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Cognitive bias and decision making

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197896/algebraic-reasoning-and-bat-and-ball-problem-variants-solving-isomorphic-algebra-first-facilitates-problem-solving-later
#1
Jerome D Hoover, Alice F Healy
The classic bat-and-ball problem is used widely to measure biased and correct reasoning in decision-making. University students overwhelmingly tend to provide the biased answer to this problem. To what extent might reasoners be led to modify their judgement, and, more specifically, is it possible to facilitate problem solution by prompting participants to consider the problem from an algebraic perspective? One hundred ninety-seven participants were recruited to investigate the effect of algebraic cueing as a debiasing strategy on variants of the bat-and-ball problem...
February 14, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192674/designing-visual-aids-that-promote-risk-literacy
#2
Rocio Garcia-Retamero, Edward T Cokely
Background Effective risk communication is essential for informed decision making. Unfortunately, many people struggle to understand typical risk communications because they lack essential decision-making skills. Objective The aim of this study was to review the literature on the effect of numeracy on risk literacy, decision making, and health outcomes, and to evaluate the benefits of visual aids in risk communication. Method We present a conceptual framework describing the influence of numeracy on risk literacy, decision making, and health outcomes, followed by a systematic review of the benefits of visual aids in risk communication for people with different levels of numeracy and graph literacy...
February 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162778/neural-mechanisms-of-mood-induced-modulation-of-reality-monitoring-in-schizophrenia
#3
Karuna Subramaniam, Kamalini G Ranasinghe, Daniel Mathalon, Srikantan Nagarajan, Sophia Vinogradov
Reality monitoring is the ability to accurately distinguish the source of self-generated information from externally-presented information. Although people with schizophrenia (SZ) show impaired reality monitoring, nothing is known about how mood state influences this higher-order cognitive process. Accordingly, we induced positive, neutral and negative mood states to test how different mood states modulate subsequent reality monitoring performance. Our findings indicate that mood affected reality monitoring performance in HC and SZ participants in both similar and dissociable ways...
January 12, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151976/transient-emotional-events-and-individual-affective-traits-affect-emotion-recognition-in-a-perceptual-decision-making-task
#4
Emilie Qiao-Tasserit, Maria Garcia Quesada, Lia Antico, Daphne Bavelier, Patrik Vuilleumier, Swann Pichon
Both affective states and personality traits shape how we perceive the social world and interpret emotions. The literature on affective priming has mostly focused on brief influences of emotional stimuli and emotional states on perceptual and cognitive processes. Yet this approach does not fully capture more dynamic processes at the root of emotional states, with such states lingering beyond the duration of the inducing external stimuli. Our goal was to put in perspective three different types of affective states (induced affective states, more sustained mood states and affective traits such as depression and anxiety) and investigate how they may interact and influence emotion perception...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148556/cognitive-testing-in-patients-with-ckd-the-problem-of-missing-cases
#5
Denise Neumann, Maxi Robinski, Wilfried Mau, Matthias Girndt
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive testing is only valid in individuals with sufficient visual and motor skills and motivation to participate. Patients on dialysis usually suffer from limitations, such as impaired vision, motor difficulties, and depression. Hence, it is doubtful that the true value of cognitive functioning can be measured without bias. Consequently, many patients are excluded from cognitive testing. We focused on reasons for exclusion and analyzed characteristics of nontestable patients...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130715/exploring-the-origin-of-the-number-size-congruency-effect-sensitivity-or-response-bias
#6
Dennis Reike, Wolf Schwarz
Physical size modulates the efficiency of digit comparison, depending on whether the relation of numerical magnitude and physical size is congruent or incongruent (Besner & Coltheart, Neuropsychologia, 17, 467-472, 1979), the number-size congruency effect (NSCE). In addition, Henik and Tzelgov (Memory & Cognition, 10, 389-395, 1982) first reported an NSCE for the reverse task of comparing the physical size of digits such that the numerical magnitude of digits modulated the time required to compare their physical sizes...
January 27, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126210/enhanced-risk-aversion-but-not-loss-aversion-in-unmedicated-pathological-anxiety
#7
Caroline J Charpentier, Jessica Aylward, Jonathan P Roiser, Oliver J Robinson
BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are associated with disruptions in both emotional processing and decision making. As a result, anxious individuals often make decisions that favor harm avoidance. However, this bias could be driven by enhanced aversion to uncertainty about the decision outcome (e.g., risk) or aversion to negative outcomes (e.g., loss). Distinguishing between these possibilities may provide a better cognitive understanding of anxiety disorders and hence inform treatment strategies...
