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Cough approach

Fariha Hasan, Mohammad O Khan, Mukarram Ali
Introduction Pakistan is extremely susceptible to an influenza outbreak, as it shares borders with the most affected countries, namely China and India. The medical and dental students come into direct contact with the affected population and should be aware of the risk factors and signs and symptoms pertaining to swine influenza virus (SIV). Hence, this survey was conducted to assess the knowledge, perceptions and self-care practices of the medical and dental students with regards to this pandemic. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the swine flu-related knowledge, attitudes and practices of the medical and dental students at various institutions in Karachi, Pakistan...
January 9, 2018: Curēus
Rana Ahmed, Ryan Robinson, Asma Elsony, Rachael Thomson, S Bertel Squire, Rasmus Malmborg, Peter Burney, Kevin Mortimer
INTRODUCTION: Data collection using paper-based questionnaires can be time consuming and return errors affect data accuracy, completeness, and information quality in health surveys. We compared smartphone and paper-based data collection systems in the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study in rural Sudan. METHODS: This exploratory pilot study was designed to run in parallel with the cross-sectional household survey. The Open Data Kit was used to programme questionnaires in Arabic into smartphones...
2018: PloS One
Pankaj Baral, Benjamin D Umans, Lu Li, Antonia Wallrapp, Meghna Bist, Talia Kirschbaum, Yibing Wei, Yan Zhou, Vijay K Kuchroo, Patrick R Burkett, Bryan G Yipp, Stephen D Liberles, Isaac M Chiu
Lung-innervating nociceptor sensory neurons detect noxious or harmful stimuli and consequently protect organisms by mediating coughing, pain, and bronchoconstriction. However, the role of sensory neurons in pulmonary host defense is unclear. Here, we found that TRPV1+ nociceptors suppressed protective immunity against lethal Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia. Targeted TRPV1+ -neuron ablation increased survival, cytokine induction, and lung bacterial clearance. Nociceptors suppressed the recruitment and surveillance of neutrophils, and altered lung γδ T cell numbers, which are necessary for immunity...
March 5, 2018: Nature Medicine
Shuai Ren, Yan Shi, Maolin Cai, Hongmei Zhao, Zhaozhi Zhang, Xiaohua Douglas Zhang
Coughing is an irritable reaction that protects the respiratory system from infection and improves mucus clearance. However, for the patients who cannot cough autonomously, an assisted cough device is essential for mucus clearance. Considering the low efficiency of current assisted cough devices, a new simulated cough device based on the pneumatic system is proposed in this paper. Given the uncertainty of airflow rates necessary to clear mucus from airways, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) Eulerian Wall Film (EWF) model and cough efficiency (CE) were used in this study to simulate the cough process and evaluate cough effectiveness...
March 5, 2018: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
S Mantziari, C Mariette, G Piessen
A Zenker's or pharyngoesophageal diverticulum may represent a rare cause of upper digestive obstruction, or more often, cervical dysphagia, regurgitations and cough. It develops most often on the posterior left side of cervical oesophagus in elderly patients, and depending on the severity of clinical symptoms may warrant surgical or endoscopic treatment. For large lesions with a difficult endoscopic access to the diverticular neck, surgery is recommended. In our case, we illustrate a giant right-sided Zenker's diverticulum responsible for complete aphagia in a 78-year-old male patient...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Visceral Surgery
Hee Kong Fong, Obai Abdullah, Sandeep Gautam
A 59-year-old woman with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) presented with severe non-productive cough, malaise, low-grade fever and AF flare-up 3 weeks following pulmonary vein isolation with radiofrequency catheter ablation. She denied chest pain or dyspnoea. Patient was haemodynamically stable. There was no pulsus paradoxus. Laboratories showed leucocytosis and elevated C-reactive protein. ECG showed sinus tachycardia. CT abdomen and pelvis showed a large pericardial effusion (PE). Shortly after admission, she developed AF with rapid ventricular response, responsive to intravenous amiodarone...
