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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210329/respiratory-illness-in-children-with-disability-a-serious-problem
#1
REVIEW
Marijke Proesmans
KEY POINTS: Children with neurocognitive impairment often present with chronic or recurrent respiratory problems.The respiratory problems have an important impact on quality of life and life expectancy.The underlying causes are multiple: risk of aspiration, insufficient cough, upper airway obstruction and progressive kyphoscoliosis.There is often a complex interplay between these known risk factors.The diagnostic and therapeutic approach should be multidisciplinary. EDUCATIONAL AIMS: To provide data on the prevalence of respiratory problems in children with disability and to increase awareness on this topic...
December 2016: Breathe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196638/japanese-guidelines-for-adult-asthma-2017
#2
REVIEW
Masakazu Ichinose, Hisatoshi Sugiura, Hiroyuki Nagase, Masao Yamaguchi, Hiromasa Inoue, Hironori Sagara, Jun Tamaoki, Yuji Tohda, Mitsuru Munakata, Kohei Yamauchi, Ken Ohta
Adult bronchial asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, and presents clinically with variable airway narrowing (wheezes and dyspnea) and cough. Long-standing asthma induces airway remodeling, leading to intractable asthma. The number of patients with asthma has increased; however, the number of patients who die of asthma has decreased (1.2 per 100,000 patients in 2015). The goal of asthma treatment is to enable patients with asthma to attain normal pulmonary function and lead a normal life, without any symptoms...
February 11, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188210/management-of-oral-secretions-in-neurological-disease
#3
REVIEW
Alexander J McGeachan, Christopher J Mcdermott
Sialorrhoea is a common and problematic symptom that arises from a range of neurological conditions associated with bulbar or facial muscle dysfunction. Drooling can significantly affect quality of life due to both physical complications such as oral chapping, and psychological complications such as embarrassment and social isolation. Thicker, tenacious oral and pharyngeal secretions may result from the drying management approach to sialorrhoea. The management of sialorrhoea in neurological diseases depends on the underlying pathology and severity of symptoms...
February 10, 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159630/improved-method-for-collection-of-sputum-for-tuberculosis-testing-to-ensure-adequate-sample-volumes-for-molecular-diagnostic-testing
#4
Mark Fisher, Tania Dolby, Shireen Surtie, Gaironesa Omar, Nchimunya Hapeela, Debby Basu, Abby DeWalt, David Kelso, Mark Nicol, Sally McFall
The quality and quantity of sputum collected has an important impact on the laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary TB. We conducted a pilot study to assess a new collection cups for the collection of sputum for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. The pilot study utilized the standard collection cup in South Africa demonstrating a mean collection volume of 2.86±2.36SDml for 198 samples; 19% of the specimens contained <1ml and 12% contained >5ml. We designed and tested two novel sputum cups with a narrow bottom section and clear minimum and maximum markings to allow patients and clinicians to know whether sufficient sputum volume has been produced...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154281/fulminant-laryngeal-tracheobronchial-pulmonary-aspergillosis-a-rare-and-fatal-complication-in-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-recipients
#5
Tao Tao, Ying-Hui Zhang, Sheng-Li Xue, De-Pei Wu, Feng Chen
A 23-year-old man who had previously undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) for severe aplastic anemia was diagnosed with invasive laryngeal-tracheobronchial-pulmonary aspergillosis after presenting with a persistent dry cough at six months post-transplantation based on the findings of laryngoscopy and fiberoptic bronchoscopy. A fiberoptic bronchoscope was used to remove the obstructive material from the patient's airway and posaconazole plus caspofungin were administered to successfully to treat the patient...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145196/recognition-and-management-of-foreign-body-ingestion-and-aspiration
#6
Oliver William McKinney, Paul Anthony Heaton, Jane Gamble, Siba Prosad Paul
Foreign body ingestion and foreign body aspiration commonly affect children. The most vulnerable age is between six months and four years, when children tend to explore new objects with their mouths. Many of these events remain asymptomatic, with the swallowed object passing through the gastrointestinal tract without causing harm. However, the frequency of serious complications as a result of the ingestion of hazardous objects has increased in recent years, in particular button batteries and magnets. To increase the likelihood of identifying foreign body ingestion and aspiration, healthcare professionals should maintain a high index of suspicion, be aware of the variation in presentations and include it as a differential diagnosis in children presenting with non-specific symptoms, such as fever, cough, drooling, dysphagia and abdominal pain...
February 1, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108179/symptomatic-treatment-of-cough-among-adult-patients-with-lung-cancer-chest-guidelines-and-expert-panel-report
#7
Alex Molassiotis, Jaclyn A Smith, Peter Mazzone, Fiona Blackhall, Richard S Irwin
BACKGROUND: Cough among patients with lung cancer is a common but often undertreated symptom. We have used a recent Cochrane systematic review, among other sources of evidence, to update the recommendations and suggestions of the CHEST 2006 guideline on this topic. METHODS: The American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) methodologic guidelines and the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation framework were used. The Expert Cough Panel based their recommendations on data from the Cochrane systematic review on the topic, uncontrolled studies, case studies, and the clinical context...
