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Chronic pain AND brain changes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791992/role-of-the-duodenum-in-the-pathogenesis-of-functional-dyspepsia-a-paradigm-shift
#1
REVIEW
Hye-Kyung Jung, Nicholas J Talley
Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common disorder characterized by chronic epigastric pain or burning, or bothersome postprandial fullness or early satiation, without a definitive organic cause. The pathogenesis of FD is likely heterogeneous. Classically, motor disorders, visceral hypersensitivity, and brain-gut interactions have been implicated in the pathophysiology of FD, but recently an important role for chronic low-grade inflammation and post-infectious gastroenteritis in FD has been reported and confirmed...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787471/hemi-sensory-disturbances-in-patients-with-complex-regional-pain-syndrome
#2
Peter D Drummond, Philip M Finch, Frank Birklein, Michael Stanton-Hicks, Lone F Knudsen
Sensory disturbances often spread beyond the site of injury in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) but whether this applies equally to CRPS I and II, or changes across the course of the disease, is unknown. Establishing this is important, because different symptom profiles in CRPS I and II, or in acute versus chronic CRPS, might infer different pathophysiology and treatment approaches. To explore these questions, sensory disturbances were assessed in the limbs and forehead of 71 patients with CRPS I and 33 patients with CRPS II...
May 21, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787468/cortical-thickness-alterations-in-chronic-pain-disorder-an-exploratory-mri-study
#3
Stefano Magon, Till Sprenger, Alexander Otti, Athina Papadopoulou, Harald Gündel, Michael Noll-Hussong
OBJECTIVE: Chronic pain disorder (CPD) has been associated with brain changes, especially in limbic circuits. However, in the majority of patients with chronic pain, depression or anxiety are common comorbidities. In this exploratory and naturalistic study, we investigated brain cortical thickness differences between patients with CPD and healthy controls, with consideration of concurrent psychiatric symptoms. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with CPD and 23 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were included in this study...
May 21, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781581/brain-correlates-of-continuous-pain-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-as-measured-by-pulsed-arterial-spin-labeling
#4
Yvonne C Lee, Alexander Fine, Ekaterina Protsenko, Elena Massarotti, Robert R Edwards, Ishtiaq Mawla, Vitaly Napadow, Marco L Loggia
OBJECTIVE: Central nervous system pathways involving pain modulation shape the pain experience in patients with chronic pain. Our objectives were to understand the mechanisms underlying pain in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and identify brain signals that may serve as imaging markers for developing targeted treatments for RA pain. METHODS: Subjects with RA and matched controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging, using pulsed arterial spin labeling (pASL)...
May 21, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774244/classification-and-characterisation-of-brain-network-changes-in-chronic-back-pain-a-multicenter-study
#5
Hiroaki Mano, Gopal Kotecha, Kenji Leibnitz, Takashi Matsubara, Aya Nakae, Nicholas Shenker, Masahiko Shibata, Valerie Voon, Wako Yoshida, Michael Lee, Toshio Yanagida, Mitsuo Kawato, Maria Joao Rosa, Ben Seymour
Background. Chronic pain is a common, often disabling condition thought to involve a combination of peripheral and central neurobiological factors. However, the extent and nature of changes in the brain is poorly understood. Methods. We investigated brain network architecture using resting-state fMRI data in chronic back pain patients in the UK and Japan (41 patients, 56 controls), as well as open data from USA. We applied machine learning and deep learning (conditional variational autoencoder architecture) methods to explore classification of patients/controls based on network connectivity...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742620/ketamine-differentially-restores-diverse-alterations-of-neuroligins-in-brain-regions-in-a-rat-model-of-neuropathic-pain-induced-depression
#6
Wei Pan, Guang-Fen Zhang, Hui-Hui Li, Mu-Huo Ji, Zhi-Qiang Zhou, Kuan-Yu Li, Jian-Jun Yang
Depression is present in a large proportion of patients suffering from chronic pain, and yet the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Neuroligins (NLs), as a family of cell-adhesion proteins, are involved in synaptic formation and have been linked to various neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we studied the alterations in NL1 and NL2 in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and the hippocampus in a rat model of neuropathic pain-induced depression, and whether ketamine, a rapid and robust antidepressant, could restore these abnormalities...
May 8, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710099/effect-of-pain-neuroscience-education-combined-with-cognition-targeted-motor-control-training-on-chronic-spinal-pain-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#7
Anneleen Malfliet, Jeroen Kregel, Iris Coppieters, Robby De Pauw, Mira Meeus, Nathalie Roussel, Barbara Cagnie, Lieven Danneels, Jo Nijs
Importance: Effective treatments for chronic spinal pain are essential to reduce the related high personal and socioeconomic costs. Objective: To compare pain neuroscience education combined with cognition-targeted motor control training with current best-evidence physiotherapy for reducing pain and improving functionality, gray matter morphologic features, and pain cognitions in individuals with chronic spinal pain. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter randomized clinical trial conducted from January 1, 2014, to January 30, 2017, among 120 patients with chronic nonspecific spinal pain in 2 outpatient hospitals with follow-up at 3, 6, and 12 months...
