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Pain AND brain changes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911395/preparation-of-primary-mixed-glial-cultures-from-adult-mouse-spinal-cord-tissue
#1
Jennifer T Malon, Ling Cao
It has been well-accepted that spinal cord glial responses contribute significantly to the development of neuropathic pain. Tremendous information regarding glial activities at the cellular and molecular levels has been obtained through in vitro cell culture systems. The in vitro systems utilized, mainly include primary glia derived from neonatal brain cortical tissue and immortalized cell lines. However, these systems may not reflect the characteristics of spinal cord glial cells in vivo. In order to further investigate the roles of spinal cord glial cells in the development of peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain using a culture system that better reflects the in vivo condition, our laboratory has developed a method to establish primary spinal cord mixed glial cultures from adult mice...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909008/trajectory-of-parvalbumin-cell-impairment-and-loss-of-cortical-inhibition-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Tsung-Hsun Hsieh, Henry Hing Cheong Lee, Mustafa Qadir Hameed, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Takao K Hensch, Alexander Rotenberg
Many neuropsychiatric symptoms that follow traumatic brain injury (TBI), including mood disorders, sleep disturbance, chronic pain, and posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) are attributable to compromised cortical inhibition. However, the temporal trajectory of cortical inhibition loss and its underlying mechanisms are not known. Using paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) and immunohistochemistry, we tracked functional and cellular changes of cortical inhibitory network elements after fluid-percussion injury (FPI) in rats...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908839/the-transition-of-acute-postoperative-pain-to-chronic-pain-an-integrative-overview-of-research-on-mechanisms
#3
C Richard Chapman, Charles J Vierck
The nature of the transition from acute to chronic pain still eludes explanation, but chronic pain resulting from surgery provides a natural experiment that invites both clinical epidemiological investigation and basic scientific inquiry into the mechanisms of this transition. The primary purpose of this paper is to review current knowledge and hypotheses on the transition from acute to persistent postsurgical pain, summarizing literature on clinical epidemiological studies of persistent postsurgical pain development, as well as basic neurophysiological studies targeting mechanisms in the periphery, spinal cord, and brain...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898075/maternal-high-fat-diet-prevents-developmental-programming-by-early-life-stress
#4
M Rincel, A L Lépinay, P Delage, J Fioramonti, V S Théodorou, S Layé, M Darnaudéry
Anxiety disorders and depression are well-documented in subjects exposed to adverse childhood events. Recently, maternal obesity and/or maternal consumption of high-fat diets (HFD) have been also proposed as risk factors for offspring mental health. Here using an animal model in rats, we explored the combinatorial effects of a maternal HFD (40% of energy from fat without impact on maternal weight; during gestation and lactation) and maternal separation (MS) in offspring. In the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of pups, MS led to changes in the expression of several genes such as Bdnf (brain derived neurotrophic factor), 5HT-r1a (serotonin receptor 1a) and Rest4 (neuron-restrictive silencer element, repressor element 1, silencing transcription factor (Rest), splicing variant 4)...
November 29, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888042/changes-in-neurotrophic-and-inflammatory-factors-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-patients-with-postherpetic-neuralgia
#5
Wenxing Zhao, Yong Wang, Qiwu Fang, Jianping Wu, Xinyou Gao, Hui Liu, Liu Cao, Jianxiong An
Inflammatory and neurotrophic factors are involved in postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), but the association of these factors in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with the level of pain is poorly known. The present study aimed to examine the changes in neurotrophic and inflammatory factors in the CSF of patients with PHN and to study the correlation between these factors and the degree of pain. Fifty patients with PHN and 28 patients with hemifacial spasm (as controls) were recruited between May 2015 and March 2016...
November 23, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884877/associations-between-measures-of-structural-morphometry-and-sensorimotor-performance-in-individuals-with-nonspecific-low-back-pain
#6
K Caeyenberghs, M Pijnenburg, N Goossens, L Janssens, S Brumagne
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To date, most structural brain imaging studies in individuals with nonspecific low back pain have evaluated volumetric changes. These alterations are particularly found in sensorimotor-related areas. Although it is suggested that specific measures, such as cortical surface area and cortical thickness, reflect different underlying neural architectures, the literature regarding these different measures in individuals with nonspecific low back pain is limited. Therefore, the current study was designed to investigate the association between the performance on a sensorimotor task, more specifically the sit-to-stand-to-sit task, and cortical surface area and cortical thickness in individuals with nonspecific low back pain and healthy controls...
