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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751894/potential-effects-of-climate-change-on-the-risk-of-accidents-with-poisonous-species-of-the-genus-tityus-scorpiones-buthidae-in-argentina
#1
Pablo Ariel Martinez, Mayane Alves Andrade, Claudio Juan Bidau
The temporal pattern of co-occurrence of human beings and venomous species (scorpions, spiders, snakes) is changing. Thus, the temporal pattern of areas with risk of accidents with such species tends to become dynamic in time. We analyze the areas of occurrence of species of Tityus in Argentina and assess the impact of global climate change on their area of distribution by the construction of risk maps. Using data of occurrence of the species and climatic variables, we constructed models of species distribution (SMDs) under current and future climatic conditions...
June 2018: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751071/protective-effects-of-a-natural-herbal-compound-quercetin-against-snake-venom-induced-hepatic-and-renal-toxicities-in-rats
#2
Abdulrahman K Al-Asmari, Haseeb A Khan, Rajamohamed A Manthiri, Ahmad A Al-Khlaiwi, Bayan A Al-Asmari, Khalid E Ibrahim
Echis pyramidum is a highly poisonous viper snake. Previous studies have shown acute phase hepatic and renal toxicities of Echis pyramidum venom (EPV) in rats. This study reports the protective effects of a natural herbal compound quercetin (QRC) on EPV-induced hepatic and renal toxicities in rats. A singly injection of EPV (4.76 mg/kg) caused significant increase in serum biomarkers of liver and kidney function. Pre-treatment of QRC (10 mg/kg) significantly reduced the toxic effects of EPV on functional impairment in liver and kidneys of rats...
May 8, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720255/enhanced-early-visual-processing-in-response-to-snake-and-trypophobic-stimuli
#3
Jan W Van Strien, Manja K Van der Peijl
BACKGROUND: Trypophobia refers to aversion to clusters of holes. We investigated whether trypophobic stimuli evoke augmented early posterior negativity (EPN). METHODS: Twenty-four participants filled out a trypophobia questionnaire and watched the random rapid serial presentation of 450 trypophobic pictures, 450 pictures of poisonous animals, 450 pictures of snakes, and 450 pictures of small birds (1800 pictures in total, at a rate of 3 pictures/s). The EPN was scored as the mean activity at occipital electrodes (PO3, O1, Oz, PO4, O2) in the 225-300 ms time window after picture onset...
May 2, 2018: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706818/multiple-admissions-to-the-coronary-care-unit-due-to-falsely-elevated-cardiac-troponin
#4
Mohamed Ayan, Zaid Gheith, Aneesha Ananthula, Mohsin Salih, Srikanth Vallurupalli, Jawahar L Mehta
The measurement of cardiac troponin, released from injured cardiomyocytes, is of paramount importance in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. Elevated troponin can be encountered, however, in patients with cardiomyopathy, significant cardiac arrhythmias, vasculitis, right-sided heart strain, critical systemic illnesses, stroke, drug toxicity (such as Adriamycin), poisons (such as snake venoms), renal failure, seizure, and rhabdomyolysis. If the clinical picture is not consistent with any of these causes, a false-positive result should be considered...
April 2018: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551526/diversity-within-diversity-parasite-species-richness-in-poison-frogs-assessed-by-transcriptomics
#5
Juan C Santos, Rebecca D Tarvin, Lauren A O'Connell, David C Blackburn, Luis A Coloma
Symbionts (e.g., endoparasites and commensals) play an integral role in their host's ecology, yet in many cases their diversity is likely underestimated. Although endoparasites are traditionally characterized using morphology, sequences of conserved genes, and shotgun metagenomics, host transcriptomes constitute an underused resource to identify these organisms' diversity. By isolating non-host transcripts from host transcriptomes, individual host tissues can now simultaneously reveal their endoparasite species richness (i...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547237/snakebite-poisoning-in-spain
#6
Cristina Martín-Sierra, Santiago Nogué-Xarau, Miguel Ángel Pinillos Echeverría, José Miguel Rey Pecharromán
Emergencies due to snakebites, although unusual in Spain, are potentially serious. Of the 13 species native to the Iberian peninsula, only 5 are poisonous: 2 belong to the Colubridae family and 3 to the Viperidae family. Bites from these venemous snakes can be life-threatening, but the venomous species can be easily identified by attending to certain physical traits. Signs denoting poisoning from vipers, and the appropriate treatment to follow, have changed in recent years.
