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snake poison

Juan C Santos, Rebecca D Tarvin, Lauren A O'Connell, David C Blackburn, Luis A Coloma
Symbionts (e.g., endoparasites and commensals) play an integral role in their host's ecology, yet in many cases their diversity is likely underestimated. Although endoparasites are traditionally characterized using morphology, sequences of conserved genes, and shotgun metagenomics, host transcriptomes constitute an underused resource to identify these organisms' diversity. By isolating non-host transcripts from host transcriptomes, individual host tissues can now simultaneously reveal their endoparasite species richness (i...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Cristina Martín-Sierra, Santiago Nogué-Xarau, Miguel Ángel Pinillos Echeverría, José Miguel Rey Pecharromán
Emergencies due to snakebites, although unusual in Spain, are potentially serious. Of the 13 species native to the Iberian peninsula, only 5 are poisonous: 2 belong to the Colubridae family and 3 to the Viperidae family. Bites from these venemous snakes can be life-threatening, but the venomous species can be easily identified by attending to certain physical traits. Signs denoting poisoning from vipers, and the appropriate treatment to follow, have changed in recent years.
2018: Emergencias: Revista de la Sociedad Española de Medicina de Emergencias
Raghavendra Gowda, Rajesh Rajaiah, Nataraj Angaswamy, Sharath Krishna, Vishwanath Bannikuppe Sannanayak
Trimeresurus malabaricus is a venomous pit viper species endemic to southwestern part of India. In earlier reports, we have shown that envenomation by T. malabaricus venom leading to strong local tissue damage but the mechanism of action is not clearly revealed. Local tissue damage affected by T. malabaricus venom is of great importance since the poison has serious systemic effects including death in the case of multiple attacks. The present study details the major manifestations of T. malabaricus venom and the induction of local tissue damage, which suggests that most toxins are present in the form of hydrolytic enzymes...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Tianxi Zhang, Yan Wang, Peng Ye, Jiaji Liu, Yun Cheng, Shuhong Wang, Jan Rohozinski, Yuanyuan Zhang, Anyong Yu
Despite common injury caused by snakebite, snakebite-induced ischemic stroke is rare. We reported on a patient who incurred a large cerebral infarction after being bitten by a Deinagkistrodon acutus, one of the most poisonous snakes in the southwestern of China. Applying 3D computed tomography (CT) of head combined with cerebral angiography examinations showed a large cerebral infarction, hernia in the right brain, developmental abnormalities of the right middle cerebral artery and cerebral artery of right brain...
2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Pieter T J Johnson, Dana M Calhoun, Amber N Stokes, Calvin B Susbilla, Travis McDevitt-Galles, Cheryl J Briggs, Jason T Hoverman, Vasyl V Tkach, Jacobus C de Roode
1.Classical research on animal toxicity has focused on the role of toxins in protection against predators, but recent studies suggest these same compounds can offer a powerful defense against parasites and infectious diseases. 2.Newts in the genus Taricha are brightly colored and contain the potent neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin (TTX), which is hypothesized to have evolved as a defense against vertebrate predators such as garter snakes. However, newt populations often vary dramatically in toxicity, which is only partially explained by predation pressure...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Robert K Needleman, Isabelle P Neylan, Timothy Erickson
INTRODUCTION: Climate change has been scientifically documented, and its effects on wildlife have been prognosticated. We sought to predict the overall impact of climate change on venomous terrestrial species. We hypothesize that given the close relationship between terrestrial venomous species and climate, a changing global environment may result in increased species migration, geographical redistribution, and longer seasons for envenomation, which would have repercussions on human health...
