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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821788/bioenergetic-adaptations-in-chemoresistant-ovarian-cancer-cells
#1
Sajad Dar, Jasdeep Chhina, Ismail Mert, Dhananjay Chitale, Thomas Buekers, Hareena Kaur, Shailendra Giri, Adnan Munkarah, Ramandeep Rattan
Earlier investigations have revealed that tumor cells undergo metabolic reprogramming and mainly derive their cellular energy from aerobic glycolysis rather than oxidative phosphorylation even in the presence of oxygen. However, recent studies have shown that certain cancer cells display increased oxidative phosphorylation or high metabolically active phenotype. Cellular bioenergetic profiling of 13 established and 12 patient derived ovarian cancer cell lines revealed significant bioenergetics diversity. The bioenergetics phenotype of ovarian cancer cell lines correlated with functional phenotypes of doubling time and oxidative stress...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820290/local-histone-acetylation-by-acss2-promotes-gene-transcription-for-lysosomal-biogenesis-and-autophagy
#2
Xinjian Li, Xu Qian, Zhimin Lu
Overcoming metabolic stress is a critical step in tumorigenesis. Acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) converted from glucose or acetate is a substrate used for histone acetylation to regulate gene expression. However, how acetyl-CoA is produced under nutritional stress conditions is unclear. Herein we report that nutritional stress induces nuclear translocation of ACSS2 (acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2). This translocation is mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent ACSS2 Ser659 phosphorylation and subsequent exposure of the nuclear localization signal of ACSS2 to KPNA1/importin α5 for binding...
August 18, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811348/a-critical-role-of-glutamine-and-asparagine-%C3%AE-nitrogen-in-nucleotide-biosynthesis-in-cancer-cells-hijacked-by-an-oncogenic-virus
#3
Ying Zhu, Tingting Li, Suzane Ramos da Silva, Jae-Jin Lee, Chun Lu, Hyungjin Eoh, Jae U Jung, Shou-Jiang Gao
While glutamine is a nonessential amino acid that can be synthesized from glucose, some cancer cells primarily depend on glutamine for their growth, proliferation, and survival. Numerous types of cancer also depend on asparagine for cell proliferation. The underlying mechanisms of the glutamine and asparagine requirement in cancer cells in different contexts remain unclear. In this study, we show that the oncogenic virus Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) accelerates the glutamine metabolism of glucose-independent proliferation of cancer cells by upregulating the expression of numerous critical enzymes, including glutaminase 2 (GLS2), glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GLUD1), and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2 (GOT2), to support cell proliferation...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810591/dual-character-of-flavonoids-in-attenuating-and-aggravating-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-myocardial-injury
#4
Wenqiang Li, Yun Li, Ruifang Sun, Sumei Zhou, Meifeng Li, Mingchen Feng, Yingguang Xie
The concept that flavonoids exert cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury has been acknowledged by a large body of evidence. However, recent studies reported cardiotoxic effects of certain flavonoids, while the underlying mechanisms have remained largely elusive. Flavonoids have been demonstrated to activate aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr), which is implicated in an array of cell signaling processes. The present study examined the cardioprotective roles of quercetin (Qu) and β-naphthoflavone (β-NF) against I/R injury and explored whether the underlying mechanism proceeds via molecular signaling downstream of Ahr...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808162/listeria-monocytogenes-and-shigella-flexneri-activate-the-nlrp1b-inflammasome
#5
Jana Neiman-Zenevich, Sarah Stuart, Mena Abdel-Nour, Stephen E Girardin, Jeremy Mogridge
Activation of the innate immune receptor NLRP1B leads to the formation of an inflammasome, which induces autoproteolytic processing of pro-caspase-1, and ultimately to the release of inflammatory cytokines and to the execution of pyroptosis. One of the signals to which NLRP1B responds is metabolic stress that occurs in cells deprived of glucose or treated with metabolic inhibitors. NLRP1B might, therefore, sense microbial infection as intracellular pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Shigella flexneri cause metabolic stress as a result of nutrient scavenging and host cell damage...
