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NAC patient pediatric

Sadiq Naveed, Afshan Amray, Ahmed Waqas, Amna M Chaudhary, Muhammad W Azeem
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a well-known antidote for acetaminophen toxicity and is easily available over the counter. It has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and an established tolerance and safety profile. Owing to its neuroprotective effects, its clinical use has recently expanded to include the treatment of different psychiatric and non-psychiatric disorders. Although a number of randomized controlled trials have documented the clinical evidence for NAC, there are no reviews that summarize the evidence...
November 29, 2017: Curēus
Edit Dósa, Krisztina Heltai, Tamás Radovits, Gabriella Molnár, Judit Kapocsi, Béla Merkely, Rongwei Fu, Nancy D Doolittle, Gerda B Tóth, Zachary Urdang, Edward A Neuwelt
BACKGROUND: Cisplatin neuro-, oto-, and nephrotoxicity are major problems in children with malignant tumors, including medulloblastoma, negatively impacting educational achievement, socioemotional development, and overall quality of life. The blood-labyrinth barrier is somewhat permeable to cisplatin, and sensory hair cells and cochlear supporting cells are highly sensitive to this toxic drug. Several chemoprotective agents such as N-acetylcysteine (NAC) were utilized experimentally to avoid these potentially serious and life-long side effects, although no clinical phase I trial was performed before...
October 3, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
Pier Luigi Calvo, Francesco Tandoi, Tobias B Haak, Andrea Brunati, Michele Pinon, Dominic Dell Olio, Renato Romagnoli, Marco Spada
BACKGROUND: Pediatric acute-liver-failure due to acetaminophen (APAP) administration at therapeutic dosage is rare, while viral infections and metabolic defects are the prevalent causes. Yet, as acetaminophen is routinely used in febrile illnesses, it may be mistakenly held responsible for the acute liver damage. CASE PRESENTATION: An 11 month old boy had been on acetaminophen for 10 days (total dose 720 mg = 72 mg/kg) when he developed acute-liver-failure with encephalopathy...
September 25, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Yumao Jiang, Yue Jiao, Zhiguo Wang, Tao Li, Yang Liu, Yujuan Li, Xiaoliang Zhao, Danqiao Wang
Glioblastoma is the most common malignant primary brain tumor, and it is one of the causes of cancer fatality in both adult and pediatric populations. Patients with glioblastoma require chemotherapy after surgical resection and radiotherapy. Therefore, chemotherapy constitutes a viable approach for the eradication of glioblastoma cells. In this study, the anti-tumor activity of sinomenine hydrochloride (SH) was evaluated in U87 and SF767 cells in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that SH potently inhibited U87 and SF767 cell viability and did not cause caspase-dependent cell death, as demonstrated by the absence of significant early apoptosis and caspase-3 cleavage...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Robert S B Clark, Philip E Empey, Hülya Bayır, Bedda L Rosario, Samuel M Poloyac, Patrick M Kochanek, Thomas D Nolin, Alicia K Au, Christopher M Horvat, Stephen R Wisniewski, Michael J Bell
BACKGROUND: There are no therapies shown to improve outcome after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in humans, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. We sought to verify brain exposure of the systemically administered antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and the synergistic adjuvant probenecid, and identify adverse effects of this drug combination after severe TBI in children. METHODS: IRB-approved, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled Phase I study in children 2 to 18 years-of-age admitted to a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit after severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score ≤8) requiring an externalized ventricular drain for measurement of intracranial pressure (ICP)...
2017: PloS One
Ahmad Ghanizadeh, Mohammad Reza Mohammadi, Shahla Bahraini, Zahra Keshavarzi, Ali Firoozabadi, Ali Alavi Shoshtari
Objective: Glutamate is considered a target for treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The efficacy and safety of the nutritional supplement of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) as an adjuvant to serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) for treating children and adolescents with OCD has never been examined. Method: This was a 10-week randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial with 34 OCD outpatients. The patients received citalopram plus NAC or placebo. Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™) were used...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
Ai Bi Bai Ai Er Ken, Zhi-Hua Ma, Dai-Qin Xiong, Pei-Ru Xu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features of invasive candidiasis in children and the risk factors for Candida bloodstream infection. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on 134 children with invasive candidiasis and hospitalized in 5 tertiary hospitals in Urumqi, China, between January 2010 and December 2015. The Candida species distribution was investigated. The clinical data were compared between the patients with and without Candida bloodstream infection...