February 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Zi-Fang Zheng, Li-Min Wu, Chen-Xing Jian, Wei Liu
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate retrospectively the safety, efficacy, and feasibility of 3-dimensional (3D) endoscopic thyroid lobectomy via a trans-thoracoareolar approach in comparison with the 2-dimensional (2D) approach. METHODS: We performed a retrospective and cross-sectional analysis of the data of 100 patients who underwent endoscopic thyroid lobectomy via the trans-thoracoareolar approach between January 2014 and November 2016. The patients were classified into 2 equal groups depending on whether the 3D or 2D endoscopic approach was employed...
February 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
M Gelardi, G Ciprandi
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a common disease usually limited to the oesophagus. Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is an inflammatory reaction of the mucosa of pharynx, larynx, and other associated upper respiratory organs, caused by a reflux of stomach contents outside the oesophagus. LPR is considered to be a relatively new clinical entity with a vast number of clinical manifestations which are treated sometimes empirically and without a correct diagnosis. However, there is disagreement between specialists about its definition and management: gastroenterologists consider LPR to be a substantially rare manifestation of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), whereas otolaryngologists believe that LPR is an independent, but common in their practice, disorder...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Yasmin Jahan, Sm Atiqur Rahman, Abu Sayeed Chowdhury, Md Moshiur Rahman
Background: Pneumonia is a major cause of child mortality among children under 5 years, worldwide. Pneumonia infection may be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi in single or in both lungs. According to recent criteria developed by the World Health Organization(WHO) in September (2013), pneumonia can be classified into severe pneumonia, pneumonia and no pneumonia. Most of the deaths occur from severe pneumonia. Methods: Disease management of severe childhood pneumonia requires early identification,prompt referral and the availability of intensive quality care...
2018: Health Promotion Perspectives
Heather L Gelhorn, Anne M Skalicky, Zaneta Balantac, Sonya Eremenco, Tricia Cimms, Katarina Halling, Patricia J Hollen, Richard J Gralla, Martin C Mahoney, Chris Sexton
PURPOSE: Obtaining qualitative data directly from the patient perspective enhances the content validity of patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments. The objective of this qualitative study was to evaluate the content validity of the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale for Mesothelioma (LCSS-Meso) and its usability on an electronic device. METHODS: A cross-sectional methodological study, using a qualitative approach, was conducted among patients recruited from four clinical sites...
February 1, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Sina Cai, Huan Deng, Yinkui Chen, Xing Wu, Xiaoqian Guan
RATIONALE: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare type thyroid carcinoma originating from the thyroid parafollicular cells (C cells). Chemotherapy has a limited efficacy for treating persistent or recurrent MTC. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 46-year-old woman who underwent thyroidectomy for MTC in December 2007. She began experience recurring diarrhea in January 2015 and started to cough and feel shortness of breath in March 2016. DIAGNOSES: A chestcomputed tomography (CT) scan showed metastases in the bilateral lungs, pulmonary hilum, and mediastinal lymph nodes...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ali Nikdel, Richard D Braatz, Hector M Budman
Dynamic flux balance analysis (DFBA) has become an instrumental modeling tool for describing the dynamic behavior of bioprocesses. DFBA involves the maximization of a biologically meaningful objective subject to kinetic constraints on the rate of consumption/production of metabolites. In this paper, we propose a systematic data-based approach for finding both the biological objective function and a minimum set of active constraints necessary for matching the model predictions to the experimental data. The proposed algorithm accounts for the errors in the experiments and eliminates the need for ad hoc choices of objective function and constraints as done in previous studies...
February 1, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Sook Young Lee, Yun Yong Jeong, Byung Ho Lee, Ji Eun Kim
Purpose: Cough on anesthetic emergence should be prevented considering its dangerous complications. Target-controlled infusion (TCI) of remifentanil can reduce emergence cough effectively, and sex-related differences in effect-site concentration (Ce) of remifentanil have been evaluated in young patients. In this study, we determined the Ce of remifentanil for preventing emergence cough following extubation in male and female elderly patients and evaluated the sex-related difference. Patients and methods: Twenty-three male and 22 female elderly patients aged between 60 and 75 years were enrolled...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Fermín López-Rivera, Xavier Colón Rivera, Hernán A González Monroig, Juan Garcia Puebla
BACKGROUND Pneumonia is one of the most common causes of death from infectious disease in the United States (US). Although most cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are secondary to bacterial infection, up to one-third of cases are secondary to viral infection, most commonly due to rhinovirus and influenza virus. Pneumonia due to herpes simplex virus (HSV) is rare, and there is limited knowledge of the pathogenesis and clinical complications. This report is of a fatal case of HSV pneumonia associated with bilateral pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum...