August 14, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807664/social-interaction-modulates-the-neuroinflammatory-response-to-global-cerebral-ischemia-in-male-mice
#6
Monica M Gaudier-Diaz, Ning Zhang, Adam H Haines, Surbhi, Min Zhou, A Courtney DeVries
Social isolation is a risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, although the underlying mechanisms remain underspecified. Considering the potential of microglia to become sensitized by stressors and their role in neuroinflammation, we hypothesized that social isolation primes microglia, resulting in an exaggerated neuroimmune response to experimental cerebral ischemia. First, major histocompatibility complex II (MHC II) gene expression, an indicator of microglial priming, was compared between mice that were socially isolated or pair-housed...
August 11, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803066/a-novel-ripk1-inhibitor-that-prevents-retinal-degeneration-in-a-rat-glaucoma-model
#7
Yun-Ju Do, Jee-Won Sul, Ki-Hong Jang, Nam Sook Kang, Young-Hoon Kim, Young-Gwan Kim, Eunhee Kim
In glaucoma, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are exposed to ischemic stress with elevation of the intraocular pressure and are subsequently lost. Necroptosis, a type of regulated necrosis, is known to play a pivotal role in this loss. We observed that receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1), the key player of necroptosis, was activated by diverse ischemic stresses, including TCZ, chemical hypoxia (CH), and oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD). In this study, we introduce a RIPK1-inhibitory compound (RIC) with a novel scaffold...
August 9, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795674/-effect-of-autophagy-regulator-on-the-injury-of-rat-hippocampal-neurons-induced-by-oxygen-glucose-deprivation
#8
Tianen Zhou, Chaotao Zeng, Jiajun Fang, Longyuan Jiang, Tao Yu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of autophagy regulator on the injury of rat hippocampal neurons induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). METHODS: Rat hippocampal neurons were cultivated in primary and subjected to OGD to simulate neuronal hypoxic ischemia injury for 2 hours or 6 hours followed by reperfusion for 12 hours with or without 3-methyladenine (3-MA, 20 μmol/L) or rapamycin (0.2 μmol/L). The morphology of neurons was observed with optical microscope...
August 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790819/kalopanacis-cortex-extract-capped-gold-nanoparticles-activate-nrf2-signaling-and-ameliorate-damage-in-human-neuronal-sh-sy5y-cells-exposed-to-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-and-reoxygenation
#9
Sun Young Park, Seon Yeong Chae, Jin Oh Park, Kyu Jin Lee, Geuntae Park
Recently, environment-friendly synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) has been extensively explored by biologists and chemists. However, significant research is still required to determine whether "eco-friendly" GNPs are beneficial to human health and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of their effects on human cells. We used human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells to show that treatment with Kalopanacis Cortex extract-capped GNPs (KC-GNs), prepared via an eco-friendly, fast, one-pot synthetic route, protected neuronal cells against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R)-induced damage...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780351/down-regulation-of-lncrna-kcnq1ot1-protects-against-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-following-acute-myocardial-infarction
#10
Xin Li, Yingnan Dai, Shujun Yan, Yanli Shi, Baihe Han, Jingxiu Li, Li Cha, Jianjun Mu
This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of long non-coding RNA KCNQ1OT1 against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury following acute myocardial infarction, as well as its regulatory mechanism. We used the cardiac muscle H9c2 cells under condition of oxygen glucose deprivation followed by reperfusion (OGD/R) to induce myocardial I/R injury. Then H9C2 cells were transfected with si-NC, si-KCNQ1OT1, pc-NC, pc-KCNQ1OT1, si-AdipoR1 and si-AdipoR2, respectively. The myocardial cell viability and apoptosis were respectively detected...
