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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346482/24s-hydroxycholesterol-and-25-hydroxycholesterol-differentially-impact-hippocampal-neuronal-survival-following-oxygen-glucose-deprivation
#1
Min-Yu Sun, Amanda Taylor, Charles F Zorumski, Steven Mennerick
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), a major subtype of glutamate receptor mediating excitatory transmission throughout the CNS, participate in ischemia-induced neuronal death. Unfortunately, undesired side effects have limited the strategy of inhibiting/blocking NMDARs as therapy. Targeting endogenous positive allosteric modulators of NMDAR function may offer a strategy with fewer downsides. Here, we explored whether 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-HC), an endogenous positive NMDAR modulator characterized recently by our group, participates in NMDAR-mediated excitotoxicity following oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in primary neuron cultures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343994/revelation-of-the-dynamic-progression-of-hypoxia-reoxygenation-injury-by-visualization-of-the-lysosomal-hydrogen-peroxide
#2
Yuanjun Zhu, Tongliang Zhou, Lingfei Yang, Lan Yuan, Lei Liang, Ping Xu
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) plays an important role in pathological conditions, such as cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury. Fluorescent probes may serve as valuable tools to detect the amount, temporal and spatial distribution of H2O2 in living cells. To investigate the role of lysosomal H2O2 involved in cerebral I-R injury, we designed and synthesized a lysosome-targetable two-photon fluorescent probe ztl-4, through expansion and substitution of the original pyridazinone scaffold, conjugation of electronic-donating aromatic ring and precise terminal modification of the alkyl linker...
March 24, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342896/neuroprotective-and-axonal-outgrowth-promoting-effects-of-tetramethylpyrazine-nitrone-in-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-rats-and-primary-hippocampal-neurons-exposed-to-hypoxia
#3
Tao Zhang, Jianbo Gu, Liangmiao Wu, Ning Li, Yewei Sun, Pei Yu, Yuqiang Wang, Gaoxiao Zhang, Zaijun Zhang
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is an important risk factor for vascular dementia and other brain dysfunctions, for which there are currently no effective medications available. We investigated the neuroprotective and axonal outgrowth promoting effects of tetramethylpyrazine nitrone (TBN) in a permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (2VO) rat model and in primary hippocampal neurons exposed to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD). At 6th week after 2VO, TBN increased the time spent in novel arms in the Y-maze test and improved the discrimination ratio in object reorganization task...
March 22, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336435/in%C3%A2-vitro-model-of-cerebral-ischemia-by-using-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells-derived-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#4
Yasuhiro Kokubu, Tomoko Yamaguchi, Kenji Kawabata
Brain-derived microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs), which play a central role in blood brain barrier (BBB), can be used for the evaluation of drug transport into the brain. Although human BMEC cell lines have already been reported, they lack original properties such as barrier integrity. Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) can be used for various applications such as regenerative therapy, drug screening, and pathological study. In the recent study, an induction method of BMECs from PSCs has been established, making it possible to more precisely study the in vitro human BBB function...
March 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335761/the-effects-of-jiao-tai-wan-on-sleep-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-obesity-resistant-rats-with-chronic-partial-sleep-deprivation
#5
Xin Zou, Wenya Huang, Fuer Lu, Ke Fang, Dingkun Wang, Shuyong Zhao, Jiming Jia, Lijun Xu, Kaifu Wang, Nan Wang, Hui Dong
BACKGROUND: Jiao-Tai-Wan (JTW), composed of Rhizome Coptidis and Cortex Cinnamomi, is a classical traditional Chinese prescription for treating insomnia. Several in vivo studies have concluded that JTW could exert its therapeutical effect in insomnia rats. However, the specific mechanism is still unclear. The present study aimed to explore the effect of JTW on sleep in obesity-resistant (OR) rats with chronic partial sleep deprivation (PSD) and to clarify its possible mechanism. METHODS: JTW was prepared and the main components contained in the granules were identified by 3D-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (3D-HPLC) assay...
