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Canine microbiome

Sheila Torres, Jonathan B Clayton, Jessica L Danzeisen, Tonya Ward, Hu Huang, Dan Knights, Timothy J Johnson
It has previously been shown that domestic dogs and their household owners share bacterial populations, and that sharing of bacteria between humans is facilitated through the presence of dogs in the household. However, less is known regarding the bacterial communities of dogs, how these communities vary by location and over time, and how cohabitation of dogs themselves influences their bacterial community. Furthermore, the effects of factors such as breed, hair coat length, sex, shedding, and age on the canine skin microbiome is unknown...
2017: PeerJ
Qinghong Li, Christian L Lauber, Gail Czarnecki-Maulden, Yuanlong Pan, Steven S Hannah
Obesity has become a health epidemic in both humans and pets. A dysbiotic gut microbiota has been associated with obesity and other metabolic disorders. High-protein, low-carbohydrate (HPLC) diets have been recommended for body weight loss, but little is known about their effects on the canine gut microbiome. Sixty-three obese and lean Labrador retrievers and Beagles (mean age, 5.72 years) were fed a common baseline diet for 4 weeks in phase 1, followed by 4 weeks of a treatment diet, specifically, the HPLC diet (49...
January 24, 2017: MBio
Na Zhao, Meng Li, Jing Luo, Supen Wang, Shelan Liu, Shan Wang, Wenting Lyu, Lin Chen, Wen Su, Hua Ding, Hongxuan He
The recent increase in infectious disease outbreaks has been directly linked to the global loss of biodiversity and the decline of some endangered species populations. Between December 2014 and March 2015, five captive giant pandas died due to canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in China. CDV has taken a heavy toll on tigers and lions in recent years. Here, we describe the first gut microbiome diversity study of CDV-infected pandas. By investigating the influence of CDV infection on gut bacterial communities in infected and uninfected individuals and throughout the course of infection, we found that CDV infection distorted the gut microbiota composition by reducing the prevalence of the dominant genera, Escherichia and Clostridium, and increasing microbial diversity...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
Michael J Day
It is widely recognized that cats appear to be less frequently affected by arthropod-borne infectious diseases than dogs and share fewer zoonotic pathogens with man. This impression is supported by the relative lack of scientific publications related to feline vector-borne infections. This review explores the possible reasons for the difference between the two most common small companion animal species, including the hypothesis that cats might have a genetically-determined immunological resistance to arthropod vectors or the microparasites they transmit...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Felipe Pierezan, Thierry Olivry, Judith S Paps, Sara D Lawhon, Jing Wu, Jörg M Steiner, Jan S Suchodolski, Aline Rodrigues Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: Studies focusing on next-generation sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene have allowed detailed surveys of skin bacterial populations (microbiota) of the skin. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated temporal changes in the skin microbiota in a canine model of atopic dermatitis. ANIMALS: Eight atopic dogs previously sensitized with house dust mites (HDM). METHODS: The dogs were topically challenged on the right groin with HDM allergens...
October 2016: Veterinary Dermatology
James E McDonald, Niels Larsen, Andrea Pennington, John Connolly, Corrin Wallis, David J Rooks, Neil Hall, Alan J McCarthy, Heather E Allison
PCR amplification and sequencing of phylogenetic markers, primarily Small Sub-Unit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes, has been the paradigm for defining the taxonomic composition of microbiomes. However, 'universal' SSU rRNA gene PCR primer sets are likely to miss much of the diversity therein. We sequenced a library comprising purified and reverse-transcribed SSU rRNA (RT-SSU rRNA) molecules from the canine oral microbiome and compared it to a general bacterial 16S rRNA gene PCR amplicon library generated from the same biological sample...
2016: PloS One
Domenico Santoro, Aline Rodrigues Hoffmann
Host-microbe interaction has been suggested to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. The dog has been shown to be the best model to study both pathogenesis and microbiome modifications in atopic dermatitis. Bradley et al. show a significant correlation between microbiome diversity, clinical signs, and skin barrier function in atopic dogs before, during, and after antimicrobial therapy.