January 29, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Joann Schulte, Kurt C Kleinschmidt, Kristina Domanski, Eric Anthony Smith, Ashley Haynes, Brett Roth
OBJECTIVES: Published reports have suggested that the concurrent use of alcohol or drugs occurs among some snakebite victims, but no national assessment of such data exists. METHODS: We used data from US poison control centers collected during telephone calls in calendar years 2000-2013 to compare snake envenomations with concomitant use of drugs, alcohol, or both to snakebites lacking such use. RESULTS: A total of 608 snakebites with 659 instances of concomitant alcohol/drug use were reported, which represent approximately 1% of 92,751 snakebites reported to US poison control centers...
February 2018: Southern Medical Journal
K M Adhikari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
Mo Li, Zhi-Hui Xie, An-Yong Yu, Dong-Po He
BACKGROUND: Snakebites are a neglected threat to global human health with a high morbidity rate. The present study explored the efficacy of antivenom with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) intervention on snakebites, which could provide the experimental basis for clinical adjuvant therapy. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 96) were randomized into four groups: the poison model was established by injecting Deinagkistrodon acutus (D. acutus) venom (0.8 LD50) via the caudal vein; the antivenom group was injected immediately with specific antivenom via the caudal vein after successful establishment of the envenomation model; and the antivenom + HBO group was exposed to HBO environment for 1 h once at predetermined periods of 0 h, 4 h, 12 h, and 23 h after antivenin administration...
February 5, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Vanessa O Zambelli, Gisele Picolo, Carlos A H Fernandes, Marcos R M Fontes, Yara Cury
Animal venoms comprise a complex mixture of components that affect several biological systems. Based on the high selectivity for their molecular targets, these components are also a rich source of potential therapeutic agents. Among the main components of animal venoms are the secreted phospholipases A₂ (sPLA₂s). These PLA₂ belong to distinct PLA₂s groups. For example, snake venom sPLA₂s from Elapidae and Viperidae families, the most important families when considering envenomation, belong, respectively, to the IA and IIA/IIB groups, whereas bee venom PLA₂ belongs to group III of sPLA₂s...
December 19, 2017: Toxins
V Ch Ng, A Ch Lit, O F Wong, M L Tse, H T Fung
INTRODUCTION: Exotic pets are increasingly popular in Hong Kong and include fish, amphibians, reptiles, and arthropods. Some of these exotic animals are venomous and may cause injuries and envenomation to their owners. The clinical experience of emergency physicians in the management of injuries and envenomation by these exotic animals is limited. We reviewed the clinical features and outcomes of injuries and envenomation by exotic pets recorded by the Hong Kong Poison Information Centre...
January 5, 2018: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
Saurabh Bhargava, Ramanjeet Kaur, Rajvinder Singh
Varieties of venomous snakes inhabit in the world which accidentally take thousands of human lives every year. This severe medical emergency constantly persuades national and international health agencies to look at efficient epidemiological profiling of snake-bite cases for the proper management of this sympathetic problem. Establishing the accurate database of snake-bite in humans from different localities of India may perhaps lack certainty due to few inevitable reasons such as consideration of this problem as less emergent problem in disparity to pesticide poisoning, difficulty in the accessibility to rural and tribal areas where chances of snake-bite remain ceiling, lack of inspiring models of snake-bite management training, reduced reporting system, and pitiable maintenance of hospital data in India...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
P N Prasad Maddisetty, V A Doss, Mohanasundaram S, Srinivasarao V, Mohanbabu T
In this study, we have aimed to analyze the phytochemical composition of this plant and the concentration of strychnine and brucine. The identification of bioactive compounds was done by GC-MS with NIST Library. Strychnine and Brucine were quantified using HPLC. Twenty one medicinal bio active compounds were identified from the Strychnos nux-vomica leaf ethanolic extract. Strychnine is showing 28.43% purity and brucine was not detected in GCMS analysis. Quantified the concentration of strychnine (0.6 mg in 500mg of extract) and brucine (1...
