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skeletal protein synthesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445477/mitochondrial-respiration-in-highly-aerobic-canines-in-the-non-raced-state-and-after-a-1600-km-sled-dog-race
#1
Benjamin Miller, Karyn Hamilton, Robert Boushel, Katherine Williamson, Verena Laner, Erich Gnaiger, Michael Davis
At the annual Iditarod Race, Alaskan Huskies repeatedly run for up to 8 hours at 16 km/h to complete 1600 km. We previously demonstrated high rates of mitochondrial protein synthesis in Alaskan Huskies, which we suspected allowed rapid remodeling of mitochondrial proteins in response to energetic stress. The purpose of this study was to examine mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized skeletal muscle fibers of Alaskan Huskies in the offseason (Non-raced) and following the 1600 km Iditarod Sled Dog Race (Raced)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437447/carbonic-anhydrase-iii-car3-is-not-required-for-fatty-acid-synthesis-and-does-not-protect-against-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#2
Sarah W Renner, Lauren M Walker, Lawrence J Forsberg, Jonathan Z Sexton, Jay E Brenman
Carbonic anhydrases are a family of enzymes that catalyze the reversible condensation of water and carbon dioxide to carbonic acid, which spontaneously dissociates to bicarbonate. Carbonic anhydrase III (Car3) is nutritionally regulated at both the mRNA and protein level. It is highly enriched in tissues that synthesize and/or store fat: liver, white adipose tissue, brown adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle. Previous characterization of Car3 knockout mice focused on mice fed standard diets, not high-fat diets that significantly alter the tissues that highly express Car3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430144/a-systems-biology-approach-using-transcriptomic-data-reveals-genes-and-pathways-in-porcine-skeletal-muscle-affected-by-dietary-lysine
#3
Taiji Wang, Jean M Feugang, Mark A Crenshaw, Naresh Regmi, John R Blanton, Shengfa F Liao
Nine crossbred finishing barrows (body weight 94.4 ± 6.7 kg) randomly assigned to three dietary treatments were used to investigate the effects of dietary lysine on muscle growth related metabolic and signaling pathways. Muscle samples were collected from the longissimus dorsi of individual pigs after feeding the lysine-deficient (4.30 g/kg), lysine-adequate (7.10 g/kg), or lysine-excess (9.80 g/kg) diet for five weeks, and the total RNA was extracted afterwards. Affymetrix Porcine Gene 1.0 ST Array was used to quantify the expression levels of 19,211 genes...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424630/hippo-pathway-and-skeletal-muscle-mass-regulation-in-mammals-a-controversial-relationship
#4
REVIEW
Olouyomi Gnimassou, Marc Francaux, Louise Deldicque
Skeletal muscle mass reflects a dynamic turnover between net protein synthesis and degradation. In addition, satellite cell inclusion may contribute to increase muscle mass while fiber loss results in a reduction of muscle mass. Since 2010, a few studies looked at the involvement of the newly discovered Hippo pathway in the regulation of muscle mass. In line with its roles in other organs, it has been hypothesized that the Hippo pathway could play a role in different regulatory mechanisms in skeletal muscle as well, namely proliferation and renewal of satellite cells, differentiation, death, and growth of myogenic cells...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418030/the-bmp2-nuclear-variant-nbmp2-is-expressed-in-mouse-hippocampus-and-impacts-memory
#5
Ryan D Cordner, Lindsey N Friend, Jaime L Mayo, Corinne Badgley, Andrew Wallmann, Conrad N Stallings, Peter L Young, Darla R Miles, Jeffrey G Edwards, Laura C Bridgewater
The novel nuclear protein nBMP2 is synthesized from the BMP2 gene by translational initiation at an alternative start codon. We generated a targeted mutant mouse, nBmp2NLS(tm), in which the nuclear localization signal (NLS) was inactivated to prevent nuclear translocation of nBMP2 while still allowing the normal synthesis and secretion of the BMP2 growth factor. These mice exhibit abnormal muscle function due to defective Ca(2+) transport in skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that neurological function, which also depends on intracellular Ca(2+) transport, could be affected by the loss of nBMP2...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411009/skeletal-muscle-morphology-and-regulatory-signalling-in-endurance-trained-and-sedentary-individuals-the-influence-of-ageing
#6
U R Mikkelsen, J Agergaard, C Couppé, J F Grosset, A Karlsen, S P Magnusson, P Schjerling, M Kjaer, A L Mackey
Muscle mass in humans is inversely associated with circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines, but the interaction between ageing and training on muscle composition and the intra-muscular signalling behind inflammation and contractile protein synthesis and degradation is unknown. We studied 15 healthy life-long endurance runners, 12 age-matched untrained controls, 10 young trained and 12 young untrained individuals. Thigh muscle composition was investigated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), where non-contractile intramuscular tissue (NCIT) area (fat and connective tissue) was found to be greater in older but lower in trained individuals...