March 23, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329677/phd2-targeting-overcomes-breast-cancer-cell-death-upon-glucose-starvation-in-a-pp2a-b55%C3%AE-mediated-manner
#6
Giusy Di Conza, Sarah Trusso Cafarello, Xingnan Zheng, Qing Zhang, Massimiliano Mazzone
B55α is a regulatory subunit of the PP2A phosphatase. We have recently found that B55α-associated PP2A promotes partial deactivation of the HIF-prolyl-hydroxylase enzyme PHD2. Here, we show that, in turn, PHD2 triggers degradation of B55α by hydroxylating it at proline 319. In the context of glucose starvation, PHD2 reduces B55α protein levels, which correlates with MDA-MB231 and MCF7 breast cancer cell death. Under these conditions, PHD2 silencing rescues B55α degradation, overcoming apoptosis, whereas in SKBR3 breast cancer cells showing resistance to glucose starvation, B55α knockdown restores cell death and prevents neoplastic growth in vitro...
March 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326019/nahs-protects-against-the-impairments-induced-by-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-in-different-ages-of-primary-hippocampal-neurons
#7
Qian Yu, Binrong Wang, Tianzhi Zhao, Xiangnan Zhang, Lei Tao, Jinshan Shi, Xude Sun, Qian Ding
Brain ischemia leads to poor oxygen supply, and is one of the leading causes of brain damage and/or death. Neuroprotective agents are thus in great need for treatment purpose. Using both young and aged primary cultured hippocampal neurons as in vitro models, we investigated the effect of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), an exogenous donor of hydrogen sulfide, on oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) damaged neurons that mimick focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induced brain injury. NaHS treatment (250 μM) protected both young and aged hippocampal neurons, as indicated by restoring number of primary dendrites by 43...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322926/caffeine-inhibition-of-glut1-is-dependent-on-the-activation-state-of-the-transporter
#8
Leesha K Gunnink, Brianna M Busscher, Jeremy A Wodarek, Kylee A Rosette, Lauren E Strohbehn, Brendan D Looyenga, Larry L Louters
Caffeine has been shown to be a robust uncompetitive inhibitor of glucose uptake in erythrocytes. It preferentially binds to the nucleotide-binding site on GLUT1 in its tetrameric form and mimics the inhibitory action of ATP. Here we demonstrate that caffeine is also a dose-dependent, uncompetitive inhibitor of 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) uptake in L929 fibroblasts. The inhibitory effect on 2DG uptake in these cells was reversible with a rapid onset and was additive to the competitive inhibitory effects of glucose itself, confirming that caffeine does not interfere with glucose binding...
March 17, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322445/transplantation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-overexpressing-il10-attenuates-cardiac-impairments-in-rats-with-myocardial-infarction
#9
Xin Meng, Jianping Li, Ming Yu, Jian Yang, Minjuan Zheng, Jinzhou Zhang, Chao Sun, Hongliang Liang, Liwen Liu
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) has been well known to exert therapeutic potential for patients with myocardial infarction (MI). In addition, interleukin-10 (IL10) could attenuate MI through suppressing inflammation. Thus, the combination of MSC implantation with IL10 delivery may extend health benefits to ameliorate cardiac injury after MI. Here we established overexpression of IL10 in bone marrow-derived MSC through adenoviral transduction. Cell viability, apoptosis and IL10 secretion under ischemic challenge in vitro were examined...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320085/down-regulation-of-microrna-142-5p-attenuates-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-and-reoxygenation-induced-neuron-injury-through-up-regulating-nrf2-are-signaling-pathway
#10
Ning Wang, Lingmin Zhang, Yang Lu, Mingxin Zhang, Zhenni Zhang, Kui Wang, Jianrui Lv
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play vital roles in regulating neuron survival during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. miR-142-5p is reported to be an important regulator of cellular survival. However, little is known about the role of miR-142-5p in regulating neuron survival during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. In this study, we aimed to investigate the precise function and mechanism of miR-142-5p in the regulation of neuron ischemia/reperfusion injury using a cellular model of oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R)-induced injury in hippocampal neurons in vitro...
