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Chronic pain AND brain changes

Ana E López-Pérez, Kulmira Nurgali, Raquel Abalo
Beyond their well-known role in embryonic development of the central and peripheral nervous system, neurotrophins, particularly nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, exert an essential role in pain production and sensitization. This has mainly been studied within the framework of somatic pain, and even antibodies (tanezumab and fasinumab) have recently been developed for their use in chronic somatic painful conditions, such as osteoarthritis or low back pain. However, data suggest that neurotrophins also exert an important role in the occurrence of visceral pain and visceral sensitization...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Okihiro Onishi, Kazuya Ikoma, Ryo Oda, Tetsuro Yamazaki, Hiroyoshi Fujiwara, Shunji Yamada, Masaki Tanaka, Toshikazu Kubo
Although treatment protocols are available, patients experience both acute neuropathic pain and chronic neuropathic pain, hyperalgesia, and allodynia after peripheral nerve injury. The purpose of this study was to identify the brain regions activated after peripheral nerve injury using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sequentially and assess the relevance of the imaging results using histological findings. To model peripheral nerve injury in male Sprague-Dawley rats, the right sciatic nerve was crushed using an aneurysm clip, under general anesthesia...
March 7, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Hikari Kirimoto, Hiroyuki Tamaki, Naufumi Otsuru, Koya Yamashiro, Hideaki Onishi, Ippei Nojima, Antonio Oliviero
Transcranial static magnetic field stimulation (tSMS) is a novel and inexpensive, non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) technique. Here, we performed non-invasive modulation of intra-epidermal electrical stimulation-evoked potentials (IES-EPs) by applying tSMS or sham stimulation over the primary motor (M1) and somatosensory (S1) cortices in 18 healthy volunteers for 15 min. We recorded EPs after IES before, right after, and 10 min after tSMS. The IES-EP amplitude was significantly reduced immediately after tSMS over M1, whereas tSMS over S1 and sham stimulation did not affect the IES-EP amplitude...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Olivia C Eller-Smith, Andrea L Nicol, Julie A Christianson
Centralized pain syndromes are associated with changes within the central nervous system that amplify peripheral input and/or generate the perception of pain in the absence of a noxious stimulus. Examples of idiopathic functional disorders that are often categorized as centralized pain syndromes include fibromyalgia, chronic pelvic pain syndromes, migraine, and temporomandibular disorder. Patients often suffer from widespread pain, associated with more than one specific syndrome, and report fatigue, mood and sleep disturbances, and poor quality of life...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Ernesto Solis, Anum Afzal, Eugene A Kiyatkin
Oxycodone is a semi-synthetic opioid drug that is used to alleviate acute and chronic pain. However, oxycodone is often abused and, when taken at high doses, can induce powerful CNS depression that manifests in respiratory abnormalities, hypotension, coma, and death. Here, we employed several measurement techniques to examine the effects of intravenous oxycodone at a wide range of doses on various metabolism-related parameters in awake, freely-moving rats. High-speed amperometry was used to assess how oxycodone affects oxygen and glucose levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc)...
February 21, 2018: Neuropharmacology
David Borsook, Andrew M Youssef, Nadia Barakat, Christine B Sieberg, Igor Elman
By unconscious or covert processing of pain we refer to nascent interactions that affect the eventual deliverance of pain awareness. Thus, internal processes (viz., repeated nociceptive events, inflammatory kindling, reorganization of brain networks, genetic) or external processes (viz., environment, socioeconomic levels, modulation of epigenetic status) contribute to enhancing or inhibiting the presentation of pain awareness. Here we put forward the notion that for many patients, ongoing sub-conscious changes in brain function are significant players in the eventual manifestation of chronic pain...
February 21, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Moon Yi Ko, Eun Young Jang, June Yeon Lee, Su Phil Kim, Sung Hun Whang, Bong Hyo Lee, Hee Young Kim, Char Ha Yang, Hee Jung Cho, Young Seob Gwak
Spinal cord injury (SCI) frequently results in chronic neuropathic pain (CNP). However, the understanding of brain neural circuits in CNP modulation is unclear. The present study examined the changes of ventral tegmental area (VTA) putative GABAergic and dopaminergic neuronal activity with CNP attenuation in rats. SCI was established by T10 clip compression injury (35 g, 1 min) in rats, and neuropathic pain behaviors, in vivo extracellular single cell recording of putative VTA GABA/dopamine neurons, extracellular GABA level, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and vesicular GABA transporters (VGAT) were measured in the VTA, respectively...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
E Ikeda, T Li, H Kobinata, S Zhang, J Kurata
BACKGROUND: Chronification of pain is associated with both anatomical and functional alterations of the brain. Alteration in regional gray matter volume might potentially be associated with modified activity of specific brain networks. In this cross-sectional, observational study, we sought to identify brain regions with gray matter volume changes in patients with chronic pain and to reveal its significance by analysing alteration in functional connectivity from those regions. We further explored relevance of such alterations with psychometrics of chronic pain...
