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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539831/aldehyde-dehydrogenases-1a2-expression-and-distribution-are-potentially-associated-with-neuron-death-in-spinal-cord-of-tg-sod1-g93a-1gur-mice
#1
Huiting Liang, Chengsi Wu, Youqing Deng, Lei Zhu, Jie Zhang, Weiming Gan, Chunyan Tang, Renshi Xu
The pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has not been unclear yet, it might be associated with the abnormal expression and distribution of certain proteins. Aldehyde dehydrogenases 1A2 (ALDH1A2) was thought to be one of potential candidates. Therefore, in this study we observed and analyzed the alteration of the expression and distribution of ALDH1A2 in the spinal cord of wild-type (WT) and Tg(SOD1*G93A)1Gur mice. We compared the expression and distribution of ALDH1A2 in the different segments, anatomic regions and neural cells of spinal cord at the different stages of WT and Tg(SOD1*G93A)1Gur mice applied the methods of fluorescent immunohistochemistry and western blot...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528422/5-ala-fluorescence-guided-endoscopic-surgery-for-mixed-germ-cell-tumors
#2
Junichi Takeda, Masahiro Nonaka, Yi Li, Yumiko Komori, Takamasa Kamei, Ryoichi Iwata, Tetsuo Hashiba, Kunikazu Yoshimura, Akio Asai
5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) fluorescence-guided surgery is widely used for detection and planning of resection of malignant gliomas and other brain tumors. However, no reports have described 5-ALA fluorescence-guided surgery or direct visualization of germ cell tumors. Here, we report two cases of germ cell tumors in which a positive 5-ALA fluorescent signal was visualized with a neuroendoscope. Both cases had a tumor in the pineal region that was associated with hydrocephalus. The patients underwent surgery after administration of 5-ALA...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413866/inositol-hexakisphosphate-kinase-2-is-a-presymptomatic-biomarker-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#3
Yusuke Moriya, Eiichiro Nagata, Natsuko Fujii, Tadayuki Satoh, Haruko Ogawa, Shinji Hadano, Shunya Takizawa
OBJECTIVE: Inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 2 (InsP6K2), an enzyme that converts inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) to diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (InsP7), induces cell death. InsP6K2 is abundant in the central nervous system, especially anterior horn cells of spinal cord. To identify the role of InsP6K2 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we investigated the expression levels of InsP6K2 in transgenic mice expressing mutant superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) (mSOD1 Tg mice). METHODS: The specimens of spinal cords were obtained from mSOD1 Tg mice and age-matched wild-type mice...
April 20, 2017: Tokai Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382437/diffuse-leptomeningeal-glioneuronal-tumor-dlgnt-mimicking-whipple-s-disease-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#4
Vega Karlowee, Manish Kolakshyapati, Vishwa Jeet Amatya, Takeshi Takayasu, Ryo Nosaka, Kazuhiko Sugiyama, Kaoru Kurisu, Fumiyuki Yamasaki
INTRODUCTION: Diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumor is a new entity under the neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors in the WHO 2016 updated classification and commonly found in children and adolescents. The initial diagnosis is challenging because of its non-specific radiologic feature and negative CSF cytology analysis. A 17 years male was presented with intractable headache subsequently followed by back pain and joint pain. MRI showed enhancement of arachnoid membrane at basal cistern, bilateral sylvian fissure and cerebral cistern with slight enlargement of ventricles...
April 5, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380696/long-term-neuromuscular-outcomes-of-west-nile-virus-infection-a-clinical-and-electromyograph-evaluation-of-patients-with-a-history-of-infection
#5
Parveen Athar, Rodrigo Hasbun, Melissa N Garcia, Lucrecia Salazar, Steven Woods, Kazim Sheikh, Kristy O Murray
INTRODUCTION: Neuromuscular clinical manifestations during acute West Nile virus (WNV) infection are well documented; however, long-term neurological outcomes still require investigation. METHODS: We conducted a long-term follow up study in patients with history of WNV infection. Out of 117 patients who participated in neurologic and neurocognitive evaluations, 30 patients were referred for neuromuscular and electrodiagnostic evaluation based on abnormal findings...
April 5, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380320/reappraisal-of-the-f-m-amplitude-ratio-in-carpal-tunnel-syndrome
#6
F Ginanneschi, M Mondelli, A Aretini, Alessandro Rossi
The F-wave/M-wave amplitude (F/M-amp) ratio has been shown to be increased in peripheral neuropathies, provided the maximum M-wave is relatively preserved. Reduced M-wave amplitudes and central facilitation of antidromically-induced reactivation of the anterior horn cells' axon hillocks (F-wave) are believed to contribute to higher F/M-amp ratios. The present study was undertaken to re-evaluate mechanisms responsible for higher F/M-amp ratios in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). We enrolled 232 cases affected by CTS and 108 controls...
