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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744321/morphology-of-intra-articular-structures-and-histology-of-menisci-of-knee-joint
#1
Monika Gupta, Parmod Kumar Goyal, Poonam Singh, Anu Sharma
Introduction: Menisci and cruciate ligaments are intra-articular structures of knee, and injury to these structures is common. Morphometric data gained in the study will help in analyzing the variations among humans and correlating it with the possibility, location, and type of injuries as well as better interpretation of structures during magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopy which will further help in reconstructive surgeries of knee. Materials and Methods: Width and thickness of the medial menisci (MM), lateral menisci (LM), and maximum length and width of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) were taken on twenty knees...
April 2018: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627031/pregnancy-outcomes-in-women-with-spinal-muscular-atrophy-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Elena Abati, Stefania Corti
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy resulting from progressive degeneration and loss of the anterior horn cells in the spinal cord and brain stem nuclei. The onset of weakness ranges from prenatal age to young adulthood. Thus, many female patients reach fertile age and may consider getting pregnant. However, only little information is available about outcomes and complications of pregnancy in women with SMA. In this review, we compared different studies on the subject, then we analyzed outcomes in the different stages of the pregnancy (preconceptional period, embryonal period, fetal period, delivery and post partum), with a special focus on maternal and fetal complications, prematurity, mode of delivery, anesthesiological risk, respiratory function and influence of pregnancy on the disease course...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545250/the-importance-of-flexion-mri-in-hirayama-disease-with-special-reference-to-laminodural-space-measurements
#3
D K Boruah, A Prakash, B B Gogoi, R R Yadav, D D Dhingani, B Sarma
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hirayama disease is a benign focal amyotrophy of the distal upper limbs involving C7, C8, and T1 segmental myotomes with sparing of the brachioradialis and proximal muscles of the upper limb innervated by C5-6 myotomes. The objective of the present study was to study the utility of MR imaging in young patients presenting with weakness and wasting of the distal upper extremity and to evaluate the importance of the laminodural space during flexion cervical MR imaging...
May 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427106/the-neuropathology-of-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3-machado-joseph-disease
#4
Arnulf H Koeppen
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA-3)/Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), the most common autosomal dominant ataxia, affects many regions of the brain and spinal cord. Similar to SCA-1, SCA-2, SCA-6, SCA-7, and SCA-17, the mutation consists of a pathogenic translated cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) trinucleotide repeat expansion. Almost invariably, the substantia nigra and the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum bear the brunt of the disease, and these lesions account for the Parkinsonian and ataxic phenotypes. Lesions of motor nuclei in the brain stem cause the complex disturbance of ocular motility and weakness of the tongue...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353714/mri-findings-of-postherpetic-abdominal-wall-pseudohernia-a-case-report
#5
Andrés Miranda-Merchak, Nicolás García, Roberto Vallejo, Cristián Varela
Herpes zoster is caused by the reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus from dorsal root ganglia. Although infrequent, simultaneous damage to the anterior horn cells or anterior nerve roots at the same level may result in motor neuropathy. When motor involvement is localized in the abdominal wall, a pseudohernia may be the clinical presentation. We report a case of abdominal wall post-herpetic pseudohernia, with clinical, ultrasound and MRI correlation. MRI demonstrated increased T2/STIR signal intensity in the abdominal wall muscles, suggesting acute denervation...
January 9, 2018: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286067/changes-in-microrna-expression-in-the-brachial-plexus-avulsion-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#6
Yuzhou Liu, Le Wang, Jie Lao, Xin Zhao
The present study aimed to perform microRNA (miRNA/miR) expression profiling of the thalamus (T), the anterior cingulate (AC), the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (DHSC) and the blood (B) in post‑complete brachial plexus avulsion (CBPA) pain model, and analyze biological functions. Neuropathic pain was induced in Sprague‑Dawley rats by CBPA. Animal behavioral tests were performed to differentiate the pain and control groups. DHSC, T, AC and B tissues were collected from the two groups for miRNA array analysis...
March 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249381/co-localization-of-cystatin-c-and-prosaposin-in-cultured-neurons-and-in-anterior-horn-neurons-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#7
Yasuko Wada, Atsushi Nagai, Abdullah Md Sheikh, Keiichi Onoda, Masaharu Terashima, Yuri Shiota, Asuka Araki, Shuhei Yamaguchi
Cystatin C (CST3) is a cysteine protease inhibitor that regulates lysosomal enzyme activity and is reported to be involved in the process of neurodegeneration. In the present study, we investigated whether CST3 interacts with other proteins and affects neurodegeneration in vitro and under disease conditions. We intended to identify any protein that interacts with CST3 by using a yeast two-hybrid system, and found prosaposin (PSAP) as a candidate protein. The binding of CST3 and PSAP was confirmed using an immunoprecipitation-based in vitro assay...