January 17, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104362/use-of-management-pathways-or-algorithms-in-children-with-chronic-cough-chest-guideline-and-expert-panel-report
#8
Anne B Chang, John J Oppenheimer, Miles M Weinberger, Bruce K Rubin, Kelly Weir, Cameron C Grant, Richard S Irwin
BACKGROUND: Using management algorithms or pathways potentially improves clinical outcomes. We undertook systematic reviews to examine various aspects in the generic approach (use of cough algorithms and tests) to the management of chronic cough in children (aged ≤14-years) based on key questions using the PICO format. METHODS: We used the CHEST expert cough panel's protocol for the systematic reviews and the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) methodological guidelines and GRADE framework...
January 16, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102319/temporal-topic-modeling-to-assess-associations-between-news-trends-and-infectious-disease-outbreaks
#9
Saurav Ghosh, Prithwish Chakraborty, Elaine O Nsoesie, Emily Cohn, Sumiko R Mekaru, John S Brownstein, Naren Ramakrishnan
In retrospective assessments, internet news reports have been shown to capture early reports of unknown infectious disease transmission prior to official laboratory confirmation. In general, media interest and reporting peaks and wanes during the course of an outbreak. In this study, we quantify the extent to which media interest during infectious disease outbreaks is indicative of trends of reported incidence. We introduce an approach that uses supervised temporal topic models to transform large corpora of news articles into temporal topic trends...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039009/percutaneous-ct-fluoroscopic-guided-radioisotope-seed-placement-for-the-management-of-adenoid-cystic-carcinoma-of-the-trachea
#10
Stephen Doggett, Shigeru Chino, Todd Lempert, Jay Federhart
PURPOSE: Tracheal and paratracheal malignancies present challenges in radiotherapeutic management due to their proximity to sensitive structures, central location, and because of the potential for catastrophic radiation induced fistula. The use of external beam radiation therapy and intraluminal brachytherapy has a limited number of reports in the literature. We have searched for a technique for treating tracheal and paratracheal malignancies allowing application of a high dose of radiation while minimizing dose to normal tissues...
December 27, 2016: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035466/a-rare-postoperative-complication-of-anterior-lower-thoracic-instrumentation-diaphragmatic-laceration-with-hemothorax
#11
Yat Wa Wong, Jason Pui Yin Cheung, Keith Dip Kei Luk, Kenneth Man Chee Cheung
PURPOSE: To highlight the importance of preventing visceral injury due to prominent anterior implants at the spinal column. METHODS: A 52-year-old man with cord compression was treated with a T9/10 discectomy and instrumented fusion via a right thoracotomy and trans-pleural approach. Postoperatively, he had improved lower limb numbness. However, after a bout of coughing, there was sudden increase in chest drain output, hemodynamic instability and massive fluid collection in the right chest cavity...
December 29, 2016: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030345/dictyocaulosis-in-dairy-cows-in-brazil-an-epidemiological-clinical-pathological-and-therapeutic-approach
#12
Luan C Henker, Claiton I Schwertz, Neuber J Lucca, Manoela M Piva, Patricia Giacomin, Anderson Gris, Leandro A Rhoden, Luke J Norbury, Aleksandro S da Silva, Rafael A da Rosa, Ricardo E Mendes
An outbreak of severe parasitic pneumonia caused by Dictyocaulus viviparus was diagnosed in adult dairy cows in the municipality of Arabutã, Southern Brazil. The total morbidity in the herd was 71.9%, and the morbidity amongst adult lactating cattle was 100%. The main clinical signs observed were dyspnea, tachypnea, nasal discharge, decreased milk production, and cough. A necropsy was conducted on one animal in order to establish the diagnosis. The herd had been treated previously with levamisole; however, clinical signs persisted and became worse...