2018: Emergencias: Revista de la Sociedad Española de Medicina de Emergencias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528146/biochemical-and-pharmacological-characterization-of-trimersurus-malabaricus-snake-venom
#7
Raghavendra Gowda, Rajesh Rajaiah, Nataraj Angaswamy, Sharath Krishna, Vishwanath Bannikuppe Sannanayak
Trimeresurus malabaricus is a venomous pit viper species endemic to southwestern part of India. In earlier reports, we have shown that envenomation by T. malabaricus venom leading to strong local tissue damage but the mechanism of action is not clearly revealed. Local tissue damage affected by T. malabaricus venom is of great importance since the poison has serious systemic effects including death in the case of multiple attacks. The present study details the major manifestations of T. malabaricus venom and the induction of local tissue damage, which suggests that most toxins are present in the form of hydrolytic enzymes...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480239/three-dimensional-computed-tomography-reconstructive-diagnosis-of-snakebite-induced-cerebral-infarction
#8
Tianxi Zhang, Yan Wang, Peng Ye, Jiaji Liu, Yun Cheng, Shuhong Wang, Jan Rohozinski, Yuanyuan Zhang, Anyong Yu
Despite common injury caused by snakebite, snakebite-induced ischemic stroke is rare. We reported on a patient who incurred a large cerebral infarction after being bitten by a Deinagkistrodon acutus, one of the most poisonous snakes in the southwestern of China. Applying 3D computed tomography (CT) of head combined with cerebral angiography examinations showed a large cerebral infarction, hernia in the right brain, developmental abnormalities of the right middle cerebral artery and cerebral artery of right brain...
2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476541/of-poisons-and-parasites-the-defensive-role-of-tetrodotoxin-against-infections-in-newts
#9
Pieter T J Johnson, Dana M Calhoun, Amber N Stokes, Calvin B Susbilla, Travis McDevitt-Galles, Cheryl J Briggs, Jason T Hoverman, Vasyl V Tkach, Jacobus C de Roode
Classical research on animal toxicity has focused on the role of toxins in protection against predators, but recent studies suggest these same compounds can offer a powerful defense against parasites and infectious diseases. Newts in the genus Taricha are brightly coloured and contain the potent neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin (TTX), which is hypothesized to have evolved as a defense against vertebrate predators such as garter snakes. However, newt populations often vary dramatically in toxicity, which is only partially explained by predation pressure...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395962/potential-environmental-and-ecological-effects-of-global-climate-change-on-venomous-terrestrial-species-in-the-wilderness
#10
Robert K Needleman, Isabelle P Neylan, Timothy Erickson
INTRODUCTION: Climate change has been scientifically documented, and its effects on wildlife have been prognosticated. We sought to predict the overall impact of climate change on venomous terrestrial species. We hypothesize that given the close relationship between terrestrial venomous species and climate, a changing global environment may result in increased species migration, geographical redistribution, and longer seasons for envenomation, which would have repercussions on human health...
January 29, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394429/differences-between-snakebites-with-concomitant-use-of-alcohol-or-drugs-and-single-snakebites
#11
Joann Schulte, Kurt C Kleinschmidt, Kristina Domanski, Eric Anthony Smith, Ashley Haynes, Brett Roth
OBJECTIVES: Published reports have suggested that the concurrent use of alcohol or drugs occurs among some snakebite victims, but no national assessment of such data exists. METHODS: We used data from US poison control centers collected during telephone calls in calendar years 2000-2013 to compare snake envenomations with concomitant use of drugs, alcohol, or both to snakebites lacking such use. RESULTS: A total of 608 snakebites with 659 instances of concomitant alcohol/drug use were reported, which represent approximately 1% of 92,751 snakebites reported to US poison control centers...
February 2018: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386744/one-poison-leads-to-the-other-snake-bite-while-under-the-influence-of-alcohol
#12
K M Adhikari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363648/increased-efficacy-of-antivenom-combined-with-hyperbaric-oxygen-on-deinagkistrodon-acutus-envenomation-in-adult-rats
#13
Mo Li, Zhi-Hui Xie, An-Yong Yu, Dong-Po He
BACKGROUND: Snakebites are a neglected threat to global human health with a high morbidity rate. The present study explored the efficacy of antivenom with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) intervention on snakebites, which could provide the experimental basis for clinical adjuvant therapy. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 96) were randomized into four groups: the poison model was established by injecting Deinagkistrodon acutus (D. acutus) venom (0.8 LD50) via the caudal vein; the antivenom group was injected immediately with specific antivenom via the caudal vein after successful establishment of the envenomation model; and the antivenom + HBO group was exposed to HBO environment for 1 h once at predetermined periods of 0 h, 4 h, 12 h, and 23 h after antivenin administration...