February 13, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Palmisano Martina, Caputi Francesca Felicia, Mercatelli Daniela, Romualdi Patrizia, Candeletti Sanzio
The dynorphinergic system is involved in pain transmission at spinal level, where dynorphin exerts antinociceptive or pronociceptive effects, based on its opioid or non-opioid actions. Surprisingly, little evidence is currently available concerning the supraspinal role of the dynorphinergic system in pain conditions. The present study aimed to investigate whether neuropathic pain is accompanied by prodynorphin (Pdyn) and κ-opioid receptor (Oprk1) gene expression alterations in selected mouse brain areas. To this end, mice were subjected to chronic constriction injury of the right sciatic nerve and neuropathic pain behavioral signs were ascertained after 14 days...
February 12, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Song Cao, Bangyong Qin, Yi Zhang, Jie Yuan, Bao Fu, Peng Xie, Ganjun Song, Ying Li, Tian Yu
OBJECTIVE: Herpes zoster (HZ) can develop into postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), which is a chronic neuropathic pain (NP). Whether the chronification from HZ to PHN induced brain functional or structural change is unknown and no study compared the changes of the same brains of patients who transited from HZ to PHN. We minimized individual differences and observed whether the chronification of HZ to PHN induces functional and pain duration dependent grey matter volume (GMV) change in HZ-PHN patients...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
Viljami Jokinen, Yulia Sidorova, Hanna Viisanen, Ilida Suleymanova, Henna Tiilikainen, Zhilin Li, Tuomas O Lilius, Kert Mätlik, Jenni E Anttila, Mikko Airavaara, Li Tian, Pekka V Rauhala, Eija A Kalso
Development of tolerance is a well known pharmacological characteristic of opioids and a major clinical problem. In addition to the known neuronal mechanisms of opioid tolerance, activation of glia has emerged as a potentially significant new mechanism. We studied activation of microglia and astrocytes in morphine tolerance and opioid-induced hyperalgesia in rats using immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and RNA sequencing in spinal- and supraspinal regions. Chronic morphine treatment that induced tolerance and hyperalgesia also increased immunoreactivity of spinal microglia in the dorsal and ventral horns...
February 6, 2018: Neuroscience
Pascal Tétreault, Marwan N Baliki, Alexis T Baria, William R Bauer, Thomas J Schnitzer, A Vania Apkarian
Development and maintenance of chronic pain is associated with structural and functional brain reorganization. However, few studies have explored the impact of drug treatments on such changes. The extent to which long-term analgesia is related to brain adaptations and its effects on the reversibility of brain reorganization remain unclear. In a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial, we contrasted pain relief (3-month treatment period), and anatomical (gray matter density [GMD], assessed by voxel-based morphometry) and functional connectivity (resting state fMRI nodal degree count [DC]) adaptations, in 39 knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients (22 females), randomized to duloxetine (DLX, 60 mg once daily) or placebo...
February 7, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Gyu-Sik Choi, Sang Gyu Kwak, Han Do Lee, Min Cheol Chang
OBJECTIVE: Central pain can occur following traumatic brain injury, leading to poor functional recovery, limitation of activities of daily living, and decreased quality of life. The aim of this study was to determine whether high-frequency (10 Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, applied over the primary motor cortex of the affected hemisphere, can be used to manage chronic central pain after mild traumatic brain injury. DESIGN: Prospective randomized feasibility study...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Omar Chehadi, Boris Suchan, Kerstin Konietzny, Odo Köster, Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke, Monika I Hasenbring
Introduction: Pain catastrophizing (PC), the increased attention to harmful aspects of pain (magnification), and the belief of low controllability (helplessness) has been shown to be important in the maintenance of pain. A growing research on structural alterations in chronic pain revealed an association between PC and brain areas that are involved in affective and cognitive pain processing. However, little is known about a differential effect of the components magnification and helplessness...