December 16, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119401/electrical-microstimulation-of-the-pulvinar-biases-saccade-choices-and-reaction-times-in-a-time-dependent-manner
#8
Adan-Ulises Dominguez-Vargas, Lukas Schneider, Melanie Wilke, Igor Kagan
: The pulvinar complex is extensively interconnected with brain regions involved in spatial processing and eye movement control. Recent inactivation studies have shown that the dorsal pulvinar plays a role in saccade target selection. However, it remains unknown whether it exerts effects on visual processing or at planning/execution stages. We employed electrical microstimulation of the dorsal pulvinar while monkeys performed saccade tasks towards instructed and freely-chosen targets...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115076/cognitive-bias-and-the-creation-and-translation-of-evidence-into-clinical-practice
#9
REVIEW
Donald A Molony
The optimal translation of evidence into the clinical practice of nephrology follows validated evidence-based medicine (EBM) principles. Most importantly, the evidence-based medicine practitioner requires that the evidence, as much as possible, addresses in an unbiased manner clinical questions of importance to patients and reflects the truth. In this chapter, we evaluate how cognitive biases that affect medical decision making might systematically bias the overall management of patients with kidney disease and, thus, distort the observations about disease causation, prognosis, diagnosis, and management that are derived from analysis of administrative databases or electronic medical records of health care systems...
November 2016: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054819/comparing-integral-and-incidental-emotions-testing-insights-from-emotions-as-social-information-theory-and-attribution-theory
#10
Annika Hillebrandt, Laurie J Barclay
Studies have indicated that observers can infer information about others' behavioral intentions from others' emotions and use this information in making their own decisions. Integrating emotions as social information (EASI) theory and attribution theory, we argue that the interpersonal effects of emotions are not only influenced by the type of discrete emotion (e.g., anger vs. happiness) but also by the target of the emotion (i.e., how the emotion relates to the situation). We compare the interpersonal effects of emotions that are integral (i...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003681/poverty-and-economic-decision-making-evidence-from-changes-in-financial-resources-at-payday
#11
Leandro S Carvalho, Stephan Meier, Stephanie W Wang
We study the effect of financial resources on decision-making. Low-income U.S. households are randomly assigned to receive an online survey before or after payday. The survey collects measures of cognitive function and administers risk and intertemporal choice tasks. The study design generates variation in cash, checking and savings balances, and expenditures. Before-payday participants behave as if they are more present-biased when making intertemporal choices about monetary rewards but not when making intertemporal choices about non-monetary real-effort tasks...
February 2016: American Economic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965330/approach-to-risk-identification-in-undifferentiated-mental-disorders
#12
REVIEW
José Silveira, Patricia Rockman, Casey Fulford, Jon Hunter
OBJECTIVE: To provide primary care physicians with a novel approach to risk identification and related clinical decision making in the management of undifferentiated mental disorders. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: We conducted a review of the literature in PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar using the search terms diagnostic uncertainty, diagnosis, risk identification, risk assessment/methods, risk, risk factors, risk management/methods, cognitive biases and psychiatry, decision making, mental disorders/diagnosis, clinical competence, evidence-based medicine, interviews as topic, psychiatry/education, psychiatry/methods, documentation/methods, forensic psychiatry/education, forensic psychiatry/methods, mental disorders/classification, mental disorders/psychology, violence/prevention and control, and violence/psychology...
December 2016: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964726/cognition-in-chronic-kidney-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Israel Berger, Sunny Wu, Philip Masson, Patrick J Kelly, Fiona A Duthie, William Whiteley, Daniel Parker, David Gillespie, Angela C Webster
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is common in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Subtle changes can impact engagement with healthcare, comprehension, decision-making, and medication adherence. We aimed to systematically summarise evidence of cognitive changes in CKD. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE (March 2016) for cross-sectional, cohort or randomised studies that measured cognitive function in people with CKD (PROSPERO, registration number CRD42014015226)...