November 24, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881958/motor-cortex-neurostimulation-technologies-for-chronic-post-stroke-pain-implications-of-tissue-damage-on-stimulation-currents
#7
Anthony T O'Brien, Rivadavio Amorim, R Jarrett Rushmore, Uri Eden, Linda Afifi, Laura Dipietro, Timothy Wagner, Antoni Valero-Cabré
Background: Central post stroke pain (CPSP) is a highly refractory syndrome that can occur after stroke. Primary motor cortex (M1) brain stimulation using epidural brain stimulation (EBS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have been explored as potential therapies for CPSP. These techniques have demonstrated variable clinical efficacy. It is hypothesized that changes in the stimulating currents that are caused by stroke-induced changes in brain tissue conductivity limit the efficacy of these techniques...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879564/structural-brain-imaging-in-people-with-low-back-pain
#8
Zaid M Mansour, Rebcca J Lepping, Robyn A Honea, William M Brooks, Hung-Wen Yeh, Jeffrey M Burns, Neena K Sharma
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether low back pain (subacute and chronic) is related to differences in brain volume. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Inconsistent findings have been reported about the effect of chronic low back pain on brain volume, and the effect of subacute low back pain on brain volume has not been sufficiently investigated. METHODS: 130 participants were included (23 subacute and 68 chronic low back pain; 39 healthy controls)...
November 22, 2016: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867917/health-related-quality-of-life-in-brain-tumor-patients-treated-with-surgery-preliminary-result-of-a-single-institution
#9
Chang-Wook Kim, Jin-Deok Joo, Young-Hoon Kim, Jung Ho Han, Chae-Yong Kim
BACKGROUND: Alongside the extent of removal and patients' survival in the management of brain tumors, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has become an important consideration. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the change of HRQOL in brain tumor patients before and after surgery and to assess the associated factors that contribute to the change of HRQOL. METHODS: A total of 258 patients who underwent surgical treatment were enrolled in this study. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the 20-item EORTC QLQ-Brain Neoplasm (QLQ-BN20) were used to assess HRQOL...
October 2016: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848148/disrupted-functional-connectivity-density-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-patients
#10
Yifei Weng, Rongfeng Qi, Chang Liu, Jun Ke, Qiang Xu, Fangyu Wang, Long Jiang Zhang, Guang Ming Lu
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder resulting from a dysregulation of the brain-gut axis. However, its exact neural substrate still remains unclear. This study investigated the changes of intrinsic whole brain functional connectivity pattern in IBS using functional connectivity density (FCD). We acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data from thirty-two IBS patients and thirty-two healthy controls. Functional connectivity density, a data-driven algorithm, was used to compute the long-range and short-range FCD values for each voxel in the brain of each subject, implying the amount of distant and local functional connections of cortical hubs...
November 15, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844456/cortical-plasticity-between-the-pain-and-pain-free-phases-in-patients-with-episodic-tension-type-headache
#11
Bing Chen, Yuan He, Lei Xia, Li-Li Guo, Jin-Long Zheng
BACKGROUND: State-related brain structural alterations in patients with episodic tension-type headache (ETTH) are unclear. We aimed to conduct a longitudinal study to explore dynamic gray matter (GM) changes between the pain and pain-free phases in ETTH. METHODS: We recruited 40 treatment-naïve ETTH patients and 40 healthy controls. All participants underwent brain structural scans on a 3.0-T MRI system. ETTH patients were scanned in and out of pain phases. Voxel-based morphometry analysis was used to determine the differences in regional gray matter density (GMD) between groups...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821966/effects-of-neurofeedback-training-on-the-brain-wave-of-adults-with-forward-head-posture
#12
Hyun-Ju Oh, Gui-Bin Song
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of neurofeedback training on electroencephalogram changes in the cervical spine in adults with forward head posture through x-ray. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of the study were 40 college students with forward head posture, randomly divided into a neurofeedback training group (NFTG, n=20) and a control group (CG, n=20). The neurofeedback training group performed six sessions of pottery and archery games, each for two minutes, three times per week for four weeks, while using the neurofeedback system...
October 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821957/effects-of-neurofeedback-training-on-the-cervical-movement-of-adults-with-forward-head-posture
#13
Hyun-Ju Oh, Gui-Bin Song
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of neurofeedback training on postural changes in the cervical spine and changes in the range of motion of the neck and in the Neck Disability Index in adults with forward head posture. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of the study were 40 college students with forward head posture, randomly divided into a neurofeedback training group (NFTG, n=20) and a control group (CG, n=20). The neurofeedback training group received six sessions of pottery and archery games, each for two minutes, three times per week for four weeks, using the neurofeedback system...