April 11, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409828/leucine-elicits-myotube-hypertrophy-and-enhances-maximal-contractile-force-in-tissue-engineered-skeletal-muscle-in-vitro
#7
N R W Martin, M C Turner, R Farrington, D J Player, M P Lewis
The amino acid leucine is thought to be important for skeletal muscle growth by virtue of its ability to acutely activate mTORC1 and enhance muscle protein synthesis, yet little data exist regarding its impact on skeletal muscle size and its ability to produce force. We utilised a tissue engineering approach in order to test whether supplementing culture medium with leucine could enhance mTORC1 signalling, myotube growth and muscle function. Phosphorylation of the mTORC1 target proteins 4EBP-1 and rpS6 and myotube hypertrophy appeared to occur in a dose dependent manner, with 5 and 20mM of leucine inducing similar effects, which were greater than those seen with 1mM...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393216/cancer-induced-cardiac-cachexia-pathogenesis-and-impact-of-physical-activity-review
#8
Yassine Belloum, Françoise Rannou-Bekono, François B Favier
Cachexia is a wasting syndrome observed in many patients suffering from several chronic diseases including cancer. In addition to the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass, cancer cachexia results in cardiac function impairment. During the severe stage of the disease, patients as well as animals bearing cancer cells display cardiac atrophy. Cardiac energy metabolism is also impeded with disruption of mitochondrial homeostasis and reduced oxidative capacity, although the available data remain equivocal. The release of inflammatory cytokines by tumor is a key mechanism in the initiation of heart failure...
May 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386239/skeletal-muscle-myomir-are-differentially-expressed-by-endurance-exercise-mode-and-combined-essential-amino-acid-and-carbohydrate-supplementation
#9
Lee M Margolis, Holly L McClung, Nancy E Murphy, Christopher T Carrigan, Stefan M Pasiakos
Skeletal muscle microRNAs (myomiR) expression is modulated by exercise, however, the influence of endurance exercise mode, combined with essential amino acid and carbohydrate (EAA+CHO) supplementation are not well defined. This study determined the effects of weighted versus non-weighted endurance exercise, with or without EAA+CHO ingestion on myomiR expression and their association with muscle protein synthesis (MPS). Twenty five adults performed 90 min of metabolically-matched (2.2 VO2 L·m(-1)) load carriage (LC; performed on a treadmill wearing a vest equal to 30% of individual body mass) or cycle ergometry (CE) exercise, during which EAA+CHO (10 g EAA and 46 g CHO) or non-nutritive control (CON) drinks were consumed...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381519/balance-between-s-nitrosylation-and-denitrosylation-modulates-myoblast-proliferation-independently-of-soluble-guanylyl-cyclase-activation
#10
Aline M S Yamashita, Maryana T C Ancillotti, Luciana P Rangel, Marcio Fontenele, Cicero Figueiredo-Freitas, Ana C Possidonio, Carolina P Soares, Martha M Sorenson, Claudia Mermelstein, Leonardo Nogueira
Nitric oxide (NO) contributes to myogenesis by regulating the transition between myoblast proliferation and fusion through cGMP signaling. NO can form S-nitrosothiols (RSNO), which control signaling pathways in many different cell types. However, neither the role of RSNO content nor its regulation by the denitrosylase activity of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) during myogenesis is understood. Here, we used primary cultures of chick embryonic skeletal muscle cells to investigate whether changes in intracellular RSNO alter proliferation and fusion of myoblasts in the presence and absence of cGMP...