December 14, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956065/effects-of-deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-on-perceptual-decision-making
#14
Tino Zaehle, Caroline Wagenbreth, Jürgen Voges, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Imke Galazky
When faced with difficult decisions, people prefer to stay with the default. This status quo bias often leads to suboptimal choice behavior. Neurophysiological evidence suggests a pivot role of the Subthalamic Nucleus (STN) for overcoming such status quo bias in difficult decisions, but causal evidence is lacking. The present study investigated whether subthalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) influences the status quo bias. Eighteen PD patients treated with STN-DBS performed a difficult perceptual decision task incorporating intrinsic status quo option...
December 9, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933418/temporal-characteristics-of-eeg-microstates-mediate-trial-by-trial-risk-taking
#15
Andreas Pedroni, Lorena R R Gianotti, Thomas Koenig, Dietrich Lehmann, Pascal Faber, Daria Knoch
People seem to have difficulties when perceiving events whose outcome has no influence on the outcome of future events. This illusion that patterns exist where there are none may lead to adverse consequences, such as escalating losses in financial trading or gambling debt. Despite the enormous social consequences of these cognitive biases, however, their neural underpinnings are poorly understood. Attempts to investigate them have so far relied on evoked neural activity, whereas spontaneous brain activity has been treated as noise to be averaged out...
January 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907171/correction-beyond-rational-decision-making-modelling-the-influence-of-cognitive-biases-on-the-dynamics-of-vaccination-coverage
#16
Marina Voinson, Sylvain Billiard, Alexandra Alvergne
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0142990.].
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875163/the-attraction-effect-in-information-visualization
#17
Evanthia Dimara, Anastasia Bezerianos, Pierre Dragicevic
The attraction effect is a well-studied cognitive bias in decision making research, where one's choice between two alternatives is influenced by the presence of an irrelevant (dominated) third alternative. We examine whether this cognitive bias, so far only tested with three alternatives and simple presentation formats such as numerical tables, text and pictures, also appears in visualizations. Since visualizations can be used to support decision making - e.g., when choosing a house to buy or an employee to hire - a systematic bias could have important implications...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836921/non-pharmacological-treatment-of-depression-a-systematic-review-and-evidence-map
#18
REVIEW
Wigdan H Farah, Mouaz Alsawas, Maria Mainou, Fares Alahdab, Magdoleen H Farah, Ahmed T Ahmed, Essa A Mohamed, Jehad Almasri, Michael R Gionfriddo, Ana Castaneda-Guarderas, Khaled Mohammed, Zhen Wang, Noor Asi, Craig N Sawchuk, Mark D Williams, Larry J Prokop, M Hassan Murad, Annie LeBlanc
BACKGROUND: The comparative effectiveness of non-pharmacological treatments of depression remains unclear. METHODS: We conducted an overview of systematic reviews to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the efficacy and adverse effects of non-pharmacological treatments of depression. We searched multiple electronic databases through February 2016 without language restrictions. Pairs of reviewers determined eligibility, extracted data and assessed risk of bias...
December 2016: Evidence-based Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832071/approach-induced-biases-in-human-information-sampling
#19
Laurence T Hunt, Robb B Rutledge, W M Nishantha Malalasekera, Steven W Kennerley, Raymond J Dolan
Information sampling is often biased towards seeking evidence that confirms one's prior beliefs. Despite such biases being a pervasive feature of human behavior, their underlying causes remain unclear. Many accounts of these biases appeal to limitations of human hypothesis testing and cognition, de facto evoking notions of bounded rationality, but neglect more basic aspects of behavioral control. Here, we investigated a potential role for Pavlovian approach in biasing which information humans will choose to sample...
November 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830753/lucky-rhythms-in-orbitofrontal-cortex-bias-gambling-decisions-in-humans
#20
Pierre Sacré, Matthew S D Kerr, Kevin Kahn, Jorge Gonzalez-Martinez, Juan Bulacio, Hyun-Joo Park, Matthew A Johnson, Susan Thompson, Jaes Jones, Vikram S Chib, John T Gale, Sridevi V Sarma
It is well established that emotions influence our decisions, yet the neural basis of this biasing effect is not well understood. Here we directly recorded local field potentials from the OrbitoFrontal Cortex (OFC) in five human subjects performing a financial decision-making task. We observed a striking increase in gamma-band (36-50 Hz) oscillatory activity that reflected subjects' decisions to make riskier choices. Additionally, these gamma rhythms were linked back to mismatched expectations or "luck" occurring in past trials...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
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