January 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171910/mutant-huntingtin-protein-expression-and-blood-spinal-cord-barrier-dysfunction-in-huntington-disease
#8
Giacomo Sciacca, Francesca Cicchetti
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the distribution, frequency, and specific location of mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT) aggregates-the pathological hallmark of Huntington disease (HD)-within the various compartments of the spinal cord and their potential impact on the local vasculature and blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB). METHODS: We performed a series of postmortem immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent stainings, as well as Western blot analyses, on cervical and lumbar sections of the spinal cord in patients diagnosed with HD (n = 11 of all grades of disease severity) along with sex- and age-matched healthy controls (n = 9)...
December 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167994/congenital-zika-virus-infection-a-neuropathological-review
#9
L Chimelli, E Avvad-Portari
BACKGROUND: A relationship between Zika virus (ZikV) infection in pregnancy and the occurrence of microcephaly was established during the Zika outbreak in Brazil (2015-2016). Neuropathological findings in congenital Zika syndrome helped to understand its pathogenetic mechanisms. RESULTS: The most relevant postmortem findings in the central nervous system (CNS) of fetuses and neonates infected with ZikV early in gestation are microcephaly with ex-vacuo ventriculomegaly and large head circumference associated with obstructive hydrocephalus due to severe midbrain and aqueduct distortion...
January 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163801/long-non-coding-rna-ccat1-modulates-neuropathic-pain-progression-through-sponging-mir-155
#10
Lidong Dou, Hongqi Lin, Kaiwei Wang, Guosong Zhu, Xuli Zou, Enqiang Chang, Yongfeng Zhu
Neuropathic pain is caused by dysfunction or primary injury of the somatosensory nervous system. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in the development of neuropathic pain. However, the effects of lncRNA colon cancer associated transcript-1 (CCAT1) in neuropathic pain have not been reported. The model of bilateral sciatic nerve chronic constriction injuries (bCCI) is regarded as long-lasting mechanical hypersensitivity and cold allodynia, which is the representative symptom in the human subjects suffering from the neuropathic pain...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118923/ddx3-binding-with-ck1%C3%AE%C2%B5-was-closely-related-to-motor-neuron-degeneration-of-als-by-affecting-neurite-outgrowth
#11
Yanchun Chen, Qing Wang, Qiaozhen Wang, Huancai Liu, Fenghua Zhou, Yawen Zhang, Meng Yuan, Chunyan Zhao, Yingjun Guan, Xin Wang
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons. The pathogenesis of ALS remains largely unknown. RNA helicase DDX3 is a multifunctional protein involved in several steps of gene expression. Casein kinase 1ε (CK1ε) is an important signal molecule of Wnt signaling pathway and is closely related to neurite growth. However, the roles of DDX3 and CK1ε in the pathogenesis of ALS remain unclear. In this study, we first investigated the expression of DDX3 and CK1ε in the spinal cord of SOD1-G93A ALS transgenic mice using RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemical technique...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114369/bimelic-symmetric-hirayama-disease-spectrum-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-and-comparative-evaluation-with-classical-monomelic-amyotrophy-and-other-motor-neuron-disease
#12
Deb Kumar Boruah, Shantiranjan Sanyal, Arjun Prakash, Sashidhar Achar, Dhabal D Dhingani, Binod Sarma
Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in bilateral symmetrical Hirayama disease and find out MRI features which are probably more indicative of symmetrical Hirayama disease, thereby help in differentiating this entity from other motor neuron disease (MND). Methods: This prospective as well as retrospective study was carried out from December 2010 to September 2016 in a tertiary care center of northeast India on 92 patients with Hirayama disease. Only 19 patients having bilateral symmetric upper limb involvement at the time of presentation were included in this study sample...
July 6, 2017: Iranian Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062563/segmental-spinal-muscular-atrophy-localised-to-the-lower-limbs-first-case-from-oman
#13
Roshan Koul, Amna Al-Futaisi, Khalid Al-Thihli, Zandre Bruwer, Patrick Scott
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a genetic lower motor neuron disease. It usually involves all of the skeletal muscles innervated by the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord. In rare cases, there is also localised involvement of the spinal cord. We report a 10-year-old boy who presented to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, in 2015 with muscle weakness restricted to the lower limbs. The presence of a homozygous deletion within the survival of motor neuron 1 gene confirmed the diagnosis of SMA...
August 2017: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026001/understanding-a-role-for-hypoxia-in-lesion-formation-and-location-in-the-deep-and-periventricular-white-matter-in-small-vessel-disease-and-multiple-sclerosis
#14
REVIEW
Santiago Martinez Sosa, Kenneth J Smith
The deep and periventricular white matter is preferentially affected in several neurological disorders, including cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) and multiple sclerosis (MS), suggesting that common pathogenic mechanisms may be involved in this injury. Here we consider the potential pathogenic role of tissue hypoxia in lesion development, arising partly from the vascular anatomy of the affected white matter. Specifically, these regions are supplied by a sparse vasculature fed by long, narrow end arteries/arterioles that are vulnerable to oxygen desaturation if perfusion is reduced (as in SVD, MS and diabetes) or if the surrounding tissue is hypoxic (as in MS, at least)...
