keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Cognitive bias and decision making

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330163/affective-stimuli-in-behavioural-interventions-soliciting-for-health-check-up-services-and-the-service-users-socioeconomic-statuses-a-study-at-japanese-pachinko-parlours
#1
Naoki Kondo, Yoshiki Ishikawa
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomically vulnerable people are likely to have more health risks because of inadequate behaviour choices related to chronic social stresses. Brain science suggests that stress causes cognitively biased automatic decision making, preferring instant stress relief and pleasure (eg, smoking, alcohol use and drug abuse) as opposed to reflectively seeking health-maintenance services (eg, health check-ups). As such, hedonic stimuli that nudge people towards preventive actions could reduce health behaviour disparities...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330008/electrophysiological-brain-indices-of-risk-behavior-modification-induced-by-contingent-feedback
#2
Alberto Megías, Miguel Angel Torres, Andrés Catena, Antonio Cándido, Antonio Maldonado
The main aim of this research was to study the effects of response feedback on risk behavior and the neural and cognitive mechanisms involved, as a function of the feedback contingency. Sixty drivers were randomly assigned to one of three feedback groups: contingent, non-contingent and no feedback. The participants' task consisted of braking or not when confronted with a set of risky driving situations, while their electroencephalographic activity was continuously recorded. We observed that contingent feedback, as opposed to non-contingent feedback, promoted changes in the response bias towards safer decisions...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244207/information-about-expert-decision-and-post-decision-distortion-of-facts-of-own-decision
#3
Ola Svenson, Nichel Gonzalez, Amina Memon, Torun Lindholm
Cognitive representations of decision problems are dynamic. During and after a decision, evaluations and representations of facts change to support the decision made by a decision maker her- or himself (Svenson, 2003). We investigated post-decision distortion of facts (consolidation). Participants were given vignettes with facts about two terminally ill patients, only one of whom could be given lifesaving surgery. In Study 1, contrary to the prediction, the results showed that facts were distorted after a decision both by participants who were responsible for the decisions themselves and when doctors had made the decision...
December 15, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216478/reach-and-grasp-deficits-following-damage-to-the-dorsal-pulvinar
#4
Melanie Wilke, Lukas Schneider, Adan-Ulises Dominguez-Vargas, Carsten Schmidt-Samoa, Kristina Miloserdov, Ahmad Nazzal, Peter Dechent, Yuranny Cabral-Calderin, Hansjörg Scherberger, Igor Kagan, Mathias Bähr
Expansion of the dorsal pulvinar in humans and its anatomical connectivity suggests its involvement in higher-order cognitive and visuomotor functions. We investigated visuomotor performance in a 31 year old patient (M.B.) with a lesion centered on the medial portion of the dorsal pulvinar (left > right) due to an atypical Sarcoidosis manifestation. Unlike lesions with a vascular etiology, the lesion of M.B. did not include primary sensory or motor thalamic nuclei. Thus, this patient gave us the exceedingly rare opportunity to study the contribution of the dorsal pulvinar to visuomotor behavior in a human without confounding losses in primary sensory or motor domains...
November 8, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214091/keeping-an-open-mind-cognitive-bias-in-the-evaluation-of-an-infant-with-posterior-lateral-rib-fractures
#5
Katie Johnson, Donald Chris Derauf, Raymond Stetson, Paul Galardy, Jason Homme
A four-month-old former premature male is incidentally found to have posterior-lateral rib fractures during evaluation of a febrile illness. This finding led to the initiation of a workup for nonaccidental trauma. A thorough history and physical exam ultimately led to the diagnosis, which was not related to abuse. This case highlights a rare sequela of patent ductus arteriosus repair, cautions medical teams to remain aware of how cognitive bias can affect diagnostic decision-making, and emphasizes the importance of a thorough history, physical exam, and medical record review in cases of suspected nonaccidental trauma...
2017: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194009/bias-in-radiology-the-how-and-why-of-misses-and-misinterpretations
#6
Lindsay P Busby, Jesse L Courtier, Christine M Glastonbury
Medical errors are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the medical field and are substantial contributors to medical costs. Radiologists play an integral role in the diagnosis and care of patients and, given that those in this field interpret millions of examinations annually, may therefore contribute to diagnostic errors. Errors can be categorized as a "miss" when a primary or critical finding is not observed or as a "misinterpretation" when errors in interpretation lead to an incorrect diagnosis...
December 1, 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193776/bayesian-statistical-approaches-to-evaluating-cognitive-models
#7
REVIEW
Jeffrey Annis, Thomas J Palmeri
Cognitive models aim to explain complex human behavior in terms of hypothesized mechanisms of the mind. These mechanisms can be formalized in terms of mathematical structures containing parameters that are theoretically meaningful. For example, in the case of perceptual decision making, model parameters might correspond to theoretical constructs like response bias, evidence quality, response caution, and the like. Formal cognitive models go beyond verbal models in that cognitive mechanisms are instantiated in terms of mathematics and they go beyond statistical models in that cognitive model parameters are psychologically interpretable...
