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Dekel Abeles, Roy Amit, Shlomit Yuval-Greenberg
BACKGROUND: During visual exploration or free-view, gaze positioning is largely determined by the tendency to maximize visual saliency: more salient locations are more likely to be fixated. However, when visual input is completely irrelevant for performance, such as with non-visual tasks, this saliency maximization strategy may be less advantageous and potentially even disruptive for task-performance. Here, we examined whether visual saliency remains a strong driving force in determining gaze positions even in non-visual tasks...
2018: PloS One
Flavio Nobili, Javier Arbizu, Femke Bouwman, Alexander Drzezga, Federica Agosta, Peter Nestor, Zuzana Walker, Marina Boccardi
BACKGROUND: Recommendations for using FDG-PET to support the diagnosis of dementing neurodegenerative disorders are sparse and poorly structured. METHODS: We defined 21 questions on diagnostic issues and on semi-automated analysis to assist visual reading. Literature was reviewed to assess study design, risk of bias, inconsistency, imprecision, indirectness and effect size. Critical outcomes were sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive/negative predictive value, area under the receiving operating characteristic curve, and positive/negative likelihood ratio of FDG-PET in detecting the target conditions...
June 22, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Akihiro Sakamoto, Akihiro Kuroda, Peter James Sinclair, Hisashi Naito, Kazuhiko Sakuma
PURPOSE: Maximum force exertion against various resistance levels (heavy-light) is commonly implemented to improve both strength- and speed-oriented components of power. Medium-light resistances allow rapid accelerations, yet incur significant decelerations in the later concentric phase to bring the bar to a halt, which may limit the concentric effort and, therefore, the effectiveness of training. Accordingly, ballistic actions have been recommended. This study evaluated the effectiveness of power bench press training, with the bar thrown on a Smith machine (BPthrow ) or without throwing (BPnon-throw ), for developing strength and shot put distance...
June 21, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Joshua D Palmer, Tejash T Patel, Scot A Fisher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2018: JAMA Oncology
Y H Dong, Y Song, B Dong, Z Y Zou, Z H Wang, Z G Yang, X J Wang, Y H Li, J Ma
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemic situation of blood pressure (BP) status and its association with nutritional status among Chinese children and adolescents aged 7-18 years old in 2014, and to provide important scientific basis for the control of students' hypertension. METHODS: All the subjects aged 7 to 18 years in both genders were sampled from 2014 Chinese national surveys on students' constitution and health. BP status was evaluated according to Chinese national gender-, age- and height-specific references, including hypertension (HTN), elevated hypertension (elevated HTN), isolated systolic HTN (SHTN), isolated diastolic HTN (DHTN) and mix HTN...
June 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Abhishek Goyal, Howard A Cooper, Wilbert S Aronow, Prashant Nagpal, Sriktanth Yandrapalli, Christopher C Nabors, William F Frishman
BACKGROUND: The 2016 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) guidelines for primary prevention statin therapy are more restrictive than the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines. There are important differences in how application of the risk thresholds from these guidelines would impact particular segments of the US population. METHODS: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES - 2005-14) were used to determine statin eligibility across age, gender and racial/ethnic groups using criteria from the 2013 ACC/AHA and 2016 USPSTF guidelines...
June 18, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
Thierry Conrozier, Jordi Monfort, Xavier Chevalier, Raghu Raman, Pascal Richette, Demirhan Diraçoglù, Hervé Bard, Dominique Baron, Jörg Jerosch, Alberto Migliore, Yves Henrotin
Objectives The 3 aims of the work were to identify population subgroups that can benefit the most from viscosupplementation (VS), to provide recommendations on injection techniques, and to discuss VS appropriateness in clinical situations that are commonplace in daily practice. Methods The task force members voted on their degree of agreement on 27 statements, 36 recommendations, and 22 clinical scenarios using a 9-point scale. The strength of agreement/appropriateness/recommendation (SOA/SOR) was classified as strong if the median agreement score was ≥8...