March 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320070/dexpramipexole-improves-bioenergetics-and-outcome-in-experimental-stroke
#11
Mirko Muzzi, Elisabetta Gerace, Daniela Buonvicino, Elisabetta Coppi, Francesco Resta, Laura Formentini, Riccardo Zecchi, Laura Tigli, Daniele Guasti, Martina Ferri, Emidio Camaioni, Alessio Masi, Domenico E Pellegrini-Giampietro, Guido Mannaioni, Daniele Bani, Anna M Pugliese, Alberto Chiarugi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of dexpramipexole, a drug recently tested in ALS patients able to bind F1Fo ATP synthase and increase mitochondrial ATP production, on experimental ischemic brain injury. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The effects of dexpramipexole on bioenergetics, Ca(2+) fluxes, electrophysiological functions and death were evaluated in primary neural cultures and hippocampal slices exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). The drug's impact on infarct volumes and neurological functions was also evaluated in mice subjected to proximal or distal MCAo...
March 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319589/exercise-improves-v-combining-dot-above-o-2max-and-body-composition-in-adt-treated-prostate-cancer-patients
#12
Bradley A Wall, Daniel A Galvão, Naeem Fatehee, Dennis R Taaffe, Nigel Spry, David Joseph, Jeffrey J Hebert, Robert U Newton
INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men and patients treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) experience unfavourbale changes in body composition and associated metabolic complications, which can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. We examined the effect of a 6-month program of aerobic and resistance exercise aimed at improving body composition and cardiorespiratory health in this population. METHODS: Ninety-seven men (43-90 years) with localized prostate cancer receiving ADT were randomized to either exercise (EX, n=50) or usual care (CON, n=47)...
March 18, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316022/suppression-of-inner-mitochondrial-membrane-peptidase-2-like-immp2l-gene-exacerbates-hypoxia-induced-neural-death-under-high-glucose-condition
#13
Yi Ma, Zijing Zhang, Zhirong Chen, Nina Ma, Shihui Sun, Jingwen Zhang, Xinli Ni, Jianzhong Zhang, P Andy Li
It is known that diabetes hyperglycemia enhances cerebral ischemia and reperfusion induced damage. We have previously shown that mutation of inner mitochondrial membrane peptidase 2-like (IMMP2L) increases brain damage caused by transient cerebral ischemia. In this study, we attempt to examine the impact of IMMP2L deficiency on an in vitro model that mimics the diabetic hypoxic conditions. Normal IMMP2L wild type and IMMP2L gene deleted HT22 cells were cultured. Hypoxia was induced under high glucose and acidic conditions with 4 h of oxygen deprivation...
March 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316021/hemin-protects-against-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-induced-apoptosis-activation-via-neuroglobin-in-sh-sy5y-cells
#14
Yun-Jia Wang, Qian-Yi Peng, Song-Yun Deng, Cai-Xia Chen, Long Wu, Li Huang, Li-Na Zhang
This study aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effect of hemin in oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-treated neurons. OGD-treated SH-SY5Y cells (human neuroblastoma cells) were used in the study. The cellular viability of SH-SY5Y cells was assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and the cell apoptosis rate was determined by flow cytometry analysis with Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide staining with or without hemin pretreatment...
March 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315110/impact-of-astrocytes-on-the-injury-induced-by-in-vitro-ischemia
#15
Cláudio Roque, Graça Baltazar
Cell cultures are characterized by their simplicity, controllability, and ability to provide detailed basic information on how a particular cell population responds to specific stimuli or insult. These characteristics led to their extensive application in the study of molecular interactions and represent a valuable tool in the study of different pathologies. However, due to the lack of interactions between the different components that form an in vivo system, the results obtained in pure cell cultures not always translate what occurs in vivo...