January 30, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Elenia Cinelli, Ludovica Iovino, Fulvia Bongianni, Tito Pantaleo, Donatella Mutolo
A cholinergic system has been described in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS). However, no information is available on the role played by acetylcholine (ACh) in the modulation of the cough reflex within the caudal NTS that has an important function in cough regulation. We addressed this issue making use of bilateral microinjections (30-50 nl) of 10 mM ACh combined with 5 mM physostigmine as well as of 10 mM mecamylamine or 10 mM scopolamine into the caudal NTS of pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rabbits...
January 21, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Louise M Fuller, Doa El-Ansary, Brenda Button, Janet Bondarenko, Silvana Marasco, Greg Snell, Anne E Holland
A surgical incision for bilateral sequential lung transplantation (BSLTX) is the "clam shell" (CSI) approach via bilateral anterior thoracotomies and a transverse sternotomy to allow for sequential replacement of the lungs. This can be associated with significant post-operative pain, bony overriding or sternal instability. The sternal instability scale (SIS) is a non-invasive manual assessment tool that can be used to detect early bony non-union or instability following CSI; however, its reliability is unknown...
January 25, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
Marie F A Wright, Ian M Balfour-Lynn
OBJECTIVES: Our therapeutic approach to a habit/tic cough is simple reassurance in a single consultation. To quality assure our practice, we followed up children to determine outcomes at least 3 months after diagnosis. DESIGN: Consecutive children diagnosed over 6 years were studied. Medical records were analyzed retrospectively and parents answered a scripted verbal survey. RESULTS: Fifty-five patients were diagnosed (median age 9.9 years), with a median cough duration of 3 months (IQR 2-7...
January 24, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
Siyu Zhou, Siyuan Dong, Jiang Du
BACKGROUND: Lymphangioma of the mediastinum is a rare benign tumor, and most of the cases are treated by a surgical approach. CASE PRESENTATION: This work reports the case of a 62-year-old female with a large lymphangioma extending from her neck to her abdomen with dysphagia, dyspnea, and cough for 2 months. Because of the location of the mass, only bilateral excision could remove the multiloculated cyst completely. However, the patient's overall physical condition was very poor, and we thought she could not tolerate the bilateral surgery...
January 24, 2018: BMC Surgery
Mayssaa Fawaz Dabaja, Grazia Greco, Sara Villari, Ali Bayan, Gesualdo Vesco, Valeria Gargano, Maria Arnone, Mohamad Hneino, Rossella Lelli, Mohamad Ezzedine, Atika Berry, Hussein Mortada, Maria Tempesta, Mohamad Mortada
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate, for the first time, the human seroprevalence of Q fever in Lebanon, by assessing the presence of antibodies against the causative agent, Coxiella burnetii. A total number of 421 serum samples (226 females and 196 males) were collected in February 2015 from hospitals and laboratories dispersed in five Lebanese provinces: Akkar, Bekaa, Mount Lebanon, Nabatieh, and South Lebanon. METHODS: Serial testing approach was used...
January 16, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Zhao Geng, YiFei Liu, Yan Gou, QinMei Zhou, ChengJun He, Li Guo, Juan Zhou, Liang Xiong
INTRODUCTION: Bulbus fritillariae cirrhosae (known as Chuān bèi mǔ in China, BFC) contain fritillaria steroidal alkaloids as the bioactive ingredients and are widely used as traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of cough and phlegm. Due to limited wild resources, the cultivated species are becoming predominantly used in Chinese traditional medicine markets. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of different growth stages on the alkaloids of cultivated BFC and establish a reference for quality control and guidance for appropriate harvesting practices...
January 15, 2018: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
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