June 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Alyssa C Kasiraj, Jaana Harmoinen, Anitah Isaiah, Elias Westermarck, Jörg M Steiner, Thomas Spillmann, Jan S Suchodolski
Prolonged lack of enteral feeding has a negative impact on gut physiology, potentially via microbiota modulation. The aims were to investigate the impact of fasting and post-prandial changes in canine jejunal microbiota. To study post-prandial effects, jejunal brushings were analyzed in 8 healthy fistulated dogs 15 min before feeding (baseline) and hourly for 8 h after feeding. To study effects of withholding food (WF), daily samples were collected for 15 days from 5 dogs. The first 5 days (PRE) dogs were fed regular diet...
June 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Sergi Segarra, Silvia Martínez-Subiela, Marta Cerdà-Cuéllar, Daniel Martínez-Puig, Alberto Muñoz-Prieto, Fernando Rodríguez-Franco, Antonio Rodríguez-Bertos, Karin Allenspach, Alfonso Velasco, José Cerón
BACKGROUND: Canine inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic enteropathy of unknown etiology, although microbiome dysbiosis, genetic susceptibility, and dietary and/or environmental factors are hypothesized to be involved in its pathogenesis. Since some of the current therapies are associated with severe side effects, novel therapeutic modalities are needed. A new oral supplement for long-term management of canine IBD containing chondroitin sulfate (CS) and prebiotics (resistant starch, β-glucans and mannaoligosaccharides) was developed to target intestinal inflammation and oxidative stress, and restore normobiosis, without exhibiting any side effects...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Charles W Bradley, Daniel O Morris, Shelley C Rankin, Christine L Cain, Ana M Misic, Timothy Houser, Elizabeth A Mauldin, Elizabeth A Grice
Host-microbe interactions may play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis, a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disorder characterized by universal colonization with Staphylococcus species. To examine the relationship between epidermal barrier function and the cutaneous microbiota in atopic dermatitis, this study used a spontaneous model of canine atopic dermatitis. In a cohort of 14 dogs with canine atopic dermatitis, the skin microbiota were longitudinally evaluated with parallel assessment of skin barrier function at disease flare, during antimicrobial therapy, and post-therapy...
June 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Wenling Gao, Yuki Chan, Meng You, Donnabella C Lacap-Bugler, W Keung Leung, Rory M Watt
This study explored the range of bacterial taxa present within healthy subgingival (below the gum-line) niches in the horse oral cavity using 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing. Pooled subgingival plaque samples were collected from approximately 200 sulcus sites from two horses (EQ1, EQ2) for analysis. A total of 14,260 quality-filtered pyrosequencing reads were obtained, which were assigned to 3875 operational taxonomic units (OTUs; 99% identity cut-off); 1907 OTUs for EQ1 and 2156 OTUs for EQ2. Diverse taxa from 12 phyla were identified, including Actinobacteria (3...
May 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Changin Oh, Kunkyu Lee, Yeotaek Cheong, Sang-Won Lee, Seung-Yong Park, Chang-Seon Song, In-Soo Choi, Joong-Bok Lee
The oral microbiome, which is closely associated with many diseases, and the resident pathogenic oral bacteria, which can be transferred by close physical contact, are important public health considerations. Although the dog is the most common companion animal, the composition of the canine oral microbiome, which may include human pathogenic bacteria, and its relationship with that of their owners are unclear. In this study, 16S rDNA pyrosequencing was used to compare the oral microbiomes of 10 dogs and their owners and to identify zoonotic pathogens...
2015: PloS One
P Deng, K S Swanson
Companion animals play an important role in our lives and are now considered to be and treated as family members in a majority of households in the United States. Because of the high number of pets that now exist, an increasingly stronger pet-human bond, and the importance placed on health and longevity, the pet food industry has realized steady growth over the last few decades. Despite past successes and opportunities that exist in the future, there are also challenges that must be considered. This review will present a brief overview of the current pet food industry and address some of the key issues moving forward...