April 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Irena Kasmi, Sashenka Sallabanda, Gentian Kasmi
BACKGROUND: Acetaminophen is a drug widely used in children because of its safety and efficacy. Although the risk of its toxicity is lower in children such reactions occur in pediatric patients from intentional overdoses and less frequently attributable to unintended inappropriate dosing. The aim of reporting this case is to attract the attention to the risk of the acetaminophen toxicity when administered in high doses. CASE PRESENTATION: We report here a 5 year old girl who developed fulminate liver failure with renal impairment and acute pancreatitis, as a result of acetaminophen toxicity caused from unintentional repeated supratherapeutic ingestion, with a total administered dose of 4800 mg in three consecutive days, 1600 mg/day, approximately 90 mg/kg/day...
September 15, 2015: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Naira V Margaryan, Alina Gilgur, Elisabeth A Seftor, Chad Purnell, Nicoleta C Arva, Arun K Gosain, Mary J C Hendrix, Luigi Strizzi
Expression of Nodal, a Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β) related growth factor, is associated with aggressive melanoma. Nodal expression in adult dysplastic nevi may predict the development of aggressive melanoma in some patients. A subset of pediatric patients diagnosed with giant or large congenital melanocytic nevi (LCMN) has shown increased risk for development of melanoma. Here, we investigate whether Nodal expression can help identify the rare cases of LCMN that develop melanoma and shed light on why the majority of these patients do not...
March 22, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Zahra Allameh, Abdollah Karimi, Seddigheh Rafiei Tabatabaei, Mostafa Sharifian, Jamshid Salamzadeh
INTRODUCTION: This study was designed to investigate the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), as a potent and safe antioxidant, on inflammatory biomarkers of acute pyelonephritis in pediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children (< 15 years old) admitted with a diagnosis of pyelonephritis were recruited in a randomized placebo-controlled trial. They were randomly allocated to 2 groups and recieved placebo or NAC effervescent tablets with daily dose based on their weight, for 5 days...
November 2015: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
Kathryn A Pauley, Tracy L Sandritter, Jennifer A Lowry, D Adam Algren
OBJECTIVE: Conventionally, intravenous N-acetylcysteine (IV-NAC) administration is a 3-bag regimen administered over the course of 21 hours, which increases the risk of reconstitution and administration errors. To minimize errors, an alternative IV-NAC regimen consists of a loading dose (150 mg/kg) followed by a maintenance infusion (15 mg/kg/hr) until termination criteria are met. The aim was to determine the clinical outcomes of an alternative IV-NAC regimen in pediatric patients. METHODS: A retrospective review of pharmacy dispensing records and diagnostic codes at a pediatric hospital identified patients who received alternative IV-NAC dosing from March 1, 2008, to September 10, 2012, for acetaminophen overdoses...
May 2015: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
Su Xu, Rao P Gullapalli, Douglas O Frost
Atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs) are widely used in children and adolescents to treat a variety of psychiatric disorders. However, little is known about the long-term effects of AAPD treatment before the brain is fully developed. Indeed, we and others have previously reported that treatment of adolescent rats with olanzapine (OLA; a widely prescribed AAPD) on postnatal days 28-49, under dosing conditions that approximate those employed therapeutically in humans, causes long-term behavioral and neurobiological perturbations...
February 2015: Schizophrenia Research
Moustafa Hegazi, Alaa Abdelkader, Maysaa Zaki, Basem El-Deek
INTRODUCTION: This study was conducted to determine characteristics of Candida colonization and candidemia in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a tertiary care children's hospital. METHODOLOGY: Patients between 6 months and 15 years of age consecutively admitted to the PICU of Mansoura University Children's Hospital in Mansoura, Egypt, during one year period, were evaluated for Candida colonization and candidemia. Susceptibility of Candida species isolated from blood to fluconazole and amphotericin B was determined by Etest...
May 2014: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
E Orün, A Polat, H Andan, N Cizmeci, N Tufan
Intravenous (IV) paracetamol is widely used for the treatment of pain and fever, when there is a clinical indication for an IV route. A 16-month-old girl weighing 12 kg had undergone anterior open reduction for developmental dysplasia of the hip. Twenty-four hours after the operation, IV paracetamol (Perfalgan® 10 mg/ml) infusion was started for the postoperative pain management. After 12 hours' infusion, she has developed nausea, vomiting and agitation. The liver function tests were found to be more than 10-fold elevated on the laboratory results...