November 28, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176612/biased-and-unbiased-perceptual-decision-making-on-vocal-emotions
#8
Mihai Dricu, Leonardo Ceravolo, Didier Grandjean, Sascha Frühholz
Perceptual decision-making on emotions involves gathering sensory information about the affective state of another person and forming a decision on the likelihood of a particular state. These perceptual decisions can be of varying complexity as determined by different contexts. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a region of interest approach to investigate the brain activation and functional connectivity behind two forms of perceptual decision-making. More complex unbiased decisions on affective voices recruited an extended bilateral network consisting of the posterior inferior frontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex, the amygdala, and voice-sensitive areas in the auditory cortex...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173462/what-should-a-forensic-practitioner-s-likelihood-ratio-be-ii
#9
Geoffrey Stewart Morrison
In the debate as to whether forensic practitioners should assess and report the precision of the strength of evidence statements that they report to the courts, I remain unconvinced by proponents of the position that only a subjectivist concept of probability is legitimate. I consider this position counterproductive for the goal of having forensic practitioners implement, and courts not only accept but demand, logically correct and scientifically valid evaluation of forensic evidence. In considering what would be the best approach for evaluating strength of evidence, I suggest that the desiderata be (1) to maximise empirically demonstrable performance; (2) to maximise objectivity in the sense of maximising transparency and replicability, and minimising the potential for cognitive bias; and (3) to constrain and make overt the forensic practitioner's subjective-judgement based decisions so that the appropriateness of those decisions can be debated before the judge in an admissibility hearing and/or before the trier of fact at trial...
November 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173454/strengthening-forensic-dna-decision-making-through-a-better-understanding-of-the-influence-of-cognitive-bias
#10
Amy M Jeanguenat, Bruce Budowle, Itiel E Dror
Cognitive bias may influence process flows and decision making steps in forensic DNA analyses and interpretation. Currently, seven sources of bias have been identified that may affect forensic decision making with roots in human nature; environment, culture, and experience; and case specific information. Most of the literature and research on cognitive bias in forensic science has focused on patterned evidence; however, forensic DNA testing is not immune to bias, especially when subjective interpretation is involved...
November 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168290/gating-the-holes-in-the-swiss-cheese-part-i-expanding-professor-reason-s-model-for-patient-safety
#11
Shashi S Seshia, G Bryan Young, Michael Makhinson, Preston A Smith, Kent Stobart, Pat Croskerry
INTRODUCTION: Although patient safety has improved steadily, harm remains a substantial global challenge. Additionally, safety needs to be ensured not only in hospitals but also across the continuum of care. Better understanding of the complex cognitive factors influencing health care-related decisions and organizational cultures could lead to more rational approaches, and thereby to further improvement. HYPOTHESIS: A model integrating the concepts underlying Reason's Swiss cheese theory and the cognitive-affective biases plus cascade could advance the understanding of cognitive-affective processes that underlie decisions and organizational cultures across the continuum of care...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167430/short-term-reward-experience-biases-inference-despite-dissociable-neural-correlates
#12
Adrian G Fischer, Sacha Bourgeois-Gironde, Markus Ullsperger
Optimal decision-making employs short-term rewards and abstract long-term information based on which of these is deemed relevant. Employing short- vs. long-term information is associated with different learning mechanisms, yet neural evidence showing that these two are dissociable is lacking. Here we demonstrate that long-term, inference-based beliefs are biased by short-term reward experiences and that dissociable brain regions facilitate both types of learning. Long-term inferences are associated with dorsal striatal and frontopolar cortex activity, while short-term rewards engage the ventral striatum...