June 1, 2018: Cartilage
Shuang Li, Wen-Qing Yao, Ye-Zheng Tao, Lan Ma, Xing Liu
Serotonin (5-hydroxtryptamine, 5-HT), one of the central neurotransmitters, is the most important modulator for emotion regulation, sensory processing, cognitive control, etc. The serotonergic neurons are limited in amount and mainly distributed in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) and the median raphe nucleus (MR) in the midline of the brain stem. Previous studies mainly focused on the function of 5-HT neurons in the DR, but little is known about 5-HT neurons in MR. In the present study, with Pet1-Cre transgenic mice and DREADDs technology, we specifically activated or silenced 5-HT neurons in the MR, and aimed to explore their roles in anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors...
June 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Salil Apte, Michiel Plooij, Heike Vallery
BACKGROUND: Body weight support (BWS) systems have shown promise as rehabilitation tools for neurologically impaired individuals. This paper reviews the experiment-based research on BWS systems with the aim: (1) To investigate the influence of body weight unloading (BWU) on gait characteristics; (2) To study whether the effects of BWS differ between treadmill and overground walking and (3) To investigate if modulated BWU influences gait characteristics less than unmodulated BWU. METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted in the following search engines: Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Parnit K Bhupal, Kevin A Anderson, Gabrielle P Shall, Jonathan D Lynn, Katrina S Hoolsema, Julien Rossignol, Gary L Dunbar, Michael I Sandstrom
BACKGROUND: Putative treatments derived from in-vivo stem cell transplant derived dopamine (DA) assessed with hemiparkinsonian rats have been assessed via DA-agonist-induced rotations involving imbalanced intra-hemispheric striatal DA receptor stimulation. However, such tests obscure the natural responses of grafts to sensory stimuli, and drug-induced plasticity can modify the circuit being tested. Thus, we propose an alternative testing strategy using a novel water tank swimming apparatus...
June 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Laura Hokkanen, Sandra Lettner, Fernando Barbosa, Marios Constantinou, Lauren Harper, Erich Kasten, Sara Mondini, Bengt Persson, Nataliya Varako, Erik Hessen
OBJECTIVE: The aims of the study were to analyze the current European situation of specialist education and training within clinical neuropsychology, and the legal and professional status of clinical neuropsychologists in different European countries. METHOD: An online survey was prepared in 2016 by a Task Force established by the European Federation of Psychological Associations, and representatives of 30 countries gave their responses. Response rate was 76%. RESULTS: Only three countries were reported to regulate the title of clinical neuropsychologist as well as the education and practice of clinical neuropsychologists by law...
June 20, 2018: Clinical Neuropsychologist
David J Murphy, Munaib Din, Fadi G Hage, Eliana Reyes
Over recent years, new evidence has led a rethinking of the available guidance on the diagnosis and management of infective endocarditis (IE). This review compares the most recently available guidance provided by the American Heart Association (AHA) IE Writing Committee, and the Task Force for the management of IE of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). This represents the sixth of a new series of comparative guidelines review published in the Journal.