January 2013: Hippokratia
Vidyut Bhatia, Ashish Bavdekar, Surender Kumar Yachha
PROCESS: Selected members were requested to prepare guidelines on specific issues, which were reviewed by two other members. These guidelines were then incorporated into a draft statement, which was circulated to all members. On 17th December 2011, Kunwar Viren Oswal round table conference was organized by the Apollo Center for Advanced Pediatrics, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi and the Sub-specialty Chapter of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Indian Academy of Pediatrics. Presentations, ensuing discussions, and opinions expressed by the participants were incorporated into the final draft...
May 8, 2013: Indian Pediatrics
Robert H Squires, Anil Dhawan, Estella Alonso, Michael R Narkewicz, Benjamin L Shneider, Norberto Rodriguez-Baez, Dominic Dell Olio, Saul Karpen, John Bucuvalas, Steven Lobritto, Elizabeth Rand, Philip Rosenthal, Simon Horslen, Vicky Ng, Girish Subbarao, Nanda Kerkar, David Rudnick, M James Lopez, Kathleen Schwarz, Rene Romero, Scott Elisofon, Edward Doo, Patricia R Robuck, Sharon Lawlor, Steven H Belle
UNLABELLED: N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was found to improve transplantation-free survival in only those adults with nonacetaminophen (non-APAP) acute liver failure (ALF) and grade 1-2 hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Because non-APAP ALF differs significantly between children and adults, the Pediatric Acute Liver Failure (PALF) Study Group evaluated NAC in non-APAP PALF. Children from birth through age 17 years with non-APAP ALF enrolled in the PALF registry were eligible to enter an adaptively allocated, doubly masked, placebo-controlled trial using a continuous intravenous infusion of NAC (150 mg/kg/day in 5% dextrose in water [D5W]) or placebo (D5W) for up to 7 days...
April 2013: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Martha G Blackford, Thomas Felter, M David Gothard, Michael D Reed
BACKGROUND: N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is the most effective therapy for acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity and is currently available for oral and intravenous (IV) administration. Although both routes are effective, use of the IV formulation has been increasing since becoming available in the United States in 2004, raising questions about cost/benefit comparisons between the 2 formulations. Decreased length of treatment and hospital stay have been used to justify the use of IV NAC; however, some patients may receive extended therapy of either NAC regimen...
September 2011: Clinical Therapeutics
Ankhi Dutta, Debra L Palazzi
BACKGROUND: Non-albicans Candida (NAC) species have been implicated as major pathogens in patients with hospital-acquired candidemia. Few studies have investigated the impact of NAC fungemia among pediatric patients outside of the neonatal age group. MATERIALS/METHODS: Between 2000 and 2009, we performed a retrospective case-control study in children aged 6 months to ≤18 years with blood culture proven candidemia at Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX. RESULTS: A total of 276 episodes of candidemia occurred in 226 patients...
August 2011: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Edward Bernstein, Erika Edwards, David Dorfman, Tim Heeren, Caleb Bliss, Judith Bernstein
OBJECTIVES: Marijuana was involved in 209,563 emergency department (ED) visits in 2006, according to the Drug Abuse Warning Network. Although screening and brief intervention (SBI) has been effective in changing drinking among ED patients in a number of studies, tests of marijuana SBI in a pediatric emergency department (PED) have not yet been reported. The aim of this pilot study was to test whether SBI is effective in reducing marijuana consumption among youth and young adults presenting to a PED with a diverse range of clinical entities...
November 2009: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
L P James, E V Capparelli, P M Simpson, L Letzig, D Roberts, J A Hinson, G L Kearns, J L Blumer, J E Sullivan
Acetaminophen protein adducts (APAP adducts) were quantified in 157 adolescents and children presenting at eight pediatric hospitals with the chief complaint of APAP overdose. Two of the patients required liver transplantation, whereas all the others recovered spontaneously. Peak APAP adducts correlated with peak hepatic transaminase values, time-to-treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and risk determination per the Rumack-Matthews nomogram. A population pharmacokinetic analysis (NONMEM) was performed with post hoc empiric Bayesian estimates determined for the elimination rate constants (k(e)), elimination half-lives (t(1/2)), and maximum concentration of adducts (C(max)) of the subjects...
December 2008: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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