April 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379838/influence-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-on-skeletal-muscle-protein-metabolism-and-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-in-older-adults
#11
Antigoni Z Lalia, Surendra Dasari, Matthew M Robinson, Hinnah Abid, Dawn M Morse, Katherine A Klaus, Ian R Lanza
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3-PUFA) are recognized for their anti-inflammatory effects and may be beneficial in the context of sarcopenia. We determined the influence of n3-PUFA on muscle mitochondrial physiology and protein metabolism in older adults. Twelve young (18-35 years) and older (65-85 years) men and women were studied at baseline. Older adults were studied again following n3-PUFA supplementation (3.9g/day, 16 weeks). Muscle biopsies were used to evaluate respiratory capacity (high resolution respirometry) and oxidant emissions (spectrofluorometry) in isolated mitochondria...
April 5, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367506/regulation-of-protein-and-mrna-expression-of-the-mtorc1-repressor-redd1-in-response-to-leucine-and-serum
#12
Adam J Black, Bradley S Gordon, Michael D Dennis, Leonard S Jefferson, Scot R Kimball
Expression of the mTORC1 repressor, Regulated in DNA Damage and Development 1 (REDD1), is elevated in skeletal muscle during various catabolic conditions including fasting, hindlimb immobilization, and sepsis. Conversely, REDD1 expression is suppressed by anabolic stimuli such as resistance exercise or nutrient consumption following a fast. Though it is known that nutrient consumption reduces REDD1 expression, it is largely unknown how nutrients and hormones individually contribute to the reduction in REDD1 expression...
December 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364027/skeletal-muscle-myopenia-in-mice-model-of-bile-duct-ligation-and-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-liver-cirrhosis
#13
Michela Giusto, Laura Barberi, Francesca Di Sario, Emanuele Rizzuto, Carmine Nicoletti, Francesca Ascenzi, Anastasia Renzi, Nicola Caporaso, Giuseppe D'Argenio, Eugenio Gaudio, Antonio Musarò, Manuela Merli
Skeletal muscle myopathy is universal in cirrhotic patients, however, little is known about the main mechanisms involved. The study aims to investigate skeletal muscle morphological, histological, and functional modifications in experimental models of cirrhosis and the principal molecular pathways responsible for skeletal muscle myopathy. Cirrhosis was induced by bile duct ligation (BDL) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) administration in mice. Control animals (CTR) underwent bile duct exposure or vehicle administration only...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341051/whey-protein-derived-exosomes-increase-protein-synthesis-and-hypertrophy-in-c2-c12-myotubes
#14
C Brooks Mobley, Petey W Mumford, John J McCarthy, Michael E Miller, Kaelin C Young, Jeffrey S Martin, Darren T Beck, Christopher M Lockwood, Michael D Roberts
We sought to examine potential amino acid independent mechanisms whereby hydrolyzed whey protein (WP) affects muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and anabolism in vitro. Specifically, we tested (1) whether 3-h and 6-h treatments of WP, essential amino acids, or l-leucine (Leu) affected MPS, and whether 6-h treatments with low-, medium-, or high doses of WP versus Leu affected MPS; (2) whether knockdown of the primary Leu transporter affected WP- and Leu-mediated changes in MPS, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling responses, or both, following 6-h treatments; (3) whether exosomes isolated from WP (WP-EXO) affected MPS, mTOR signaling responses, or both, compared with untreated (control) myotubes, following 6-h, 12-h, and 24-h treatments, and whether they affected myotube diameter following 24-h and 48-h treatments...