March 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314243/parthenolide-attenuates-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-akt-gsk-3%C3%AE-pathway-in-pc12-cells
#16
Jun-Feng Zhang, Li Zhang, Li-Li Shi, Zhao-Hua Zhao, Hao Xu, Fei Liang, Hong-Bo Li, Yan Zhao, Xi Xu, Ke Yang, Ying-Fang Tian
Parthenolide (PN), a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from the herbal medicine feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), was reported to possess neuroprotective activity. However, the neuroprotective effect of PN against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore the neuroprotective effects of PN against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells and the underlying mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that PN ameliorated OGD/R-evoked neuronal injury and oxidative stress in PC12 cells...
March 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303501/isoflurane-postconditioning-inhibits-tpa-induced-matrix-metalloproteinases-activation-after-hypoxic-injury-via-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related-protein-and-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-pathway
#17
So Yeon Kim, So Yeong Cheon, Eun Jung Kim, Jae Hoon Lee, Eun Hee Kam, Jeong Min Kim, Miran Park, Bon-Nyeo Koo
Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only recommended pharmacological treatment for acute ischemic stroke. However, tPA can induce intracerebral hemorrhage by blood-brain barrier breakdown through an increase in matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Previously, we showed that isoflurane postconditioning reduced intracranial hemorrhage following tPA treatment after cerebral ischemia. Here, we investigated the mechanism by which isoflurane postconditioning reduces tPA-induced MMP-2 and MMP-9 activation following hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) in brain endothelial cells...
March 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299915/metabolism-plays-the-key-roles-in-th-cells-differentiation
#18
A Hosseinzadeh, S Soukhtehzari, M Ghaedi, R Mansouri
The increasing rate of autoimmunity in recent decades cannot be related to only genetic instabilities and disorders. Diet can directly influence our health. Studies have shown that there is a relationship between nutritional elements and alteration in the immune system. Among immune cells, the function of T lymphocyte is important in directing immune response. T CD4+ cells lead other immune cells to respond to pathogens by secreting cytokines. HIV+ patients, who have largely lost their T CD4+ cells, are susceptible to opportunistic infections, which do not normally affect healthy people...
December 31, 2016: Reumatismo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298535/resistant-starch-but-not-enzymatically-modified-waxy-maize-delays-development-of-diabetes-in-zucker-diabetic-fatty-rats
#19
Mette Skou Hedemann, Kjeld Hermansen, Sven Pedersen, Knud Erik Bach Knudsen
Background: The incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide, and nutritional management of circulating glucose may be a strategic tool in the prevention of T2D.Objective: We studied whether enzymatically modified waxy maize with an increased degree of branching delayed the onset of diabetes in male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats.Methods: Forty-eight male ZDF rats, aged 5 wk, were divided into 4 groups and fed experimental diets for 9 wk that contained 52.95% starch: gelatinized corn starch (S), glucidex (GLU), resistant starch (RS), or enzymatically modified starch (EMS)...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294336/adenosine-production-by-brain-cells
#20
Edwin K Jackson, Shawn E Kotermanski, Elizabeth V Menshikova, Raghvendra K Dubey, Travis C Jackson, Patrick M Kochanek
The early release of adenosine following traumatic brain injury (TBI) suppresses seizures and brain inflammation; thus, it is important to elucidate the cellular sources of adenosine following injurious stimuli triggered by TBI so that therapeutics for enhancing the early adenosine-release response can be optimized. Using mass spectrometry with (13) C-labelled standards, we investigated in cultured rat neurons, astrocytes, and microglia the effects of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD; models energy failure), H2 O2 (produces oxidative stress), and glutamate (induces excitotoxicity) on intracellular and extracellular levels of 5'-AMP (adenosine precursor), adenosine, and inosine and hypoxanthine (adenosine metabolites)...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
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