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Cognitive bias and decision making

Anne Martin, Josephine N Booth, Yvonne Laird, John Sproule, John J Reilly, David H Saunders
BACKGROUND: The global prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity is high. Lifestyle changes towards a healthy diet, increased physical activity and reduced sedentary activities are recommended to prevent and treat obesity. Evidence suggests that changing these health behaviours can benefit cognitive function and school achievement in children and adolescents in general. There are various theoretical mechanisms that suggest that children and adolescents with excessive body fat may benefit particularly from these interventions...
March 2, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Antônio Geraldo da Silva, Leandro Fernandes Malloy-Diniz, Marina Saraiva Garcia, Carlos Guilherme Silva Figueiredo, Renata Nayara Figueiredo, Alexandre Paim Diaz, António Pacheco Palha
The current considerations about completed suicides and suicide attempts in different cultures call the attention of professionals to this serious public health problem. Integrative approaches have shown that the confluence of multiple biological and social factors modulate various psychopathologies and dysfunctional behaviors, such as suicidal behavior. Considering the level of intermediate analysis, personality traits and cognitive functioning are also of great importance for understanding the suicide phenomenon...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Tara L Packham, Joy C MacDermid, Susan L Michlovitz, Norman Buckley
BACKGROUND: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a perplexing neurological condition, and persons with CRPS experience substantial loss of daily roles and activities. A condition-specific measure is being developed to evaluate CRPS. PURPOSE: We describe the use of cognitive interviews to examine content validity of this patient-reported outcome measure for CRPS. METHOD: Interviews with 44 persons with CRPS were analyzed to identify problems with wording and support content validation...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy. Revue Canadienne D'ergothérapie
Ashley R Smith, Gail M Rosenbaum, Morgan A Botdorf, Laurence Steinberg, Jason M Chein
Most adolescent risk taking occurs in the presence of peers. Prior research suggests that peers alter adolescents' decision making by increasing reward sensitivity and the engagement of regions involved in the processing of rewards, primarily the striatum. However, the potential influence of peers on the capacity for impulse control, and the associated recruitment of the brain's control circuitry, has not yet been adequately examined. In the current study, adolescents underwent functional neuroimaging while they completed interleaved rounds of risk-taking and response-inhibition tasks...
February 22, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
W Miles Cox, Eric Klinger, Javad Salehi Fadardi
Certain people are at risk for using alcohol or other drugs excessively and for developing problems with their use. Their susceptibility might arise from a variety of factors, including their genetic make-up, brain chemistry, family background, personality and other psychological variables, and environmental and sociocultural variables. Moreover, after substance use has become established, there are additional cognitive-motivational variables (e.g., substance-related attentional bias) that contribute to enacting behaviors consistent with the person's motivation to acquire and use the substance...
June 2017: Addictive Behaviors Reports
Mathias Schlögl, Daniel Hofmänner, Robert Manka, Dagmar I Keller
We present a case of an 80-year-old Turkish female patient with diabetes who suffered an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and underwent percutaneous coronary balloon angioplasty (PTCA)/stenting. Due to new ischaemic episodes, a second PTCA/stenting had to be preformed 6 days later, which revealed a partial restent thrombosis. This case report raises several important issues. First, language problems are an important barrier for safety and quality in healthcare. Second, gender, ethnicity and age differences in patients with AMI need to be considered in order to eliminate inequities in clinical practice...
February 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Thomas Noe, Nir Vulkan
We provide evidence that a personality trait, aggression, has a first-order effect on group financial decision making. In a laboratory experiment on group portfolio choice, highly aggressive subjects (measured by a standard psychology test) were much more likely to recommend risky investment strategies consistent with their own personal information, regardless of the information received by other group members. Outside of this group context, aggression had no effect on subject behavior. Thus, our aggression measure appears to capture an aggressive disposition, which seeks to dominate group decisions, rather than simply reflect risk attitudes or cognitive biases...
2018: PloS One
Stefan Scherbaum, Simon Frisch, Maja Dshemuchadse
Folk wisdom tells us that additional time to make a decision helps us to refrain from the first impulse to take the bird in the hand. However, the question why the time to decide plays an important role is still unanswered. Here we distinguish two explanations, one based on a bias in value accumulation that has to be overcome with time, the other based on cognitive control processes that need time to set in. In an intertemporal decision task, we use mouse tracking to study participants' responses to options' values and delays which were presented sequentially...