January 2017: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352498/traumatic-cervical-nerve-root-avulsion-with-pseudomeningocele-formation
#7
Ali S Haider, Ian T Watson, Suraj Sulhan, Dean Leonard, Eliel N Arrey, Umair Khan, Phu Nguyen, Kennith F Layton
Cervical nerve root avulsion is a well-documented result of motor vehicle collision (MVC), especially when occurring at high velocities. These avulsions are commonly traction injuries of nerve roots that may be accompanied by a tear in the meninges through the vertebral foramina with associated collections of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), thereby resulting in a pseudomeningocele. We present a case of a 19-year-old male who experienced an MVC and was brought to the emergency department (ED) with right arm paralysis and other injuries...
February 14, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251660/neuronal-and-microglial-mechanisms-for-neuropathic-pain-in-the-spinal-dorsal-horn-and-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#8
REVIEW
Makoto Tsuda, Kohei Koga, Tao Chen, Min Zhuo
Neuropathic pain is a debilitating chronic pain condition occurring after damage in the nervous system and is refractory to the currently available treatments. Major challenges include elucidating its mechanisms and developing new medications to treat it. Nerve injury-induced pain hypersensitivity involves aberrant excitability in spinal dorsal horn (SDH) neurons as a consequence of dysfunction of inhibitory interneurons and of hyperactivity of glial cells, especially microglia, the immune cells of the central nervous system...
May 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124772/expression-and-distribution-of-arylsulfatase-b-are-closely-associated-with-neuron-death-in-sod1-g93a-transgenic-mice
#9
Jie Zhang, Huiting Liang, Lei Zhu, Weiming Gan, Chunyan Tang, Jiao Li, Renshi Xu
The known proteins only explained the partial pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Therefore, this study aimed to search the novel proteins possibly involved in ALS. In this study, we analyzed the expression and distribution of the candidate protein arylsulfatase B (ARSB) in the different segments, anatomic regions, and neural cells of spinal cord at the different stages of the wild-type and [Cu/Zn] superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) G93A transgenic mice using the fluorescent immunohistochemistry and the western blot...
January 26, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035406/bambi-inhibits-inflammation-through-the-activation-of-autophagy-in-experimental-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Yin Yang, Chunyang Guo, Bo Liao, Junjun Cao, Chen Liang, Xijing He
Autophagy plays an important role in the progression of spinal cord injury (SCI). In this study, we aimed to examine the effects and potential mechanisms of action of BMP and activin membrane-bound inhibitor (BAMBI) in the progression of SCI. A rat model of SCI was established and the rats were injected with pLentiH1-BAMBI shRNA and pAd-BAMBI in the gray and white matter of the spinal cord at T8. After 14 days, motor function evaluation was measured according to the Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB) method and the number of motor neuron cell accounts in the anterior horns was measured by Nissl staining...
February 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003344/differentiating-lower-motor-neuron-syndromes
#11
REVIEW
Nidhi Garg, Susanna B Park, Steve Vucic, Con Yiannikas, Judy Spies, James Howells, William Huynh, José M Matamala, Arun V Krishnan, John D Pollard, David R Cornblath, Mary M Reilly, Matthew C Kiernan
Lower motor neuron (LMN) syndromes typically present with muscle wasting and weakness and may arise from pathology affecting the distal motor nerve up to the level of the anterior horn cell. A variety of hereditary causes are recognised, including spinal muscular atrophy, distal hereditary motor neuropathy and LMN variants of familial motor neuron disease. Recent genetic advances have resulted in the identification of a variety of disease-causing mutations. Immune-mediated disorders, including multifocal motor neuropathy and variants of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, account for a proportion of LMN presentations and are important to recognise, as effective treatments are available...
June 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999136/human-muse-cells-reconstruct-neuronal-circuitry-in-subacute-lacunar-stroke-model
#12
Hiroki Uchida, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Yoshihiro Kushida, Shohei Wakao, Teiji Tominaga, Cesario V Borlongan, Mari Dezawa
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (muse) cells are endogenous nontumorigenic stem cells with pluripotency harvestable as pluripotent marker SSEA-3(+) cells from the bone marrow from cultured bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells. After transplantation into neurological disease models, muse cells exert repair effects, but the exact mechanism remains inconclusive. METHODS: We conducted mechanism-based experiments by transplanting serum/xeno-free cultured-human bone marrow-muse cells into the perilesion brain at 2 weeks after lacunar infarction in immunodeficient mice...
February 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998013/neuroprotective-and-ameliorating-impacts-of-omega-3-against-aspartame-induced-neuronal-and-astrocytic-degeneration
#13
Eyad M T Ali, Hany M A Sonpol
Aspartame (ASP) is one of the commonest artificial sweetener used all over the world and considered as an extremely risky compound and raises a lot of controversy. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate cellular damage of the anterior horn cells in the spinal cord of albino male rats and the possibility of hindering these changes by using omega-3 (OM3).Thirty seven adult male albino rats were divided into three groups: Control, ASP-treated and ASP+OM3-treated groups. Spinal cord sections were prepared and stained with Hx&E, caspase-3 and GFAP immunostaining...