June 19, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
Deepti Nair, Vijay Ramesh, David Gozal
Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent disease manifesting as intermittent hypoxia during sleep (IH) and is increasingly recognized as being independently associated with neurobehavioral deficits. These deficits may be due to increased apoptosis in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, as well as increased oxidative stress and inflammation. It has been reported that neuroglobin (Ngb) is upregulated in response to hypoxia-ischemia insults and exhibits a protective role in ischemia-reperfusion brain injury...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Renato Moraes, Bruno L S Bedo, Luciana O Santos, Rosangela A Batistela, Paulo R P Santiago, Eliane Mauerberg-deCastro
This study investigated the effect of adding haptic information to the control of posture, as well as comparing the effect of both the "light touch" (LT) and "anchor system" (AS) paradigms on postural sway. Additionally, it compared the effect of location and number of points of contact to the control of posture in young adults. The location consisted of using the anchors tied to the finger and held by the hands, and, for LT, the fingertip. For the number of points of contact, participants used two hands, and then separately the dominant hand, and the non-dominant hand, for both anchor and LT paradigms...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Antonio Madrid, Elena Madinabeitia-Mancebo, Javier Cudeiro, Pablo Arias
The central drive to the muscle reduces when muscle force wanes during sustained MVC, and this is generally considered the neurophysiological footprint of central fatigue. The question is if force loss and the failure of central drive to the muscle are responsible mechanisms of fatigue induced by un-resisted repetitive movements. In various experimental blocks, we validated a 3D-printed hand-fixation system permitting the execution of finger-tapping and maximal voluntary contractions (MVC). Subsequently, we checked the suitability of the system to test the level of central drive to the muscle and developed an algorithm to test it at the MVC force plateau...
June 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Stacey M Chin, Christopher V Synatschke, Shuangping Liu, Rikkert J Nap, Nicholas A Sather, Qifeng Wang, Zaida Álvarez, Alexandra N Edelbrock, Timmy Fyrner, Liam C Palmer, Igal Szleifer, Monica Olvera de la Cruz, Samuel I Stupp
Skeletal muscle provides inspiration on how to achieve reversible, macroscopic, anisotropic motion in soft materials. Here we report on the bottom-up design of macroscopic tubes that exhibit anisotropic actuation driven by a thermal stimulus. The tube is built from a hydrogel in which extremely long supramolecular nanofibers are aligned using weak shear forces, followed by radial growth of thermoresponsive polymers from their surfaces. The hierarchically ordered tube exhibits reversible anisotropic actuation with changes in temperature, with much greater contraction perpendicular to the direction of nanofiber alignment...
June 19, 2018: Nature Communications
Yuma Osako, Yoshio Sakurai, Junya Hirokawa
The dissociation between a subjective-criterion performance and forced performance in a sensory detection can provide critical insights into the neural correlates of sensory awareness. Here, we established a behavioral task for rats to test their spatial-visual cue detection ability, using a two alternative choice task with and without a third choice option where animals get rewards only in the objective absence of a visual cue. In the trials without the third option, spatial choice accuracy decreased from near perfect to near chance levels as the visual cue brightness decreased...
June 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
David Garcia, Yonas Mitike Kassa, Angel Cuevas, Manuel Cebrian, Esteban Moro, Iyad Rahwan, Ruben Cuevas
Online social media are information resources that can have a transformative power in society. While the Web was envisioned as an equalizing force that allows everyone to access information, the digital divide prevents large amounts of people from being present online. Online social media, in particular, are prone to gender inequality, an important issue given the link between social media use and employment. Understanding gender inequality in social media is a challenging task due to the necessity of data sources that can provide large-scale measurements across multiple countries...
June 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sari Kives, Guylaine Lefebvre
OBJECTIVE: This guideline reviews the evidence relating to the potential benefits of the vaginal hysterectomy (VH) and supracervical hysterectomy (SCH) versus total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) with respect to postoperative sexual function, urinary function, and peri- and postoperative complications. Laparoscopic options are not included in this guideline. OPTIONS: Women considering hysterectomy for benign disease can be given the option of retaining the cervix or proceeding with a total hysterectomy...
July 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Guylaine Lefebvre, Catherine Allaire, John Jeffrey, George Vilos
OBJECTIVE: To identify the indications for hysterectomy, preoperative assessment, and available alternatives required prior to hysterectomy. Patient self-reported outcomes of hysterectomy have revealed high levels of patient satisfaction. These may be maximized by careful preoperative assessment and discussion of other treatment choices. In most cases hysterectomy is performed to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life. The patient's preference regarding treatment alternatives must be considered carefully...
July 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
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