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patient pediatric Community-acquired pneumonia

Magda Yehia El Seify, Eman Mahmoud Fouda, Hanan Mohamed Ibrahim, Maha Muhammad Fathy, Asmaa Al Husseiny Ahmed, Walaa Shawky Khater, Noha Nagi Mohammed Salah El Deen, Heba Galal Mohamed Abouzeid, Nancy Riyad Ahmed Hegazy, Heba Salah Sayed Elbanna
BACKGROUND: While recognizing the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia is necessary for formulating local antimicrobial guidelines, limited data is published about this etiology in Egyptian pediatric patients. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of bacterial and viral pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among immunocompetent Egyptian infants and preschool children. METHODS: Ninety infants and preschool-age children admitted to our hospital with CAP were prospectively included in the study...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Derek J Williams, Yuwei Zhu, Carlos G Grijalva, Wesley H Self, Frank E Harrell, Carrie Reed, Chris Stockmann, Sandra R Arnold, Krow K Ampofo, Evan J Anderson, Anna M Bramley, Richard G Wunderink, Jonathan A McCullers, Andrew T Pavia, Seema Jain, Kathryn M Edwards
BACKGROUND: Substantial morbidity and excessive care variation are seen with pediatric pneumonia. Accurate risk-stratification tools to guide clinical decision-making are needed. METHODS: We developed risk models to predict severe pneumonia outcomes in children (<18 years) by using data from the Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community Study, a prospective study of community-acquired pneumonia hospitalizations conducted in 3 US cities from January 2010 to June 2012...
September 29, 2016: Pediatrics
Le Wang, Mengchuan Zhao, Zhongren Shi, Zhishan Feng, Weiwei Guo, Shuo Yang, Lanping Liu, Guixia Li
The GeXP-based assay has recently been developed for simultaneous detection of multiple pathogens. So far, the application of the GeXP assay to test larger clinical samples has hardly been reported. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the leading cause of death in children worldwide and a substantial proportion of childhood CAP is caused by viruses. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of virus infection is important for the clinical management of CAP. In this study, we explored the GeXP assay for simultaneous detection of 20 types/subtypes of viruses in hospitalized children with CAP...
2016: PloS One
Todd A Riccobene, Tatiana Khariton, William Knebel, Shampa Das, James Li, Alena Jandourek, Timothy J Carrothers, John S Bradley
Ceftaroline, the active form of the pro-drug ceftaroline fosamil, is approved for use in adults with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) or acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) in the United States and similar indications in Europe. Pharmacokinetic (PK) data from five pediatric (birth to <18 years) studies of ceftaroline fosamil were combined with PK data from adults to update a population PK model for ceftaroline and ceftaroline fosamil. This model, based on a dataset including 305 children, was used to conduct simulations to estimate ceftaroline exposures and percentage of time that free drug concentrations were above the minimum inhibitory concentration (%fT>MIC) for pediatric dose regimens...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Susanna Esposito, Sonia Bianchini, Monia Gambino, Barbara Madini, Giada Di Pietro, Giulia Umbrello, Maria Lory Presicce, Luca Ruggiero, Leonardo Terranova, Nicola Principi
BACKGROUND: In this study, we evaluated the lipocalin-2 (LIP2) and syndecan-4 (SYN4) levels in children who were hospitalized for radiologically confirmed CAP in order to differentiate bacterial from viral infection. The results regarding the LIP2 and SYN4 diagnostic outcomes were compared with the white blood cell (WBC) count and C reactive protein (CRP) levels. METHODS: A total of 110 children <14 years old who were hospitalized for radiologically confirmed CAP were enrolled...
2016: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Xiao-Lei Fan, Hai-Ying Li, Xiao-Xin Chen, Lei Xie, Huai-Li Wang
OBJECTIVE: To study the change in serum intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFABP) in children with pneumonia and its correlation with gastrointestinal injury. METHODS: A total of 82 children with community-acquired pneumonia who were treated from January to October, 2015 were enrolled, among whom 34 had mild pneumonia and 48 had severe pneumonia. According to pediatric critical illness score (PCIS), the children with severe pneumonia were further divided into non-critical group (25 patients) and critical group (23 patients)...
July 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Ngai Kien Le, Wertheim Hf, Phu Dinh Vu, Dung Thi Khanh Khu, Hai Thanh Le, Bich Thi Ngoc Hoang, Vu Thanh Vo, Yen Minh Lam, Dung Tien Viet Vu, Thu Hoai Nguyen, Tung Quang Thai, Lennart E Nilsson, Ulf Rydell, Kinh Van Nguyen, Behzad Nadjm, Louise Clarkson, Håkan Hanberger, Mattias Larsson
There is scarce information regarding hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) among children in resource-constrained settings. This study aims to measure prevalence of HAIs in Vietnamese pediatric hospitals.Monthly point prevalence surveys (PPSs) in 6 pediatric intensive care units (ICUs) in 3 referral hospitals during 1 year.A total of 1363 cases (1143 children) were surveyed, 59.9% male, average age 11 months. Admission sources were: other hospital 49.3%, current hospital 36.5%, and community 15.3%. Reasons for admission were: infectious disease (66%), noninfectious (20...