April 16, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706196/peripheral-nerve-injuries-pain-and-neuroplasticity
#8
Natalie R Osborne, Dimitri J Anastakis, Karen D Davis
INTRODUCTION: Peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) cause both structural and functional brain changes that may be associated with significant sensorimotor abnormalities and pain. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The aim of this narrative review is to provide hand therapists an overview of PNI-induced neuroplasticity and to explain how the brain changes following PNI, repair, and during rehabilitation. METHODS: Toward this goal, we review key aspects of neuroplasticity and neuroimaging and discuss sensory testing techniques used to study neuroplasticity in PNI patients...
April 2018: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695413/altered-excitability-and-local-connectivity-of-mpfc-pag-neurons-in-a-mouse-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#9
John Cheriyan, Patrick L Sheets
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a major role in both sensory and affective aspects of pain. There is extensive evidence that chronic pain produces functional changes within the mPFC. However, our understanding of local circuit changes to defined subpopulations of mPFC neurons in chronic pain models remains unclear. A major subpopulation of mPFC neurons project to the periaqueductal gray (PAG) which is a key midbrain structure involved in endogenous pain suppression and facilitation. Here, we used laser scanning photostimulation of caged glutamate to map cortical circuits of retrogradely-labeled cortico-PAG (CP) neurons in layer 5 (L5) of mPFC in brain slices prepared from male mice having undergone chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694917/longitudinal-structural-and-functional-brain-network-alterations-in-a-mouse-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#10
Ainhoa Bilbao, Claudia Falfán-Melgoza, Sarah Leixner, Robert Becker, Sathish Kumar Singaravelu, Markus Sack, Alexander Sartorius, Rainer Spanagel, Wolfgang Weber-Fahr
Neuropathic pain affects multiple brain functions, including motivational processing. However, little is known about the structural and functional brain changes involved in the transition from an acute to a chronic pain state. Here we combined behavioral phenotyping of pain thresholds with multimodal neuroimaging to longitudinally monitor changes in brain metabolism, structure and connectivity using the spared nerve injury (SNI) mouse model of chronic neuropathic pain. We investigated stimulus-evoked pain responses prior to SNI surgery, and one and twelve weeks following surgery...
April 22, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684510/the-rodent-tibia-fracture-model-a-critical-review-and-comparison-with-the-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-literature
#11
REVIEW
Frank Birklein, Alaa Ibrahim, Tanja Schlereth, Wade S Kingery
Distal limb fracture is the most common cause of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), thus the rodent tibia fracture model (TFM) was developed to study CRPS pathogenesis. This comprehensive review summarizes the published TFM research and compares these experimental results with the CRPS literature. The TFM generated spontaneous and evoked pain behaviors, inflammatory symptoms (edema, warmth) and trophic changes (skin thickening, osteoporosis) resembling symptoms in early CRPS. Neuropeptides, inflammatory cytokines, and nerve growth factor (NGF) have been linked to pain behaviors, inflammation, and trophic changes in the TFM model and proliferating keratinocytes were identified as the primary source of cutaneous cytokines and NGF...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667130/beneficial-effects-of-the-calcium-channel-blocker-ctk-01512-2-in-a-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Rodrigo B M Silva, Samuel Greggio, Gianina T Venturin, Jaderson C da Costa, Marcus V Gomez, Maria M Campos
Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) play a critical role in neuroinflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). CTK 01512-2 is a recombinant version of the peptide Phα1β derived from the spider Phoneutria nigriventer, which inhibits N-type VGCC/TRPA1-mediated calcium influx. We investigated the effects of this molecule in the mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The effects of CTK 01512-2 were compared to those displayed by ziconotide-a selective N-type VGCC blocker clinically used for chronic pain-and fingolimod-a drug employed for MS treatment...
April 17, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652088/non-invasive-brain-stimulation-techniques-for-chronic-pain
#13
REVIEW
Neil E O'Connell, Louise Marston, Sally Spencer, Lorraine H DeSouza, Benedict M Wand
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in 2010, Issue 9, and last updated in 2014, Issue 4. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques aim to induce an electrical stimulation of the brain in an attempt to reduce chronic pain by directly altering brain activity. They include repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) and reduced impedance non-invasive cortical electrostimulation (RINCE)...
April 13, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623778/involvement-of-dopamine-system-in-the-regulation-of-the-brain-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-in-paraventricular-nucleus-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-visceral-pain
#14
Ning-Ning Ji, Jie Kang, Rong Hua, Yong-Mei Zhang
Objective We aimed to investigate the mechanism of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) circuit in the pathogenesis of visceral pain-depression with a rat model induced by neonatal and adult colorectal distension (CRD). Methods Neonate male Sprague-Dayley (SD) rats underwent CRD on postnatal days 8, 10, and 12, and when matured, were tested for adult abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) scores to assess visceral hypersensitivity. The forced swimming test was employed to evaluate depression-like behaviors...