February 5, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311537/secreted-phospholipases-a%C3%A2-from-animal-venoms-in-pain-and-analgesia
#14
REVIEW
Vanessa O Zambelli, Gisele Picolo, Carlos A H Fernandes, Marcos R M Fontes, Yara Cury
Animal venoms comprise a complex mixture of components that affect several biological systems. Based on the high selectivity for their molecular targets, these components are also a rich source of potential therapeutic agents. Among the main components of animal venoms are the secreted phospholipases A₂ (sPLA₂s). These PLA₂ belong to distinct PLA₂s groups. For example, snake venom sPLA₂s from Elapidae and Viperidae families, the most important families when considering envenomation, belong, respectively, to the IA and IIA/IIB groups, whereas bee venom PLA₂ belongs to group III of sPLA₂s...
December 19, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302018/injuries-and-envenomation-by-exotic-pets-in-hong-kong
#15
V Ch Ng, A Ch Lit, O F Wong, M L Tse, H T Fung
INTRODUCTION: Exotic pets are increasingly popular in Hong Kong and include fish, amphibians, reptiles, and arthropods. Some of these exotic animals are venomous and may cause injuries to and envenomation of their owners. The clinical experience of emergency physicians in the management of injuries and envenomation by these exotic animals is limited. We reviewed the clinical features and outcomes of injuries and envenomation by exotic pets recorded by the Hong Kong Poison Information Centre...
February 2018: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289802/epidemiological-profile-of-snake-bite-cases-from-haryana-a-five-year-2011-2015-retrospective-study
#16
Saurabh Bhargava, Ramanjeet Kaur, Rajvinder Singh
Varieties of venomous snakes inhabit in the world which accidentally take thousands of human lives every year. This severe medical emergency constantly persuades national and international health agencies to look at efficient epidemiological profiling of snake-bite cases for the proper management of this sympathetic problem. Establishing the accurate database of snake-bite in humans from different localities of India may perhaps lack certainty due to few inevitable reasons such as consideration of this problem as less emergent problem in disparity to pesticide poisoning, difficulty in the accessibility to rural and tribal areas where chances of snake-bite remain ceiling, lack of inspiring models of snake-bite management training, reduced reporting system, and pitiable maintenance of hospital data in India...
February 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188771/hplc-and-gc-ms-identification-and-quantification-of-strychnine-and-brucine-in-strychnos-nux-vomica-leaves
#17
P N Prasad Maddisetty, V A Doss, Mohanasundaram S, Srinivasarao V, Mohanbabu T
In this study, we have aimed to analyze the phytochemical composition of this plant and the concentration of strychnine and brucine. The identification of bioactive compounds was done by GC-MS with NIST Library. Strychnine and Brucine were quantified using HPLC. Twenty one medicinal bio active compounds were identified from the Strychnos nux-vomica leaf ethanolic extract. Strychnine is showing 28.43% purity and brucine was not detected in GCMS analysis. Quantified the concentration of strychnine (0.6 mg in 500mg of extract) and brucine (1...
November 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151420/-clinical-application-of-vsd-negative-pressure-aspiration-and-detoxification-in-severe-snake-bite
#18
Zhipeng Zheng, Gonglei Chen, Wei Liang, Xu Ji, Jing Yin, Meiling Liu, Wentao Chen, Yigang Yu, Wei Chen
OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical efficacy of vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) in the treatment of mixed poisonous snake bite. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted. Forty-three snake bite patients by mixed poisonous snakes admitted to Department of Emergency of the 175th Hospital of People's Liberation Army from February 2015 to February 2017 were enrolled. All patients were divided into routine treatment group (n = 20) and VSD treatment group (n = 23) according to whether early incision decompression and using the VSD technique...
November 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021149/the-envenomation-of-general-physiology-throughout-the-last-century
#19
Jon T Sack
Toxins are the poisonous products of organisms. Toxins serve vital defensive and offensive functions for those that harbor them: stinging scorpions, pesticidal plants, sanguinary snakes, fearless frogs, sliming snails, noxious newts, and smarting spiders. For physiologists, toxins are integral chemical tools that hijack life's fundamental processes with remarkable molecular specificity. Our understanding of electrophysiological phenomena has been transformed time and time again with the help of some terrifying toxins...
November 6, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988729/allergic-reactions-to-antivenom-in-a-patient-bitten-twice-by-the-same-snake-within-a-month-a-rare-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
Fan-Jie Zeng, Cong Chen, Ming-Hua Liu
Antivenom is the most effective method currently available for the treatment of poisonous snake bite. Allergic reactions to antivenom have been reported in the past. Here we shared a case of allergic reactions to antivenom in an old male patient who was bitten twice by the same snake (probably same one) at the same biting site within a month whereas the patient did not show any allergic disorder in the first bitten. Envenomations twice in a short period time by the same kind of snake are very rare. Physician should be alert to the occurrence of allergic reactions in treating this type of patients with antivenom...
October 2017: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
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