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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454266/simplified-bernoulli-formula-to-predict-flow-limiting-stenosis-at-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography
#1
Nobuo Tomizawa, Kodai Yamamoto, Shinichi Inoh, Takeshi Nojo, Sunao Nakamura
OBJECTIVE: To compare the diagnostic performance of estimated energy loss (EEL) with diameter stenosis (DS) to estimate significant stenosis by fractional flow reserve (FFR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred twenty-five patients were included. EEL was calculated using DS, lesion length, minimal lumen area and left ventricular volume. FFR ≤ 0.80 was determined significant. RESULTS: EEL improved the accuracy from 63% (95% confidence interval (CI): 55-72%) to 83% (95% CI: 75-89%, p < 0...
February 6, 2018: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453746/effect-of-aerobic-exercise-on-treg-and-th17-of-rats-with-ischemic-cardiomyopathy
#2
Zhisong Chen, Wenwen Yan, Yu Mao, Yi Ni, Lin Zhou, Haoming Song, Wenjun Xu, Leming Wang, Yuqin Shen
Immune activation and inflammation participate in the progression of chronic heart failure (CHF). Th17 cells and CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells both come from naive Th cells and share reciprocal development pathways but exhibit opposite effects. We hypothesized that the Th17/Treg balance was impaired in patients with CHF, and exercise can improve it. Rats with ischemic cardiomyopathy were prepared by ligaturing the left anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery. Rats in training group were trained with treadmill; Th17 cells increased significantly while Treg cells significantly decreased in s by flow cytometry, and the peripheral blood level of IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-α was obviously elevated by ELISA assay...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452856/generalized-cardiovascular-disease-on-a-preoperative-ct-scan-is-predictive-for-anastomotic-leakage-after-esophagectomy
#3
Alicia S Borggreve, Lucas Goense, Peter S N van Rossum, Richard van Hillegersberg, Pim A de Jong, Jelle P Ruurda
BACKGROUND: Recent studies demonstrated that calcification of arteries supplying the gastric tube is associated with anastomotic leakage after esophagectomy. However, it remains unclear whether this association only derives from local flow limitations, or generalized vascular disease as well. The purpose of this study was to determine whether calcification throughout the entire cardiovascular system is associated with anastomotic leakage. METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent an esophagectomy with gastric tube reconstruction and cervical anastomosis for esophageal cancer were analyzed...
February 2, 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452756/quantification-of-thrombus-formation-in-malapposed-coronary-stents-deployed-in-vitro-through-imaging-analysis
#4
Jonathan Brown, Caroline C O'Brien, Augusto C Lopes, Kumaran Kolandaivelu, Elazer R Edelman
Stent thrombosis is a major complication of coronary stent and scaffold intervention. While often unanticipated and lethal, its incidence is low making mechanistic examination difficult through clinical investigation alone. Thus, throughout the technological advancement of these devices, experimental models have been indispensable in furthering our understanding of device safety and efficacy. As we refine model systems to gain deeper insight into adverse events, it is equally important that we continue to refine our measurement methods...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452370/blood-cardioplegia-for-cardiac-surgery-in-acute-myocardial-infarction-rat-experiments-with-two-widely-used-solutions
#5
Andreas Boening, Lena Assling-Simon, Martina Heep, Kerstin Boengler, Bernd Niemann, Julia Schipke, Christian Mühlfeld, Philippe Grieshaber
OBJECTIVES: Blood cardioplegia (BCP) can be used in different ways to protect the heart from ischaemia-reperfusion injury during cardiac surgery. Because there could be differences between warm and cold intermittent cardioplegia with or without warm reperfusion, we investigated the influence of 2 blood cardioplegia solutions on cardiac function, metabolism and infarct size in stable and infarcted rat hearts. METHODS: The hearts of 32 male Wistar rats were excised and inserted into a blood-perfused isolated heart apparatus...