November 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166652/do-patients-faces-influence-general-practitioners-cancer-suspicions-a-test-of-automatic-processing-of-sociodemographic-information
#13
Rosalind Adam, Roberta Garau, Edwin Amalraj Raja, Benedict Jones, Marie Johnston, Peter Murchie
BACKGROUND: Delayed cancer diagnosis leads to poorer patient outcomes. During short consultations, General Practitioners (GPs) make quick decisions about likelihood of cancer. Patients' facial cues are processed rapidly and may influence diagnosis. AIM: To investigate whether patients' facial characteristics influence immediate perception of cancer risk by GPs. DESIGN AND SETTING: Web-based binary forced choice experiment with GPs from Northeast Scotland...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154614/unrealistic-optimism-in-advice-taking-a-computational-account
#14
Yuan Chang Leong, Jamil Zaki
Expert advisors often make surprisingly inaccurate predictions about the future, yet people heed their suggestions nonetheless. Here we provide a novel, computational account of this unrealistic optimism in advice taking. Across 3 studies, participants observed as advisors predicted the performance of a stock. Advisors varied in their accuracy, performing reliably above, at, or below chance. Despite repeated feedback, participants exhibited inflated perceptions of advisors' accuracy, and reliably "bet" on advisors' predictions more than their performance warranted...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154203/unbending-mind-individuals-with-hoarding-disorder-do-not-modify-decision-strategy-in-response-to-feedback-under-risk
#15
Helen Pushkarskaya, David F Tolin, Daniel Henick, Ifat Levy, Christopher Pittenger
Cognitive-behavioral models of hoarding disorder emphasize impairments in information processing and decision making in the genesis of hoarding symptomology. We propose and test the novel hypothesis that individuals with hoarding are maladaptively biased towards a deliberative decision style. While deliberative strategies are often considered normative, they are not always adaptable to the limitations imposed by many real-world decision contexts. We examined decision-making patterns in 19 individuals with hoarding and 19 healthy controls, using a behavioral task that quantifies selection of decision strategies in a novel environment with known probabilities (risk) in response to feedback...
November 2, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119582/emotions-and-assessment-considerations-for-rater-based-judgements-of-entrustment
#16
Carlos Gomez-Garibello, Meredith Young
CONTEXT: Assessment is subject to increasing scrutiny as medical education transitions towards a competency-based medical education (CBME) model. Traditional perspectives on the roles of assessment emphasise high-stakes, summative assessment, whereas CBME argues for formative assessment. Revisiting conceptualisations about the roles and formats of assessment in medical education provides opportunities to examine understandings and expectations of the assessment of learners. The act of the rater generating scores might be considered as an exclusively cognitive exercise; however, current literature has drawn attention to the notion of raters as measurement instruments, thereby attributing additional factors to their decision-making processes, such as social considerations and intuition...
November 9, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118108/network-configurations-in-the-human-brain-reflect-choice-bias-during-rapid-face-processing
#17
Tao Tu, Noam Schneck, Jordan Muraskin, Paul Sajda
Network interactions are likely to be instrumental in processes underlying rapid perception and cognition. Specifically, high-level and perceptual regions must interact to balance pre-existing models of the environment with new incoming stimuli. Simultaneous EEG/fMRI allows for the temporal characterization of brain-network interactions combined with improved anatomical localization of regional activity. In this paper we use simultaneous EEG/fMRI and multivariate dynamical systems (MDS) analysis to characterize network relationships between constitute brain areas that reflect a subject's choice for a face versus non-face categorization task...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110668/measuring-the-bias-against-low-income-country-research-an-implicit-association-test
#18
Matthew Harris, James Macinko, Geronimo Jimenez, Pricila Mullachery
BACKGROUND: With an increasing array of innovations and research emerging from low-income countries there is a growing recognition that even high-income countries could learn from these contexts. It is well known that the source of a product influences perception of that product, but little research has examined whether this applies also in evidence-based medicine and decision-making. In order to examine likely barriers to learning from low-income countries, this study uses established methods in cognitive psychology to explore whether healthcare professionals and researchers implicitly associate good research with rich countries more so than with poor countries...
November 6, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103404/the-cerad-neuropsychological-assessment-battery-is-sensitive-to-alcohol-related-cognitive-deficiencies-in-elderly-patients-a-retrospective-matched-case-control-study
#19
Liane Kaufmann, Stefan Huber, Daniel Mayer, Korbinian Moeller, Josef Marksteiner
OBJECTIVES: Adverse effects of heavy drinking on cognition have frequently been reported. In the present study, we systematically examined for the first time whether clinical neuropsychological assessments may be sensitive to alcohol abuse in elderly patients with suspected minor neurocognitive disorder. METHODS: A total of 144 elderly with and without alcohol abuse (each group n=72; mean age 66.7 years) were selected from a patient pool of n=738 by applying propensity score matching (a statistical method allowing to match participants in experimental and control group by balancing various covariates to reduce selection bias)...
November 6, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101728/understanding-social-decision-making-from-another-species-perspective
#20
Sarah F Brosnan
One challenge of studying cognition and behavior in other species is designing studies that are intuitive and motivating to the subjects; studies that lack these features may result in false negatives and other outcomes that bias our understanding of animals' abilities and choices. Here, Schmelz, Grueneisen, Kabalak, Jost, and Tomasello (PNAS, 114(28), 7462-7467, 2017) investigated prosocial behavior, in which animals may make decisions that benefit a conspecific, and found that, contrary to much earlier work, when chimpanzees are given a reason to do so, they do make prosocial choices...
November 3, 2017: Learning & Behavior
keyword
keyword
58960
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"