-mckay-2016
#19
Giacomo Grassi, Martjin Figee, Paolo Stratta, Alessandro Rossi, Stefano Pallanti
In our recently published article, we investigated the behavioral addiction model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), by assessing three core dimensions of addiction in patients with OCD healthy participants. Similar to the common findings in addiction, OCD patients demonstrated increased impulsivity, risky decision-making, and biased probabilistic reasoning compared to healthy controls. Thus, we concluded that these results support the conceptualization of OCD as a disorder of behavioral addiction. Here, we answer to Abramovitch and McKay (2016) commentary on our paper and we support our conclusions by explaining how cognitive impulsivity is also a typical feature of addiction and how our results on decision-making and probabilistic reasoning tasks reflect cognitive impulsivity facets that are consistently replicated in OCD and addiction...
September 2016: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660073/affective-biases-in-humans-and-animals
#20
E S J Robinson, J P Roiser
Depression is one of the most common but poorly understood psychiatric conditions. Although drug treatments and psychological therapies are effective in some patients, many do not achieve full remission and some patients receive no apparent benefit. Developing new improved treatments requires a better understanding of the aetiology of symptoms and evaluation of novel therapeutic targets in pre-clinical studies. Recent developments in our understanding of the basic cognitive processes that may contribute to the development of depression and its treatment offer new opportunities for both clinical and pre-clinical research...
2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
keyword
keyword
58960
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"