February 14, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452155/comparative-developmental-biology-of-the-cardiac-inflow-tract
#6
REVIEW
Rita Carmona, Laura Ariza, Ana Cañete, Ramón Muñoz-Chápuli
The vertebrate heart receives the blood through the cardiac inflow tract. This area has experienced profound changes along the evolution of vertebrates; changes that have a reflection in the cardiac ontogeny. The development of the inflow tract involves dynamic changes due to the progressive addition of tissue derived from the secondary heart field. The inflow tract is the site where oxygenated blood coming from lungs is received separately from the systemic return, where the cardiac pacemaker is established and where the proepicardium develops...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451832/circulating-progenitor-cells-and-their-interaction-with-platelets-in-patients-with-an-acute-coronary-syndrome
#7
Prokopia T Tatsidou, Vasileios G Chantzichristos, Maria E Tsoumani, Sofia Sidiropoulou, Ioannis V Ntalas, John A Goudevenos, Konstantinos Stellos, Alexandros D Tselepis
CD34 + cells expressing KDR (CD34 + /KDR + ) represent a small proportion of circulating progenitor cells that have the capacity to interact with platelets and to differentiate into mature endothelial cells, thus contributing to vascular homeostasis and regeneration as well as to re-endothelialization. We investigated the levels of CD34 + and CD34 + /KDR + progenitor cells as well as their interaction with platelets in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients before the initiation (baseline) of their treatment with a P2Y 12 receptor antagonist, and at 5-days post-treatment (follow-up)...
February 16, 2018: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450473/elevated-blood-viscosity-and-micro-recirculation-linked-to-coronary-stent-malapposition
#8
Eric Poon, Vikas Thondapu, Umair Hayat, Peter Barlis, Chooi Yap, Po Kuo, Qisen Wang, Jiawei Ma, Shuang Zhu, Stephen Moore, Andrew Ooi
One particular complexity of coronary artery is the natural tapering of the vessel with proximal segments having larger caliber and distal tapering as the vessel get smaller. The natural tapering of a coronary artery often leads to proximal incomplete stent apposition (ISA). ISA alters coronary hemodynamics and creates pathological path to develop complications such as in-stent restenosis, and more worryingly, stent thrombosis. By employing state-of-the-art computer-aided design software, generic stent hoops were virtually deployed in an idealized tapered coronary artery with decreasing malapposition distance...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449442/design-and-rationale-of-the-ripcord-2-trial-does-routine-pressure-wire-assessment-influence-management-strategy-at-coronary-angiography-for-diagnosis-of-chest-pain-a-randomized-controlled-trial-to-compare-routine-pressure-wire-assessment-with-conventional-angiography
#9
REVIEW
Mostafa Elguindy, Rod Stables, Zoe Nicholas, Ian Kemp, Nick Curzen
BACKGROUND: Investigation of anginal chest pain has traditionally involved either assessment of the coronary anatomy by angiography or noninvasive testing for reversible ischemia. Invasive pressure wire assessment at the time of angiography offers information on both anatomy and physiology. Fractional flow reserve-guided percutaneous coronary intervention is associated with lower resource utilization and improved clinical outcome compared with angiographic guidance alone. However, the value of routine fractional flow reserve of all major coronary vessels at the time of diagnostic angiography has not been established in a randomized trial despite persuasive observational data...
February 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449325/quantitative-flow-ratio-identifies-nonculprit-coronary-lesions-requiring-revascularization-in-patients-with-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-and-multivessel-disease
#10
Giosafat Spitaleri, Matteo Tebaldi, Simone Biscaglia, Jelmer Westra, Salvatore Brugaletta, Andrea Erriquez, Giulia Passarini, Alessandro Brieda, Antonio Maria Leone, Andrea Picchi, Alfonso Ielasi, Domenico Di Girolamo, Carlo Trani, Roberto Ferrari, Johan H C Reiber, Marco Valgimigli, Manel Sabatè, Gianluca Campo
BACKGROUND: The nonculprit lesion (NCL) management in ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction patients with multivessel disease is debated. We sought to assess whether quantitative flow ratio (QFR), a noninvasive tool to identify potentially flow-limiting lesions, may be reliable in this scenario. METHODS AND RESULTS: The present proof-of-concept study is based on a 3-step process: (1) identification of the QFR reproducibility in NCLs assessment (cohort A, n=31); (2) prospective validation of QFR diagnostic accuracy in respect to fractional flow reserve (cohort B, n=45); and (3) investigation of long-term clinical outcomes of NCLs stratified according to QFR (cohort C, n=110)...