October 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806119/frontal-lobe-hemodynamic-responses-to-painful-stimulation-a-potential-brain-marker-of-nociception
#14
Christopher M Aasted, Meryem A Yücel, Sarah C Steele, Ke Peng, David A Boas, Lino Becerra, David Borsook
The purpose of this study was to use functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to examine patterns of both activation and deactivation that occur in the frontal lobe in response to noxious stimuli. The frontal lobe was selected because it has been shown to be activated by noxious stimuli in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. The brain region is located behind the forehead which is devoid of hair, providing a relative ease of placement for fNIRS probes on this area of the head. Based on functional magnetic resonance imaging studies showing blood-oxygenation-level dependent changes in the frontal lobes, we evaluated functional near-infrared spectroscopy measures in response to two levels of electrical pain in awake, healthy human subjects (n = 10; male = 10)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803655/sustained-effects-of-acupuncture-stimulation-investigated-with-centrality-mapping-analysis
#15
Xiangyu Long, Wenjing Huang, Vitaly Napadow, Fanrong Liang, Burkhard Pleger, Arno Villringer, Claudia M Witt, Till Nierhaus, Daniel Pach
: Acupuncture can have instant and sustained effects, however, its mechanisms of action are still unclear. Here, we investigated the sustained effect of acupuncture by evaluating centrality changes in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging after manually stimulating the acupuncture point ST36 at the lower leg or two control point locations (CP1 same dermatome, CP2 different dermatome). Data from a previously published experiment evaluating instant BOLD effects and S2-seed-based resting state connectivity was re-analyzed using eigenvector centrality mapping and degree centrality mapping...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797835/the-development-of-nociceptive-network-activity-in-the-somatosensory-cortex-of-freely-moving-rat-pups
#16
P Chang, L Fabrizi, S Olhede, M Fitzgerald
Cortical perception of noxious stimulation is an essential component of pain experience but it is not known how cortical nociceptive activity emerges during brain development. Here we use continuous telemetric electrocorticogram (ECoG) recording from the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) of awake active rat pups to map functional nociceptive processing in the developing brain over the first 4 weeks of life. Cross-sectional and longitudinal recordings show that baseline S1 ECoG energy increases steadily with age, with a distinctive beta component replaced by a distinctive theta component in week 3...
October 26, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793222/the-intestinal-microbiota-in-the-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#17
S M Collins
The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic abdominal symptom complex occurring in a bowel devoid of discernible relevant pathology. There is growing interest in the role of the intestinal microbiota as a basis for the intestinal and possibly behavioral manifestations of this condition. Molecular-based microbial profiling has revealed compositional changes in the microbiota of at least a subset of IBS patients but the data are often conflicting and no microbial signature for this condition has yet been defined...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791037/orthopedic-surgery-modulates-neuropeptides-and-bdnf-expression-at-the-spinal-and-hippocampal-levels
#18
Ming-Dong Zhang, Swapnali Barde, Ting Yang, Beilei Lei, Lars I Eriksson, Joseph P Mathew, Thomas Andreska, Katerina Akassoglou, Tibor Harkany, Tomas G M Hökfelt, Niccolò Terrando
Pain is a critical component hindering recovery and regaining of function after surgery, particularly in the elderly. Understanding the role of pain signaling after surgery may lead to novel interventions for common complications such as delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Using a model of tibial fracture with intramedullary pinning in male mice, associated with cognitive deficits, we characterized the effects on the primary somatosensory system. Here we show that tibial fracture with pinning triggers cold allodynia and up-regulates nerve injury and inflammatory markers in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and spinal cord up to 2 wk after intervention...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783222/development-of-putative-inhibitory-neurons-in-the-embryonic-and-postnatal-mouse-superficial-spinal-dorsal-horn
#19
Anita Balázs, Zoltán Mészár, Krisztina Hegedűs, Annamária Kenyeres, Zoltán Hegyi, Klaudia Dócs, Miklós Antal
The superficial spinal dorsal horn is the first relay station of pain processing. It is also widely accepted that spinal synaptic processing to control the modality and intensity of pain signals transmitted to higher brain centers is primarily defined by inhibitory neurons in the superficial spinal dorsal horn. Earlier studies suggest that the construction of pain processing spinal neural circuits including the GABAergic components should be completed by birth, although major chemical refinements may occur postnatally...
October 25, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779778/cold-pressor-gel-test-a-safe-alternative-to-the-cold-pressor-test-in-fmri
#20
Maryna Lapotka, María Ruz, Alberto Salamanca Ballesteros, Olga Ocón Hernández
PURPOSE: This study describes a new methodology-the cold pressor gel test (CPGT)-for delivering an accessible experimental pain stimulus, which is reproducible and safe for functional MRI (fMRI). METHODS: The cold pressor test was modified to put safety precautions into the CPGT. The material used is cool gelled water with a thickening product, which provides a stable temperature at 0.2 °C. Thirteen women with chronic pelvic pain were scanned using a 3 Tesla (T) MR scanner equipped with a 12-channel head coil...
October 25, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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