September 2017: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
Raghavan Gopalakrishnan, Richard C Burgess, Donald A Malone, Scott F Lempka, John T Gale, Darlene P Floden, Kenneth B Baker, Andre G Machado
Post-stroke pain syndrome (PSPS) is an intractable disorder characterized by hemiparesis associated with unrelenting chronic pain. While traditional analgesia have largely failed, integrative approaches targeting affective-cognitive spheres have started to show promise. Recently, we demonstrated that deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral striatal area significantly improved the affective sphere of pain (Lempka et al. 2017) in PSPS patients. Here, we examine whether electrophysiological correlates of pain anticipation were modulated by DBS that could serve as signatures of treatment effects...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Zhiyu Chen, Xiaolu Shen, La Huang, Hai Wu, Mazhong Zhang
The pathophysiology of neuropathic pain generation has not been fully investigated. Previous studies have primarily focused on changes in the properties of single neurons in the brain after nerve injury; however, little is known concerning the role of neuron-to-neuron connections in neuropathic pain pathogenesis. Synaptic transmission potentiation in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been confirmed to be responsible for the formation of neuropathic pain. Thus, analysis of interneuronal connections in the ACC is an important approach for understanding the mechanism of neuropathic pain since it provides information on the potency of synaptic transmission...
January 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Karen-Amanda Irvine, Peyman Sahbaie, De-Yong Liang, David Clark
Chronic pain is a common consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that can increase a patient's suffering and pose a significant challenge to rehabilitative efforts. Unfortunately, the mechanisms linking TBI to pain are poorly understood and specific treatments for TBI-related pain are still lacking. Our lab has shown that TBI causes pain sensitization in areas distant to the site of primary injury, and that changes in spinal gene expression may underlie this sensitization1, 2. The aim of this study was to examine the roles that pain modulatory pathways descending from the brainstem play in pain after TBI...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Jo Howard, April E Slee, Simon Skene, Baba Inusa, Jamie Kawadler, Michelle Downes, Johanna Gavlak, Melanie Koelbel, Hanne Stotesbury, Maria Chorozoglou, Susan Tebbs, Subarna Chakravorty, Moji Awogbade, David C Rees, Atul Gupta, Patrick B Murphy, Nicholas Hart, Sati Sahota, Carol Nwosu, Maureen Gwam, Dawn Saunders, Vivek Muthurangu, Nathaniel Barber, Emmanuel Ako, Swee Lay Thein, Melanie Marshall, Isabel C Reading, Man Ying Edith Cheng, Fenella J Kirkham, Christina Liossi
BACKGROUND: In addition to pain, sickle cell anaemia (HbSS) complications include neurocognitive difficulties in attention and processing speed associated with low daytime and night-time oxygen saturation compounded by obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). In the general population OSA is treated with continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP). The aim of this single-blind, randomised, controlled phase II trial is to compare auto-adjusting CPAP (APAP) with standard care to standard care alone in individuals with HbSS to determine whether the intervention improves attention and processing speed, brain structure, pain and quality of life...
January 22, 2018: Trials
Tzu-Hsien Lai, Shuu-Jiun Wang
Medication overuse headache (MOH) is a secondary headache syndrome defined as the deterioration of the headache associated with the overuse of analgesics. The prevalence of MOH is 1-2% in the general population and even up to 50% in special clinics. Overuse of abortive medications is highly associated with chronic daily headaches and also a known risk factor for headache evolution. Possible mechanisms include neural plasticity changes such as sensitization and defective endogenous pain inhibition. Psychological studies have suggested dependence, even addiction, in patients with MOH...
January 16, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
Randy L Gollub, Irving Kirsch, Nasim Maleki, Ajay D Wasan, Robert R Edwards, Yiheng Tu, Ted J Kaptchuk, Jian Kong
Placebo treatments and healing rituals share much in common, such as the effects of expectancy, and have been used since the beginning of human history to treat pain. Previous mechanistic neuroimaging studies investigating the effects of expectancy on placebo analgesia have used young, healthy volunteers. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we aimed to investigate the neural mechanisms by which expectancy evokes analgesia in older adults living with a chronic pain disorder and determine whether there are interactions with active treatment...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
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