July 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ira Erlichman, Oded Breuer, David Shoseyov, Malena Cohen-Cymberknoh, Benjamin Koplewitz, Diana Averbuch, Matti Erlichman, Elie Picard, Eitan Kerem
: The incidence of pediatric community acquired complicated pneumonia (PCACP) is increasing. Questions addressed: Are different types of PCACP one disease? How do different treatment protocols affect the outcome? METHODS: Retrospective analysis of medical records of PCACP hospitalizations in the three major hospitals in Jerusalem in the years 2001-2010 for demographics, clinical presentation, management, and outcome. RESULTS: Of the 144 children (51% aged 1-4 years), 91% of Jewish origin; 40% had para-pneumonic effusion (PPE), 40% empyema (EMP), and 20% necrotizing pneumonia (NP)...
July 8, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Xiyan Zhang, Jun Zhang, Liling Chen, Luzhao Feng, Hongjie Yu, Genming Zhao, Tao Zhang
BACKGROUND: The disease burden of influenza among children in China has not been well described. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the influenza-associated excess hospitalization rate and compare the hospitalization length and costs between pneumonia and influenza (P&I) and other community-acquired diseases (CAD) in Suzhou, China. METHODS: We retrospectively collected hospital discharge data on pediatric patients' discharge diagnosis, hospital costs and length of hospital stay in Suzhou...
July 6, 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Moran Hausman-Kedem, Shimon Reif, Dana Danino, Rona Limor, Zachary M Grinspan, Anat Yerushalmi-Feler, Amir Ben-Tov, Amir Birger
OBJECTIVE: Hyponatremia is a well-known sequela of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) has a natriuretic effect and was found to be elevated in patients with CAP. We investigated whether BNP has a role in the pathophysiology of hyponatremia in pediatric CAP. METHODS: Serum and urine electrolytes and osmolality, as well as NT-pro-BNP (N-BNP), were obtained in 49 hospitalized pediatric patients with CAP (29 with hyponatremia, 20 with normal sodium levels...
May 31, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Eduardo Jorge da Fonseca Lima, Débora Ellen Pessoa Lima, George Henrique Cordeiro Serra, Maria Anaide Zacche S Abreu E Lima, Maria Júlia Gonçalves de Mello
OBJECTIVE: To assess the adequacy of antibiotic prescription in children hospitalized for pneumonia in a reference pediatric hospital in Brazil. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving children aged between 1 month and 5 years who were hospitalized between October 2010 and September 2013. The classification of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) was based on the clinical and radiological criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO). The analysis of antibiotic adequacy was performed according to the main guidelines on CAP treatment, which include the WHO guidelines, Brazilian Society of Pediatrics guidelines, and international guidelines (Pediatrics Infectious Diseases Society, the Infectious Disease Society of America, British Thoracic Society, and Consenso de la Sociedad latinoamericana de Infectología)...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Tsutomu Yamazaki, Tsuyoshi Kenri
Pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae pneumonia) is a major cause of community-acquired pneumonia worldwide. The surveillance of M. pneumoniae pneumonia is important for etiological and epidemiological studies of acute respiratory infections. In Japan, nation-wide surveillance of M. pneumoniae pneumonia has been conducted as a part of the National Epidemiological Surveillance of Infectious Diseases (NESID) program. This surveillance started in 1981, and significant increases in the numbers of M...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
M Gijón, M Bellusci, B Petraitiene, A Noguera-Julian, V Zilinskaite, P Sanchez Moreno, J Saavedra-Lozano, D Glikman, M Daskalaki, P Kaiser-Labusch, O Falup-Pecurariu, C Montagnani, L Prieto, A Gené, G Trumpulyte, I Kulecnikova, J A Lepe, E Cercenado, R Kudinsky, A Makri, H I Huppertz, L Bleotu, P Cocchi, P García-Hierro, A Vitkauskiene, C Fortuny, V Zukovskaja, O Neth, M Santos, A Rokney, M Petra, R Lixandru, L Galli, S Guillén, F Chaves, P Rojo Conejo
Staphylococcus aureus is the main pathogen responsible for bone and joint infections worldwide and is also capable of causing pneumonia and other invasive severe diseases. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have been studied as factors related with severity in these infections. The aims of this study were to describe invasive community-acquired S. aureus (CA-SA) infections and to analyse factors related to severity of disease. Paediatric patients (aged 0-16 years) who had a CA-SA invasive infection were prospectively recruited from 13 centres in 7 European countries...