February 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449274/clinical-relevance-of-functionally-insignificant-moderate-coronary-artery-stenosis-assessed-by-3-vessel-fractional-flow-reserve-measurement
#11
Jonghanne Park, Joo Myung Lee, Bon-Kwon Koo, Eun-Seok Shin, Chang-Wook Nam, Joon-Hyung Doh, Doyeon Hwang, Jinlong Zhang, Xinyang Hu, JianAn Wang, Fei Ye, Shaoliang Chen, Junqing Yang, Jiyan Chen, Nobuhiro Tanaka, Hiroyoshi Yokoi, Hitoshi Matsuo, Hiroaki Takashima, Yasutsugu Shiono, Takashi Akasaka
BACKGROUND: Understanding of the risk conferred by functionally insignificant lesions in multiple coronary vessels is limited. We investigated the prognostic implications of coronary artery disease (CAD) based on 3-vessel fractional flow reserve (FFR). METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 1,136 patients underwent FFR measurement in the 3 major epicardial arteries. We defined vessels with "Moderate CAD" as vessels with FFR, 0.81 to 0.87. Patients were classified into Group 1: No apparent CAD (FFR>0...
February 15, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448915/shear-conditioning-of-adipose-stem-cells-for-reduced-platelet-binding-to-engineered-vascular-grafts
#12
Anh La, Robert T Tranquillo
Conferring anti-thrombogenicity to tissue-engineered vascular grafts remains a major challenge, especially for urgent bypass grafting that excludes approaches based on expanding autologous endothelial cells that requires weeks of cell culture. Adipose-derived stem cells are available from most patients in sufficient number for coronary bypass graft seeding and may be effective as allogeneic cells. We thus compared the adhesion and platelet binding of human adipose-derived stem cells that were shear-conditioned with steady and pulsatile shear stress after seeding the cells on a biologically-engineered matrix suitable for arterial grafts...
February 16, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447788/the-influence-of-febuxostat-on-coronary-artery-endothelial-dysfunction-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-a-phase-4-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-crossover-trial
#13
Allison G Hays, Micaela Iantorno, Michael Schär, Shenghan Lai, Matthew Czarny, Elayne Breton, Robert N Palmer, Andrew Whelton, Robert G Weiss, Gary Gerstenblith
BACKGROUND: The xanthine oxidase (XO) system is a significant source of vascular oxidative stress, which is believed to impair endothelial function, an important contributor to atherosclerotic disease. We tested whether febuxostat, a potent XO inhibitor, improves coronary endothelial function (CEF) in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) in a single-center, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover trial. METHODS: CEF was measured using noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment of changes in 30 patients with stable CAD and baseline impaired CEF...
March 2018: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447342/diagnosing-coronary-artery-disease-after-a-positive-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography-the-dan-nicad-open-label-parallel-head-to-head-randomized-controlled-diagnostic-accuracy-trial-of-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-and-myocardial-perfusion-scintigraphy
#14
L Nissen, S Winther, J Westra, J A Ejlersen, C Isaksen, A Rossi, N R Holm, G Urbonaviciene, L C Gormsen, L H Madsen, E H Christiansen, M Maeng, L L Knudsen, L Frost, L Brix, H E Bøtker, S E Petersen, M Bøttcher
Aims: Perfusion scans after coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) may reduce unnecessary invasive coronary angiographies (ICAs). However, the diagnostic accuracy of perfusion scans after primary CCTA is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) against ICA with fractional flow reserve (FFR) in patients suspected of CAD by CCTA...
February 13, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446567/prognostic-value-of-the-index-of-microcirculatory-resistance-after-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-in-patients-with-non-st-segment-elevation-acute-coronary-syndrome
#15
Tadashi Murai, Taishi Yonetsu, Yoshihisa Kanaji, Eisuke Usui, Masahiro Hoshino, Masahiro Hada, Rikuta Hamaya, Yoshinori Kanno, Tetsumin Lee, Tsunekazu Kakuta
BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of physiological indices in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is unknown. We investigated the prognostic efficacy of physiological indices obtained after PCI in patients with NSTE-ACS. METHODS: Eighty-three patients (men: n = 70, age: 63.7 ± 9.7 years) undergoing PCI for NSTE-ACS within 48 hr postadmission were investigated. Fractional flow reserve (FFR), coronary flow reserve (CFR), and the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) of the culprit vessels were measured after the completion of PCI...