August 2, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776730/effect-of-feed-deprivation-on-selected-parameters-of-lipid-mobilisation-and-hepatic-function-in-healthy-akhal-teke-horses
#11
B Tóth, A Auth, L Rompos, Z Bakos
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal and other systemic diseases of Equidae are often characterised by partial or complete inappetence. The catabolic processes may lead to lipid mobilisation and other metabolic disturbances. Evidence from earlier studies has revealed that during feed deprivation/inappetence, the conjugation of bilirubin is reduced causing a substantial rise of the total bilirubin and its unconjugated fraction. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesised that during feed deprivation, the serum concentration of free fatty acids (FFA), triglycerides (TG), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), total bilirubin (tBIL) total bile acids (tBA) and activity of GGT and GLDH increase, while the concentration of insulin and direct bilirubin (dBIL) decrease...
August 4, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776456/the-role-of-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-response-following-cerebral-ischemia
#12
Gina Hadley, Ain A Neuhaus, Yvonne Couch, Daniel J Beard, Bryan A Adriaanse, Kostas Vekrellis, Gabriele C DeLuca, Michalis Papadakis, Brad A Sutherland, Alastair M Buchan
Background Cornu ammonis 3 (CA3) hippocampal neurons are resistant to global ischemia, whereas cornu ammonis (CA1) 1 neurons are vulnerable. Hamartin expression in CA3 neurons mediates this endogenous resistance via productive autophagy. Neurons lacking hamartin demonstrate exacerbated endoplasmic reticulum stress and increased cell death. We investigated endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in CA1 and CA3 regions following global cerebral ischemia, and whether pharmacological modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress or autophagy altered neuronal viability ...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774372/-expression-rhythm-of-autophagic-gene-in-neurons-of-neonatal-rats-with-hypoxia-ischemia-and-its-regulatory-mechanism
#13
Shi-Ping Li, Jiang-Hu Zhu, Feng-Yan Zhao, Zhen Zheng, De-Zhi Mu, Yi Qu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of autophagic gene and circadian gene in the neurons of neonatal rats after hypoxic-ischemic brain damage and the mechanism of nerve injury induced by hypoxia/ischemia. METHODS: Twelve Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into hypoxic-ischemic (HI) group and sham-operation group, with 6 rats in each group. Ligation of the right common carotid artery and hypoxic treatment were performed to establish a model of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage...
August 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767399/effect-of-p53-on-pancreatic-cancer-glucose-tolerance-abnormalities-by-regulating-transglutaminase-2-in-resistance-to-glucose-metabolic-stress
#14
Xiao Su, Xiangyi He, Qiwen Ben, Weiyi Wang, Huan Song, Qiao Ye, Yi Zang, Weiguang Li, Ping Chen, Weiyan Yao, Yaozong Yuan
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PanCa) is an extremely lethal disease characterized by mutations of p53 in up to 70% of cases. Our previous studies have confirmed that hyperglycemia may be the first clinical manifestation for the early diagnosis of PanCa. In this article, we showed that targeted knockdown of TG2 or p53 in tumor cells led to decreased cell survival in response to glucose deprivation, while this phenomenon was abolished by combined inhibition of TG2 and p53. We observed that inhibition of TG2 or p53 sensitized glucose deprivation resistance through an intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) pathway and the induction of Bcl-2...
July 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765953/atorvastatin-protects-cardiomyocytes-against-ogd-r%C3%A2-induced-apoptosis-by-inhibiting-mir%C3%A2-199a%C3%A2-5p
#15
Yong Li, Ting Jiang, Xingli Fu, Hao Xu, Jianguo Ji
The present study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of atorvastatin against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in cardiomyocytes and its underlying mechanisms. The direct cytotoxic effects of oxygen‑glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) on cardiomyocytes with and without atorvastatin pretreatment were evaluated. The effects of atorvastatin on the expression of glycogen synthase kinase‑3β (GSK‑3β) and microRNA (miR)‑199a‑5p were determined using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) and western blot analyses...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753560/enhancement-of-the-anti-tumor-activity-of-fgfr1-inhibition-in-squamous-cell-lung-cancer-by-targeting-downstream-signaling-involved-in-glucose-metabolism
#16
Claudia Fumarola, Daniele Cretella, Silvia La Monica, Mara A Bonelli, Roberta Alfieri, Cristina Caffarra, Federico Quaini, Denise Madeddu, Angela Falco, Andrea Cavazzoni, Graziana Digiacomo, Giulia Mazzaschi, Valentina Vivo, Elisabetta Barocelli, Marcello Tiseo, Pier Giorgio Petronini, Andrea Ardizzoni
Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) signaling is a complex pathway which controls several processes, including cell proliferation, survival, migration, and metabolism. FGFR1 signaling is frequently deregulated via amplification/over-expression in NSCLC of squamous histotype (SQCLC), however its inhibition has not been successfully translated in clinical setting. We determined whether targeting downstream signaling implicated in FGFR1 effects on glucose metabolism potentiates the anti-tumor activity of FGFR1 inhibition in SQCLC...