March 2015: Journal of Animal Science
David A Coil, Alexandra Alexiev, Corrin Wallis, Ciaran O'Flynn, Oliver Deusch, Ian Davis, Alexander Horsfall, Nicola Kirkwood, Guillaume Jospin, Jonathan A Eisen, Stephen Harris, Aaron E Darling
We present the draft genome sequences for 26 strains of Porphyromonas (P. canoris, P. gulae, P. cangingavalis, P. macacae, and 7 unidentified) and an unidentified member of the Porphyromonadaceae family. All of these strains were isolated from the canine oral cavity, from dogs with and without early periodontal disease.
2015: Genome Announcements
S Schmitz, B Glanemann, O A Garden, H Brooks, Y M Chang, D Werling, K Allenspach
BACKGROUND: Canine chronic enteropathies (CE) are believed to be caused by an aberrant immune response towards the intestinal microbiome. Administration of probiotics can alleviate colitis in people. In vitro effects of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 E1707 (EF) previously have been evaluated using canine cells (e.g., whole blood, intestinal biopsies), but data on in vivo efficacy are lacking. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Administration of EF to dogs with food-responsive CE will improve clinical outcome and decrease the intestinal inflammatory profile...
March 2015: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Domenico Santoro, Rosanna Marsella, Cherie M Pucheu-Haston, Melissa N C Eisenschenk, Tim Nuttall, Petra Bizikova
BACKGROUND: Canine atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, genetically predisposed, inflammatory and pruritic skin disease. The pathogenesis of canine AD is incompletely understood. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to provide an in-depth update on the involvement of skin barrier and host-microbiome interaction in the pathogenesis of canine AD. METHODS: Online citation databases and abstracts from international meetings were searched for publications related to skin barrier and host-microbiome interaction (e...
April 2015: Veterinary Dermatology
Lucy J Holcombe, Niran Patel, Alison Colyer, Oliver Deusch, Ciaran O'Flynn, Stephen Harris
Periodontal disease (PD) is a significant problem in dogs affecting between 44% and 63.6% of the population. The main etiological agent for PD is plaque, a microbial biofilm that colonizes teeth and causes inflammation of the gingiva. Understanding how this biofilm initiates on the tooth surface is of central importance in developing interventions against PD. Although the stages of plaque development on human teeth have been well characterized little is known about how canine plaque develops. Recent studies of the canine oral microbiome have revealed distinct differences between the canine and human oral environments and the bacterial communities they support, particularly with respect to healthy plaque...
2014: PloS One
Ping Deng, Kelly S Swanson
High-throughput DNA sequencing techniques allow for the identification and characterisation of microbes and their genes (microbiome). Using these new techniques, microbial populations in several niches of the human body, including the oral and nasal cavities, skin, urogenital tract and gastrointestinal tract, have been described recently. Very little data on the microbiome of companion animals exist, and most of the data have been derived from the analysis of the faeces of healthy laboratory animals. High-throughput assays provide opportunities to study the complex and dense populations of the gut microbiota, including bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa and viruses...
January 2015: British Journal of Nutrition
Anuj Camanocha, Floyd E Dewhirst
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In addition to the well-known phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Spirochaetes, Fusobacteria, Tenericutes, and Chylamydiae, the oral microbiomes of mammals contain species from the lesser-known phyla or candidate divisions, including Synergistetes, TM7, Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, GN02, SR1, and WPS-2. The objectives of this study were to create phyla-selective 16S rDNA PCR primer pairs, create selective 16S rDNA clone libraries, identify novel oral taxa, and update canine and human oral microbiome databases...
2014: Journal of Oral Microbiology
S Schmitz, M Henrich, R Neiger, D Werling, K Allenspach
The composition of the microbiome plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in humans and chronic enteropathies (CE) in dogs. The administration of probiotic micro-organisms is one way of modulating the microbiome, but experiments elucidating mechanisms of action of probiotics in the intestine of healthy and CE dogs are lacking. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of different Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands and Enterococcus faecium (EF) on ex vivo cultured duodenal samples and whole blood (WB) from dogs with food-responsive chronic enteropathy (FRE) when compared to healthy dogs...
August 2014: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
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