February 15, 2018: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445973/is-heart-rate-response-a-reliable-marker-of-adenosine-induced-coronary-hyperemia
#16
Bhavik N Modi, Haseeb Rahman, Sara Abou Sherif, Howard Ellis, Kseniia Eruslanova, Amedeo Chiribiri, Divaka Perera
Introduction Growing evidence supports ischemia-guided management of chest pain, with invasive and non-invasive tests reliant upon achieving adenosine-induced coronary hyperemia (defined as increased blood flow to an organ's perfusion bed). In the non-invasive setting, surrogate markers of hyperemia, such as increases in heart rate, are often used, despite not being formally validated. We tested whether heart rate and other non-invasive indices are reliable markers of coronary hyperemia. Methods The first part involved Doppler flow-based validation of the best pressure-wire markers of hyperemia in 53 patients...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444520/remodeling-of-wall-mechanics-and-the-myogenic-mechanism-of-rat-intramural-coronary-arterioles-in-response-to-a-short-term-daily-exercise-program-role-of-endothelial-factors
#17
Mária Szekeres, György L Nádasy, Gabriella Dörnyei, Annamária Szénási, Akos Koller
PURPOSE: Exercise elicits early adaptation of coronary vessels enabling the coronary circulation to respond adequately to higher flow demands. We hypothesized that short-term daily exercise induces biomechanical and functional remodeling of the coronary resistance arteries related to pressure. METHODS: Male rats were subjected to a progressively increasing 4-week treadmill exercise program (over 60 min/day, 1 mph in the final step). In vitro pressure-diameter measurements were performed on coronary segments (119 ± 5 μm in diameter at 50 mm Hg) with microarteriography...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440624/aminophylline-for-preventing-bradyarrhythmias-during-orbital-or-rotational-atherectomy-of-the-right-coronary-artery
#18
Michael Megaly, Yader Sandoval, Matthew P Lillyblad, Emmanouil S Brilakis
BACKGROUND: Coronary atherectomy, orbital or rotational, is frequently used for plaque modification in patients with heavily calcified lesions. Atherectomy can be associated with clinically significant bradyarrhythmias or transient atrioventricular block requiring temporary pacemaker insertion, mainly in lesions involving the right coronary artery or a dominant left circumflex artery. Bradyarrhythmias may be mediated by endogenous release of adenosine from red blood cell breakdown. Aminophylline, an adenosine antagonist, can prevent adenosine-mediated bradyarrhythmias...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Invasive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438436/assessment-of-coronary-vascular-function-with-cardiac-pet-in-relation-to-serum-uric-acid
#19
Seoyoung C Kim, Nishant R Shah, James R Rogers, Courtney F Bibbo, Marcelo F Di Carli, Daniel H Solomon
BACKGROUND: Elevated serum uric acid (SUA) levels have been independently associated with cardiovascular disease. Stress myocardial perfusion positron emission tomography (PET) allows for measurement of absolute myocardial blood flow (MBF) and quantification of global left ventricular coronary flow reserve (CFR). A CFR <2.0 is considered impaired coronary vascular function, and it is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. We evaluated the relationship between SUA and PET-measured markers of coronary vascular function...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437033/the-impact-of-objective-mathematical-analysis-during-fractional-flow-reserve-measurement-results-from-the-oma-ffr-study
#20
Martina I Sciola, Paul D Morris, Rebecca Gosling, Patricia V Lawford, D Rodney Hose, Julian P Gunn
AIMS: Fractional flow reserve (FFR), the reference-standard for guiding coronary revascularisation, is most commonly acquired during intravenous adenosine infusion. Results may be sensitive to system- and operator-dependent variability in how pressure data are analysed and interpreted. We developed a computational protocol to process the recorded pressure signals in a consistent manner to objectively quantify FFR. We studied the impact upon lesion (re)classification and compared this with the operator-selected FFR obtained during cardiac catheterisation...
February 13, 2018: EuroIntervention
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