November 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Zhipeng Zheng, Gonglei Chen, Wei Liang, Xu Ji, Jing Yin, Meiling Liu, Wentao Chen, Yigang Yu, Wei Chen
OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical efficacy of vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) in the treatment of mixed poisonous snake bite. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted. Forty-three snake bite patients by mixed poisonous snakes admitted to Department of Emergency of the 175th Hospital of People's Liberation Army from February 2015 to February 2017 were enrolled. All patients were divided into routine treatment group (n = 20) and VSD treatment group (n = 23) according to whether early incision decompression and using the VSD technique...
November 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Jon T Sack
Toxins are the poisonous products of organisms. Toxins serve vital defensive and offensive functions for those that harbor them: stinging scorpions, pesticidal plants, sanguinary snakes, fearless frogs, sliming snails, noxious newts, and smarting spiders. For physiologists, toxins are integral chemical tools that hijack life's fundamental processes with remarkable molecular specificity. Our understanding of electrophysiological phenomena has been transformed time and time again with the help of some terrifying toxins...
November 6, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
Fan-Jie Zeng, Cong Chen, Ming-Hua Liu
Antivenom is the most effective method currently available for the treatment of poisonous snake bite. Allergic reactions to antivenom have been reported in the past. Here we shared a case of allergic reactions to antivenom in an old male patient who was bitten twice by the same snake (probably same one) at the same biting site within a month whereas the patient did not show any allergic disorder in the first bitten. Envenomations twice in a short period time by the same kind of snake are very rare. Physician should be alert to the occurrence of allergic reactions in treating this type of patients with antivenom...
July 13, 2017: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
Iris A Holmes, Maggie R Grundler, Alison R Davis Rabosky
Color polymorphism in natural populations can manifest as a striking patchwork of phenotypes in space, with neighboring populations characterized by dramatic differences in morph composition. These geographic mosaics can be challenging to explain in the absence of localized selection because they are unlikely to result from simple isolation-by-distance or clinal variation in selective regimes. To identify processes that can lead to the formation of geographic mosaics, we developed a simulation-based model to explore the influence of predator perspective, selection, migration, and genetic linkage of color loci on allele frequencies in polymorphic populations over space and time...
October 2017: American Naturalist
Huaming Zhong, Shuai Shang, Xiaoyang Wu, Jun Chen, Wanchao Zhu, Jiakuo Yan, Haotian Li, Honghai Zhang
As nontraditional model organisms with extreme physiological and morphological phenotypes, snakes are believed to possess an inferior taste system. However, the bitter taste sensation is essential to distinguish the nutritious and poisonous food resources and the genomic evidence of bitter taste in snakes is largely scarce. To explore the genetic basis of the bitter taste of snakes and characterize the evolution of bitter taste receptor genes (Tas2rs) in reptiles, we identified Tas2r genes in 19 genomes (species) corresponding to three orders of non-avian reptiles...
2017: PeerJ
Stephen J Galli, Philipp Starkl, Thomas Marichal, Mindy Tsai
Mast cells and immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies are thought to promote health by contributing to host responses to certain parasites, but other beneficial functions have remained obscure. Venoms provoke innate inflammatory responses and pathology reflecting the activities of the contained toxins. Venoms also can induce allergic sensitization and development of venom-specific IgE antibodies, which can predispose some subjects to exhibit anaphylaxis upon subsequent exposure to the relevant venom. We found that innate functions of mast cells, including degradation of venom toxins by mast cell-derived proteases, enhanced survival in mice injected with venoms from the honeybee, two species of scorpion, three species of poisonous snakes, or the Gila monster...
2017: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association
Amy Christine Brown
BACKGROUND: No tabular summary of potentially life-threatening, kidney-toxic dietary supplements (DS; includes herbs) based on PubMed case reports is currently available online and continually updated to forewarn United States consumers, clinicians, and companies manufacturing DS. The purpose of this review was to create an online research summary table of kidney toxicity case reports related to DS. METHODS: Documented PubMed case reports (1966 to May 2016, and cross-referencing) of DS appearing to contribute to kidney toxicity were listed in "DS Toxic Tables...
September 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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