July 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751019/the-cystathionine-%C3%AE-synthase-hydrogen-sulfide-pathway-contributes-to-microglia-mediated-neuroinflammation-following-cerebral-ischemia
#17
Minjie Zhang, Xiaowei Wu, Yingxiu Xu, Meijun He, Jiaying Yang, Jie Li, Yuyao Li, Guizhen Ao, Jian Cheng, Jia Jia
The mechanisms underlying neuroinflammation following cerebral ischemia remain unclear. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a newly identified gasotransmitter, has been reported to regulate inflammation. In the current study, we investigated whether the endogenous H2S production pathway contributed to microglia-mediated neuroinflammation following stroke. We used a mouse middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model and an in vitro cellular model to mimic ischemia-induced microglial neuroinflammation. Expression of the H2S synthase cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and H2S synthetic activity were rapidly decreased in the ischemic brain tissue following MCAO...
July 24, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750029/ubiquinol-cytochrome-c-reductase-core-protein-1-may-be-involved-in-delayed-cardioprotection-from-preconditioning-induced-by-diazoxide
#18
Zonghong Long, Guangyou Duan, Hong Li, Tingting Yi, Xiaoxiao Wu, Feng Chen, Zhuoxi Wu, Yuqi Gao
This study aimed to use long-term diazoxide treatment to establish a loss-of-cardioprotection model and then perform proteomics analysis to explore which proteins of mitochondrial inner membrane (MIM) are potentially involved in delayed cardioprotection. Rats received 1 to 8 weeks of diazoxide treatments (20 mg•kg-1•d-1) to establish a loss-of-cardioprotection model in different groups. Detection of serum cTnI levels and cell apoptosis assays in heart tissue were performed. Then, rats MIM after 0, 4 and 6 weeks of diazoxide treatment was isolated and proteomics analysis was performed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747335/crosstalk-between-intracellular-zinc-rises-and-reactive-oxygen-species-accumulation-in-chemical-ischemia
#19
Kira G Slepchenko, Qiping Lu, Yang V Li
Both zinc (Zn(2+)) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to accumulate during hypoxic-ischemic stress and play important roles in pathological processes. Here we studied Zn(2+) and ROS accumulations by employing fluorescent probes in HeLa cells to further the understanding of cause and effect relationship of these two important cellular signaling during chemical-ischemia, stimulated by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). We observed two Zn(2+) rises that were divided into four phases in the course of 30 minutes OGD...
July 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744190/hypoxia-in-cns-pathologies-emerging-role-of-mirna-based-neurotherapeutics-and-yoga-based-alternative-therapies
#20
REVIEW
Gillipsie Minhas, Deepali Mathur, Balakrishnan Ragavendrasamy, Neel K Sharma, Viraaj Paanu, Akshay Anand
Cellular respiration is a vital process for the existence of life. Any condition that results in deprivation of oxygen (also termed as hypoxia) may eventually lead to deleterious effects on the functioning of tissues. Brain being the highest consumer of oxygen is prone to increased risk of hypoxia-induced neurological insults. This in turn has been associated with many diseases of central nervous system (CNS) such as stroke, Alzheimer's, encephalopathy etc. Although several studies have investigated the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying ischemic/hypoxic CNS diseases, the knowledge about protective therapeutic strategies to ameliorate the affected neuronal cells is meager...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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