January 2018: Experimental Psychology
Antonella Marchetti, Francesca Baglio, Ilaria Castelli, Ludovica Griffanti, Raffaello Nemni, Federica Rossetto, Annalisa Valle, Michela Zanette, Davide Massaro
During adolescence and early adulthood, individuals deal with important developmental changes, especially in the context of complex social interactions. Previous studies demonstrated that those changes have a significant impact on the social decision making process, in terms of a progressive increase of intentionality comprehension of others, of the sensitivity to fairness, and of the impermeability to decisional biases. However, neither adolescents nor adults reach the ideal level of maximization and of rationality of the homo economicus proposed by classical economics theory, thus remaining more close to the model of the "bounded rationality" proposed by cognitive psychology...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Raúl A Borracci, Eduardo B Arribalzaga
BACKGROUND: Overconfidence is the tendency to overestimate the knowledge, capacity, or performance one really possesses. This cognitive bias could be potentially dangerous in medical decision-making, considering the impact it could have on patient health care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of overconfidence and underconfidence in medical student knowledge on general surgery by using traditional and new statistical approaches. METHODS: During the application of a multiple-choice examination, 251 next-to-graduate medical students were invited to express the accuracy of their responses by choosing their own perceived confidence level for a set of questions...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
B Rohaut, J Claassen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Song Qi, Owen Footer, Colin Camerer, Dean Mobbs
Informational social influence theory posits that under conditions of uncertainty, we are inclined to look to others for advice. This leaves us remarkably vulnerable to being influenced by other's opinions or advice. Rational agents, however, do not blindly seek and act on arbitrary information, but often consider the quality of its source before committing to a course of action. Here, we ask the question of whether a collaborator's reputation can increase their social influence and, in turn bias perception and anxiety under changing levels of uncertainty...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Anne Martin, Josephine N Booth, Yvonne Laird, John Sproule, John J Reilly, David H Saunders
BACKGROUND: The global prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity is high. Lifestyle changes towards a healthy diet, increased physical activity and reduced sedentary activities are recommended to prevent and treat obesity. Evidence suggests that changing these health behaviours can benefit cognitive function and school achievement in children and adolescents in general. There are various theoretical mechanisms that suggest that children and adolescents with excessive body fat may benefit particularly from these interventions...
January 29, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Adnan Sharif, Greg Moorlock
Refusing consent to organ donation remains unacceptably high, and improving consent rates from family or next-of-kin is an important step to procuring more organs for solid organ transplantation in countries where this approval is sought. We have thus far failed to translate fully our limited understanding of why families refuse permission into successful strategies targeting consent in the setting of deceased organ donation, primarily because our interventions fail to target underlying cognitive obstacles...
January 25, 2018: Bioethics
Alexis R Neigel, Victoria L Claypoole, Gabriella M Hancock, Nicholas W Fraulini, James L Szalma
Vigilance, or the ability to sustain attention for extended periods of time, has traditionally been examined using a myriad of symbolic, cognitive, and sensory tasks. However, the current literature indicates a relative lack of empirical investigation on vigilance performance involving lexical processing. To address this gap in the literature, the present study examined the effect of stimulus meaning on vigilance performance (i.e., lure effects). A sample of 126 observers completed a 12-min lexical vigilance task in a research laboratory...
January 22, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
David J Spindler, Mark S Allen, Stewart A Vella, Christian Swann
This systematic review sought to synthesise what is currently known about the psychology of elite cycling. Nine electronic databases were searched in March 2017 for studies reporting an empirical test of any psychological construct in an elite cycling sample. Fourteen studies (total n = 427) met inclusion criteria. Eight studies were coded as having high risk of bias. Themes extracted included mood, anxiety, self-confidence, pain, and cognitive function. Few studies had similar objectives meaning that in many instances findings could not be synthesised in a meaningful way...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Saty Satya-Murti, Joseph J Lockhart
Previously, we reviewed how general cognitive processes might be susceptible to bias across both forensic and clinical fields, and how interdisciplinary comparisons could reduce error. We discuss several examples of clinical tasks which are heavily dependent on visual processing, comparing them to eyewitness identification (EI). We review the "constructive" nature of visual processing, and how contextual factors influence both medical experts and witnesses in decision making and recall. Overall, studies suggest common cognitive factors uniting these visual tasks, in both their strengths and shortcomings...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Naoki Kondo, Yoshiki Ishikawa
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomically vulnerable people are likely to have more health risks because of inadequate behaviour choices related to chronic social stresses. Brain science suggests that stress causes cognitively biased automatic decision making, preferring instant stress relief and pleasure (eg, smoking, alcohol use and drug abuse) as opposed to reflectively seeking health-maintenance services (eg, health check-ups). As such, hedonic stimuli that nudge people towards preventive actions could reduce health behaviour disparities...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Alberto Megías, Miguel Angel Torres, Andrés Catena, Antonio Cándido, Antonio Maldonado
The main aim of this research was to study the effects of response feedback on risk behavior and the neural and cognitive mechanisms involved, as a function of the feedback contingency. Sixty drivers were randomly assigned to one of three feedback groups: contingent, non-contingent and no feedback. The participants' task consisted of braking or not when confronted with a set of risky driving situations, while their electroencephalographic activity was continuously recorded. We observed that contingent feedback, as opposed to non-contingent feedback, promoted changes in the response bias towards safer decisions...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Ola Svenson, Nichel Gonzalez, Amina Memon, Torun Lindholm
Cognitive representations of decision problems are dynamic. During and after a decision, evaluations and representations of facts change to support the decision made by a decision maker her- or himself (Svenson, 2003). We investigated post-decision distortion of facts (consolidation). Participants were given vignettes with facts about two terminally ill patients, only one of whom could be given lifesaving surgery. In Study 1, contrary to the prediction, the results showed that facts were distorted after a decision both by participants who were responsible for the decisions themselves and when doctors had made the decision...
December 15, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
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