March 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029320/pulmonary-infiltrates-in-a-patient-with-advanced-melanoma
#13
Charles A Powell
The Oncology Grand Rounds series is designed to place original reports published in the Journal into clinical context. A case presentation is followed by a description of diagnostic and management challenges, a review of the relevant literature, and a summary of the authors' suggested management approaches. The goal of this series is to help readers better understand how to apply the results of key studies, including those published in Journal of Clinical Oncology, to patients seen in their own clinical practice...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026144/deciduoid-mesothelioma-of-the-thorax-a-comprehensive-review-of-the-scientific-literature
#14
REVIEW
Panagiotis Paliogiannis, Carlo Putzu, Giorgio Carlo Ginesu, Maria Laura Cossu, Claudio Francesco Feo, Federico Attene, Fabrizio Scognamillo, Rita Nonnis, Antonio Cossu, Giuseppe Palmieri, Pietro Pirina, Alessandro Fois
OBJECTIVE: Deciduoid mesothelioma is a rare variant of malignant epithelioid mesothelioma. It often involves the peritoneum, but also thoracic cases have been reported. The aim of the present review is to describe the demographic, clinical, radiological, and pathological features of such a rare variant of thoracic mesothelioma, and the state of the art regarding the therapeutic approaches currently available. DATA SOURCE: English-language articles published from 1985 to June 2016, and related to thoracic deciduoid mesothelioma cases were retrieved using the Pubmed database...
December 27, 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007874/new-tubeless-video-assisted-thoracoscopic-surgery-for-small-pulmonary-nodules
#15
Shuben Li, Long Jiang, Keng-Leong Ang, Hanzhang Chen, Qinglong Dong, Hanyu Yang, Jingpei Li, Jianxing He
OBJECTIVE: Problems associated with intubation, chest drainage and urinary catheterization can have a negative impact on patient's recovery after thoracic surgery. We therefore evaluated the feasibility of a new tubeless (spontaneous ventilation without tracheal intubation, urinary catheterization, and no post-operative chest drain placement) approach to perform video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) for small pulmonary nodules (SPN) less than 2cm in diameter. METHODS: From 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2014, 34 patients with SPNs were treated using tubeless VATS in our centre...
December 22, 2016: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993578/-sarcomatoid-carcinomas-of-the-lung-a-clinicopathologic-study-of-86-cases-with-a-new-perspective-on-tumor-classification
#16
Annikka Weissferdt, Neda Kalhor, Arlene M Correa, Cesar A Moran
Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma includes a heterogenous group of tumors which is difficult to diagnose and treat. We report the clinicopathological features of 86 such tumors, including 74 pleomorphic and 12 spindle cell carcinomas, and propose a novel approach to the classification of these neoplasms in an attempt to better guide patient management. The patients were 47 males and 39 females aged 36 to 87 years (mean, 63 years) who primarily presented with shortness of breath, cough and chest pain. Eighty-six percent of patients had a smoking history...
December 16, 2016: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989273/beyond-test-and-treat-malaria-diagnosis-for-improved-pediatric-fever-management-in-sub-saharan-africa
#17
Emily White Johansson
BACKGROUND: Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have great potential to improve quality care and rational drug use in malaria-endemic settings although studies have shown common RDT non-compliance. Yet, evidence has largely been derived from limited hospital settings in few countries. This article reviews a PhD thesis that analyzed national surveys from multiple sub-Saharan African countries to generate large-scale evidence of malaria diagnosis practices and its determinants across different contexts...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986981/-pulmonary-causes-of-chest-pain
#18
B Jany
Chest pain represents one of the most frequent symptoms of pulmonary diseases, in addition to dyspnea and cough. The broad differential diagnostics include the intensely painful but prognostically benign acute pleurisy as well as potentially life-threatening events, such as acute pulmonary embolism or malignant chest diseases. Primary spontaneous pneumothorax is characterized by acute chest pain. Pain associated with a respiratory infection, such as pneumonia rarely poses a difficult diagnostic problem. Painful diseases of the lungs can be differentiated in an initial approach by asking the patient if the pain is related to breathing, which is characteristic of pleuritic chest diseases...
January 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981495/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-individualized-therapy-tailored-approach-to-symptom-management
#19
REVIEW
Dave Singh, Marc Miravitlles, Claus Vogelmeier
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. COPD is typified by persistent, progressive airflow limitation and a range of respiratory and systemic symptoms such as breathlessness, coughing, wheezing, depression, anxiety, general fatigue, and sleeping difficulties. Despite receiving treatment for COPD, many patients suffer from regular symptoms that affect their daily lives and lead to increased morbidity. These symptoms vary in severity, frequency, and type, and can occur at any time throughout the 24-h day, with over half of patients with COPD experiencing symptoms in the morning, during the day, and at nighttime...
December 15, 2016: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977296/phosphoinositide-3-kinase-in-asthma-novel-roles-and-therapeutic-approaches
#20
Edwin J Yoo, Christie A Ojiaku, Krishna Sunder, Reynold A Panettieri
Asthma manifests as airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation, including coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath. Immune cells and airway structural cells orchestrate asthma pathophysiology, leading to mucus secretion, airway narrowing, and obstruction. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), a lipid kinase, plays a crucial role in many of the cellular and molecular mechanisms driving asthma pathophysiology, and represents an attractive therapeutic target. Here, we summarize the diverse roles of PI3K in the pathogenesis of asthma and discuss novel therapeutic approaches to treatment...
December 15, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
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