October 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895473/neuroinflammation-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-role-of-redox-dys-regulation
#15
Nadia D'Ambrosi, Mauro Cozzolino, Maria Teresa Carrì
SIGNIFICANCE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is due to degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord and in the motor cortex. Mechanisms leading to motor neuron death are complex and currently the disease is untreatable. Recent Advances: Work in genetic models of ALS indicates that an imbalance in the cross talk that physiologically exists between motor neurons and the surrounding cells is eventually detrimental to motor neurons. In particular, the cascade of events collectively known as neuroinflammation and mainly characterized by a reactive phenotype of astrocytes and microglia, moderate infiltration of peripheral immune cells, and elevated levels of inflammatory mediators has been consistently observed in motor regions of the central nervous system (CNS) in sporadic and familial ALS, constituting a hallmark of the disease...
October 16, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889642/treating-pediatric-neuromuscular-disorders-the-future-is-now
#16
REVIEW
James J Dowling, Hernan D Gonorazky, Ronald D Cohn, Craig Campbell
Pediatric neuromuscular diseases encompass all disorders with onset in childhood and where the primary area of pathology is in the peripheral nervous system. These conditions are largely genetic in etiology, and only those with a genetic underpinning will be presented in this review. This includes disorders of the anterior horn cell (e.g., spinal muscular atrophy), peripheral nerve (e.g., Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease), the neuromuscular junction (e.g., congenital myasthenic syndrome), and the muscle (myopathies and muscular dystrophies)...
September 10, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884921/survival-beyond-the-perinatal-period-expands-the-phenotypes-caused-by-mutations-in-gle1
#17
Edith Said, Jessica X Chong, Maja Hempel, Jonas Denecke, Paul Soler, Tim Strom, Deborah A Nickerson, Christian Kubisch, Michael J Bamshad, Davor Lessel
Mutations in GLE1 underlie Lethal Congenital Contracture syndrome (LCCS) and Lethal Arthrogryposis with Anterior Horn Cell Disease (LAAHD). Both LCCS and LAAHD are characterized by reduced fetal movements, congenital contractures, and a severe form of motor neuron disease that results in fetal death or death in the perinatal period, respectively. We identified bi-allelic mutations in GLE1 in two unrelated individuals with motor delays, feeding difficulties, and respiratory insufficiency who survived beyond the perinatal period...
November 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867325/neuroprotective-effects-of-valproic-acid-in-a-rat-model-of-cauda-equina-injury
#18
Qing-Jie Kong, Yuan Wang, Yang Liu, Jing-Chuan Sun, Xi-Ming Xu, Xiao-Fei Sun, Jian-Gang Shi
BACKGROUND: Histone deacetylase inhibitors, including valproic acid (VPA), are promising therapeutic interventions in neurological disorders and play an important role in synaptic activity and neuronal function. METHODS: A total of 30 rats were randomly allocated to 3 groups: sham, control, and VPA. The rats in the VPA and control groups received laminectomy at the L4 level of the vertebrae and silicone gel implantation into the epidural spaces L5 and L6. Rats in the sham group only received laminectomy at the L4 level of vertebrae without any implantation...
December 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853070/activation-of-microglyocytes-in-the-anterior-horns-of-rat-spinal-cord-after-administration-of-bacterial-lipopolysaccharide
#19
E A Kolos, D E Korzhevskii
We studied the reaction of the microglia of the anterior horns of the rat spinal cord to intraperitoneal administration of bacterial LPS. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that acute systemic inflammation leads to activation of more than half of microglial cells as soon as in 24 h after LPS injection, while the total number of microglial cells does not change significantly. It was hypothesized that activated microglial cells are involved in the reorganization of synaptic connections, but do not have a neurotoxic effect...
August 29, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829151/validation-of-an-immunohistochemistry-assay-for-detection-of-cd155-the-poliovirus-receptor-in-malignant-gliomas
#20
Vidyalakshmi Chandramohan, Jeffrey D Bryant, Hailan Piao, Stephen T Keir, Eric S Lipp, Michaela Lefaivre, Kathryn Perkinson, Darell D Bigner, Matthias Gromeier, Roger E McLendon
CONTEXT: - The oncolytic polio-rhinovirus recombinant (PVSRIPO) has demonstrated promise in currently ongoing phase I/II clinical trials against recurrent glioblastoma and was granted breakthrough therapy designation by the Food and Drug Administration/Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research. A reliable clinical assay to document expression of the poliovirus receptor, CD155, in routinely available patient tumor samples is needed for continued clinical development of PVSRIPO oncolytic immunotherapy in primary brain tumors and beyond...
December 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
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