July 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Christopher R Cannavino, Agnes Nemeth, Bartosz Korczowski, John S Bradley, Tanya O'Neal, Alena Jandourek, H David Friedland, Sheldon L Kaplan
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) remains a major infection among children, despite the use of pneumococcal vaccination. Ceftaroline fosamil is a broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with activity against many bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae (both penicillin-nonsusceptible and multidrug-resistant strains) and Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant S. aureus). This article describes the safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of ceftaroline fosamil in the treatment of pediatric patients hospitalized with CABP, from a randomized, active-controlled, observer-blinded clinical study (registration number NCT01530763)...
July 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Jeffrey L Blumer, Tina Ghonghadze, Christopher Cannavino, Tanya O'Neal, Alena Jandourek, Hillel David Friedland, John S Bradley
BACKGROUND: The broad-spectrum cephalosporin ceftaroline, a metabolite of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, has shown in vitro activity against clinical isolates from pediatric patients. METHODS: This multicenter, randomized, observer-blinded, active-controlled study (NCT01669980) assessed the safety and effectiveness of ceftaroline fosamil compared with ceftriaxone plus vancomycin in patients between 2 months and 17 years of age with complicated community-acquired bacterial pneumonia...
July 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Shun Kishibe, Yusuke Okubo, Saeko Morino, Shintaro Hirotaki, Tomoyuki Tame, Kotaro Aoki, Yoshikazu Ishii, Norikazu Ota, Satoshi Shimomura, Hiroshi Sakakibara, Toshiro Terakawa, Yuho Horikoshi
Cases of infection with hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae are gradually increasing in number, and cause life-threatening community-acquired infection even in immunocompetent patients. A 14-year-old boy developed septic hip arthritis due to hypervirulent K. pneumoniae (sequence type 23, serotype K1, magA positive). The patient initially seemed to have been successfully treated with antibiotics and surgical intervention, but septic arthritis developed into osteomyelitis of the femoral head and myositis, which required long-term antibiotic therapy and additional surgical intervention...
March 23, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Russell J McCulloh, Karisma Patel
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the most common acute infectious cause of death in children worldwide. Consequently, research into the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of pediatric CAP spans the translational research spectrum. Herein, we aim to review the most significant findings reported by investigators focused on pediatric CAP research that has been reported in 2014 and 2015. Our review focuses on several key areas relevant to the clinical management of CAP. First, we will review recent advances in the understanding of CAP epidemiology worldwide, including the role of vaccination in the prevention of pediatric CAP...
May 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Joshua D Courter, Kristen R Nichols, Christina Kazazian, Jennifer E Girotto
KEY POINTS: Oral levofloxacin is recommended as a preferred treatment for pediatric community-acquired penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. This article describes a pharmacodynamically guided levofloxacin regimen and the probability of the pharmacodynamic target being attained in S pneumoniae isolates collected from pediatric patients. BACKGROUND: Oral levofloxacin is recommended as a preferred treatment for infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae with a penicillin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ≥4 µg/mL and as an alternative for infection with S pneumoniae with a penicillin MIC of ≤2 µg/mL...
February 21, 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Osvaldo Daniel Castelán-Martínez, Elizabeth Hernández-Carbajal, Carlos Eduardo Contreras-García, Nancy Guadalupe Ojeda-Luna, Rodolfo Rivas-Ruiz
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia is an important cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Therefore, our aim was to assess the efficacy and safety of outpatient treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. METHODS: We systematically reviewed randomized clinical trials evaluating efficacy and safety of outpatient treatment (OPT) compared with inpatient treatment (IPT) of community-acquired pneumonia in patients without added co-morbidity. Relative Risk (RR) and 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) were calculated...
January 2016: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
Kavita Parikh, Matt Hall, Anne J Blaschke, Carlos G Grijalva, Thomas V Brogan, Mark I Neuman, Derek J Williams, Jeffrey S Gerber, Adam L Hersh, Samir S Shah
BACKGROUND: National guidelines for the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children were published in 2011. These guidelines discourage most diagnostic testing for outpatients, as well as repeat testing for hospitalized patients who are improving. We sought to evaluate the temporal trends in diagnostic testing associated with guideline implementation among children with CAP. METHODS: Children 1 to 18 years old who were discharged with pneumonia after emergency department (ED) evaluation or hospitalization from January 1, 2008 to June 30, 2014 at any of 32 children's hospitals participating in the Pediatric Health Information System were included...
May 2016: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
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