January 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333970/-epicatechin-3-o-%C3%AE-d-allopyranoside-from-davallia-formosana-prevents-diabetes-and-dyslipidemia-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#15
Cheng-Hsiu Lin, Jin-Bin Wu, Jia-Ying Jian, Chun-Ching Shih
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects and molecular mechanism of (-)-epicatechin-3-O-β-D-allopyranoside from Davallia formosana (BB) (also known as Gu-Sui-Bu) on type 1 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. This plant was demonstrated to display antioxidant activities and possess polyphenol contents. Diabetic mice were randomly divided into six groups and were given daily oral gavage doses of either BB (at three dosage levels), metformin (Metf) (at 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331220/identification-of-biallelic-extl3-mutations-in-a-novel-type-of-spondylo-epi-metaphyseal-dysplasia
#16
Long Guo, Nursel H Elcioglu, Shuji Mizumoto, Zheng Wang, Bilge Noyan, Hatice M Albayrak, Shuhei Yamada, Naomichi Matsumoto, Noriko Miyake, Gen Nishimura, Shiro Ikegawa
Spondylo-epi-metaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD) is a group of inherited skeletal diseases characterized by the anomalies in spine, epiphyses and metaphyses. SEMD is highly heterogeneous and >20 distinct entities have been identified. Here we describe a novel type of SEMD in two unrelated Turkish patients who presented with severe platyspondyly, kyphoscoliosis, pelvic distortion, constriction of the proximal femora and brachydactyly. Although these phenotypes overlap considerably with some known SEMDs, they had a novel causal gene, exostosin-like glycosyltransferase 3 (EXTL3), that encodes a glycosyltransferase involved in the synthesis of heparin and heparan sulfate...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327084/a-transcriptome-multi-tissue-analysis-identifies-biological-pathways-and-genes-associated-with-variations-in-feed-efficiency-of-growing-pigs
#17
Florence Gondret, Annie Vincent, Magalie Houée-Bigot, Anne Siegel, Sandrine Lagarrigue, David Causeur, Hélène Gilbert, Isabelle Louveau
BACKGROUND: Animal's efficiency in converting feed into lean gain is a critical issue for the profitability of meat industries. This study aimed to describe shared and specific molecular responses in different tissues of pigs divergently selected over eight generations for residual feed intake (RFI). RESULTS: Pigs from the low RFI line had an improved gain-to-feed ratio during the test period and displayed higher leanness but similar adiposity when compared with pigs from the high RFI line at 132 days of age...
March 21, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326296/association-between-sarcopenic-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-postmenopausal-women-a-cross-sectional-study-based-on-the-korean-national-health-and-nutritional-examination-surveys-from-2008-to-2011
#18
Sun-Young Kang, Gyeong Eun Lim, Yang Keun Kim, Hye Won Kim, Kayoung Lee, Tae-Jin Park, Jinseung Kim
BACKGROUND: Menopause contributes to an increase in visceral fat mass and a decrease in muscle protein synthesis. Therefore, we performed this study to examine their relationship how effect the changes of body composition as obesity and sarcopenia on metabolic syndrome (MS) as a predictor of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. METHODS: Using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 to 2011, we estimated that 4,183 postmenopausal women underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans...
February 2017: Journal of Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294417/progressive-resistance-loaded-voluntary-wheel-running-increases-hypertrophy-and-differentially-affects-muscle-protein-synthesis-ribosome-biogenesis-and-proteolytic-markers-in-rat-muscle
#19
C B Mobley, A M Holland, W C Kephart, P W Mumford, R P Lowery, A N Kavazis, J M Wilson, M D Roberts
We examined if 6 weeks of progressive resistance-loaded voluntary wheel running in rats induced plantaris, soleus, and/or gastrocnemius hypertrophy and/or affected markers of translational efficiency, ribosome biogenesis, and markers of proteolysis. For 6 weeks, 8 male Sprague-Dawley rats (~9-10 weeks of age, ~300-325 g) rats were assigned to the progressive resistance-loaded voluntary wheel running model (EX), and ten rats were not trained (SED). For EX rats, the wheel-loading paradigm was as follows - days 1-7: free-wheel resistance, days 8-15: wheel resistance set to 20%-25% body mass, days 16-24: 40% body mass, days 25-32: 60% body mass, days 33-42: 40% body mass...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286738/tsc2-rheb-signaling-mediates-erk-dependent-regulation-of-mtorc1-activity-in-c2c12-myoblasts
#20
Mitsunori Miyazaki, Tohru Takemasa
The enhanced rate of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle cells results in a net increase in total protein content that leads to skeletal muscle growth/hypertrophy. The mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent regulation of the activity of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and subsequent protein synthesis has been suggested as a regulatory mechanism; however, the exact molecular processes underlying such a regulation are poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to investigate regulatory mechanisms involved in the MEK/ERK-dependent pathway leading to mTORC1 activation in skeletal muscle cells...
March 2017: FEBS Open Bio
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