April 6, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614631/simple-chronic-transfusion-therapy-a-crucial-therapeutic-option-for-sickle-cell-disease-improves-but-does-not-normalize-blood-rheology-what-should-be-our-goals-for-transfusion-therapy
#15
Jon A Detterich
Sickle cell anemia is characterized by a mutation resulting in the formation of an abnormal beta-hemoglobin called hemoglobin S. Hemoglobin S polymerizes upon deoxygenation, causing impaired red blood cell deformability and increased blood viscosity at equivalent hematocrits. Thus, sickle cell disease is a hemorheologic disease that results in various pathologic processes involving multiple organ systems including the lungs, heart, kidneys and brain. Red blood cell mechanics and the perturbations on blood flow-endothelial interaction underlie much of the pathology found in sickle cell disease...
2018: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582417/dissecting-the-spinal-nop-receptor-distribution-under-a-chronic-pain-model-using-nop-egfp-knock-in-mice
#16
Akihiko Ozawa, Gloria Brunori, Andrea Cippitelli, Nicholas Toll, Jennifer Schoch, Brigitte L Kieffer, Lawrence Toll
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Nociceptin/orphanin FQ Opioid Peptide (NOP) receptor system plays a significant role in the regulation of pain, and functions differently in the spinal cord and brain. The mechanism by which the NOP receptor agonists regulate pain transmission in these regions is not clearly understood. Here we investigate the peripheral and spinal NOP receptor distribution and antinociceptive effects of intrathecally (i.t) administered nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) under chronic neuropathic pain state...
March 26, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578947/chronic-pain-impairs-cognitive-flexibility-and-engages-novel-learning-strategies-in-rats
#17
Stephen L Cowen, Caroline E Phelps, Edita Navratilova, David L McKinzie, Alec Okun, Omar Husain, Scott D Gleason, Jeffrey M Witkin, Frank Porreca
Cognitive flexibility, the ability to adapt behavior to changing outcomes, is critical for survival. The prefrontal cortex is a key site of cognitive control and chronic pain is known to lead to significant morphological changes to this brain region. Nevertheless, the effects of chronic pain on cognitive flexibility and learning remain uncertain. We used an instrumental paradigm to assess adaptive learning in an experimental model of chronic pain induced by tight ligation of the spinal nerves L5/6 (SNL model)...
March 22, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571287/chronic-oxycodone-induces-axonal-degeneration-in-rat-brain
#18
Ruping Fan, Lisa M Schrott, Thomas Arnold, Stephen Snelling, Meghana Rao, Derrel Graham, Angela Cornelius, Nadejda L Korneeva
BACKGROUND: Chronic opioid therapy for non-malignant pain conditions has significantly increased over the last 15 years. Recently, the correlation between opioid analgesics and alternations in brain structure, such as leukoencephalopathy, axon demyelination, and white matter lesions, has been demonstrated in patients with a history of long-term use of prescription opioids. The exact mechanisms underlying the neurotoxic effect of opioids on the central nervous system are still not fully understood...
March 23, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561420/brain-gray-matter-alterations-in-chinese-patients-with-chronic-knee-osteoarthritis-pain-based-on-voxel-based-morphometry
#19
Xia Liao, Cuiping Mao, Yuan Wang, Qingfeng Zhang, Dongyuan Cao, David A Seminowicz, Ming Zhang, Xiaoli Yang
Altered cerebral gray matter volume (GMV) is commonly found in patients with chronic pain. Chronic pain is the prominent characteristic of knee osteoarthritis (KOA), yet little is known about its morphological changes in the brain. Here an MRI study was performed to examine the structural brain abnormalities in 30 KOA patients with knee pain and age-matched healthy subjects. We detected that the patients exhibited significant almost 2-fold age-related decreases of GMV compared to healthy controls. Moreover, KOA patients also had significant loss of regional GMV including in the bilateral orbital frontal cortex (OFC), the right lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC), and precentral and postcentral cortices...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556959/neurogenic-inflammation-in-fibromyalgia
#20
REVIEW
Geoffrey Littlejohn, Emma Guymer
Fibromyalgia is a high impact chronic pain disorder with a well-defined and robust clinical phenotype. Key features include widespread pain and tenderness, high levels of sleep disturbance, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction and emotional distress. Abnormal processing of pain and other sensory input occurs in the brain, spinal cord and periphery and is related to the processes of central and peripheral sensitization. As such, fibromyalgia is deemed to be one of the central sensitivity syndromes. There is increasing evidence of neurogenically derived inflammatory mechanisms occurring in the peripheral tissues, spinal cord and brain in fibromyalgia...
May 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
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