December 20, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897305/-cervical-ischaemic-neuronopathy-and-cardioembolism-another-cause-of-man-in-the-barrel-syndrome
#14
H Gonzalez-Usigli, A Gandarilla, J J Garcia, J Serrato, N Estrada
INTRODUCTION: Spinal infarction accounts for 1% of all strokes. Cardioembolism is a rare cause. Common areas of ischemic spinal damage are watershed in the dorsal or lumbar regions; however cervical spinal cord infarction has been reported previously. CASE REPORT: We present a new case of a man-in-the-barrel syndrome produced by cardiac embolization associated with atrial fibrillation during an acute myocardial infarction, which caused cervical ischemic neuronopathy (infarction of the anterior horn)...
December 16, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800001/clinical-experiences-of-uncommon-motor-neuron-disease-hirayama-disease
#15
Kyoung Hee Lee, Dae Seob Choi, Young Suk Lee, Dong Ho Kang
Hirayama disease, juvenile muscular atrophy of the distal upper limb, is a rare disease predominantly affecting the anterior horn cells of the cervical spinal cord in young men. This cervical myelopathy is associated with neck flexion. It should be suspected in young male patients with a chronic history of weakness and atrophy involving the upper extremities followed by clinical stability in few years. Herein, we report 2 cases of Hirayama disease on emphasis of diagnostic approach and describe the pathognomonic findings at flexion magnetic resonance imaging...
September 2016: Korean Journal of Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776698/ethyl-pyruvate-modulates-delayed-paralysis-following-thoracic-aortic-ischemia-reperfusion-in-mice
#16
Bao-Ngoc Nguyen, Hassan Albadawi, Rahmi Oklu, Robert S Crawford, Mitchell P Fink, Richard P Cambria, Michael T Watkins
OBJECTIVE: Delayed paralysis is an unpredictable problem for patients undergoing complex repair of the thoracic/thoracoabdominal aorta. These experiments were designed to determine whether ethyl pyruvate (EP), a potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent, might ameliorate delayed paralysis following thoracic aortic ischemia reperfusion (TAR). METHODS: C57BL6 mice were subjected to 5 minutes of thoracic aortic ischemia followed by reperfusion for up to 48 hours...
November 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776522/inositol-1-4-5-trisphosphate-receptor-type-1-autoantibodies-in-paraneoplastic-and-non-paraneoplastic-peripheral-neuropathy
#17
Sven Jarius, Marius Ringelstein, Jürgen Haas, Irina I Serysheva, Lars Komorowski, Kai Fechner, Klaus-Peter Wandinger, Philipp Albrecht, Harald Hefter, Andreas Moser, Eva Neuen-Jacob, Hans-Peter Hartung, Brigitte Wildemann, Orhan Aktas
BACKGROUND: Recently, we described a novel autoantibody, anti-Sj/ITPR1-IgG, that targets the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 (ITPR1) in patients with cerebellar ataxia. However, ITPR1 is expressed not only by Purkinje cells but also in the anterior horn of the spinal cord, in the substantia gelatinosa and in the motor, sensory (including the dorsal root ganglia) and autonomic peripheral nervous system, suggesting that the clinical spectrum associated with autoimmunity to ITPR1 may be broader than initially thought...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766033/changes-in-the-expression-of-fus-tls-in-spinal-cords-of-sod1-g93a-transgenic-mice-and-correlation-with-motor-neuron-degeneration
#18
Jiao Li, Yi Lu, Huiting Liang, Chunyan Tang, Lei Zhu, Jie Zhang, Renshi Xu
In order to searching the possible pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we examined the expression and distribution of FUS/TLS protein in the different anatomic regions, segments and neural cells of adult spinal cord at the different stages of the SOD1 wild-type and G93A transgenic mice using the fluorescent immunohistochemistry. Result revealed that, in the SOD1 wild-type mice, the FUS/TLS expression almost wasn't detected. However, in the SOD1 G93A mice, the FUS/TLS expression in the white matter was significantly more than that in the gray matter...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670757/scaffold-free-tissue-engineered-allogenic-adipose-derived-stem-cells-promote-meniscus-healing
#19
Tatsuhiro Toratani, Junsuke Nakase, Hitoaki Numata, Takeshi Oshima, Yasushi Takata, Koichi Nakayama, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya
PURPOSE: To determine whether meniscal tissue could be healed histologically by the implantation of allogenic three-dimensional formed adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in a rabbit model of partial meniscectomy. METHODS: Forty Japanese white rabbits (aged 15-17 weeks) were assigned to 2 groups. Defects 1.5 mm in diameter were created in the anterior horn of the medial menisci. The defects were left empty in the control group and were filled with cylindrical plugs of allogenic ADSCs extracted from adipose tissue in the experimental group...
February 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664939/formation-and-maturation-of-the-murine-meniscus
#20
Laura W Gamer, Lin Xiang, Vicki Rosen
Meniscal injuries are commonplace, but current surgical repair procedures do not prevent degenerative joint changes that occur after meniscal injury and often lead to osteoarthritis. Successful tissue regeneration in adults often recapitulates events that occur during embryogenesis, suggesting that understanding the regulatory pathways controlling these early processes may provide clues for developing strategies for tissue repair. While the mouse is now widely used to study joint diseases, detailed knowledge of the basic biology of murine meniscus is not readily available...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
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