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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781585/group-i-paks-support-muscle-regeneration-and-counteract-cancer-associated-muscle-atrophy
#1
Andrea Cerquone Perpetuini, Andrea David Re Cecconi, Michela Chiappa, Giulia Benedetta Martinelli, Claudia Fuoco, Giovanni Desiderio, Luisa Castagnoli, Cesare Gargioli, Rosanna Piccirillo, Gianni Cesareni
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle is characterized by an efficient regeneration potential that is often impaired during myopathies. Understanding the molecular players involved in muscle homeostasis and regeneration could help to find new therapies against muscle degenerative disorders. Previous studies revealed that the Ser/Thr kinase p21 protein-activated kinase 1 (Pak1) was specifically down-regulated in the atrophying gastrocnemius of Yoshida hepatoma-bearing rats. In this study, we evaluated the role of group I Paks during cancer-related atrophy and muscle regeneration...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757056/whey-protein-augments-leucinemia-and-post-exercise-p70s6k1-activity-compared-to-a-hydrolysed-collagen-blend-when-in-recovery-from-training-with-low-carbohydrate-availability
#2
Samuel G Impey, Kelly M Hammond, Robert Naughton, Carl Langan-Evans, Sam O Shepherd, Adam P Sharples, Jessica Cegielski, Kenneth Smith, Stewart Jeromson, D Lee Hamilton, Graeme L Close, James P Morton
We examined the effects of whey versus collagen protein on skeletal muscle cell signalling responses associated with mitochondrial biogenesis and protein synthesis in recovery from an acute training session completed with low carbohydrate (CHO) availability. In a repeated measures design (after adhering to a 36-h exercise-dietary intervention to standardise pre-exercise muscle glycogen), eight males completed a 75-min non-exhaustive cycling protocol and consumed 22 g of a hydrolysed collagen blend (COLLAGEN) or whey (WHEY) protein 45 min prior to exercise, 22 g during exercise and 22 g immediately post-exercise...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754289/the-novel-adipokine-wisp1-associates-with-insulin-resistance-and-impairs-insulin-action-in-human-myotubes-and-mouse-hepatocytes
#3
Tina Hörbelt, Christopher Tacke, Mariya Markova, Daniella Herzfeld de Wiza, Frederique Van de Velde, Marlies Bekaert, Yves Van Nieuwenhove, Silke Hornemann, Maria Rödiger, Nicole Seebeck, Elisabeth Friedl, Wenke Jonas, G Hege Thoresen, Oliver Kuss, Anke Rosenthal, Volker Lange, Andreas F H Pfeiffer, Annette Schürmann, Bruno Lapauw, Natalia Rudovich, Olga Pivovarova, D Margriet Ouwens
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Wingless-type (Wnt) inducible signalling pathway protein-1 (WISP1) has been recently identified as a proinflammatory adipokine. We examined whether WISP1 expression and circulating levels are altered in type 2 diabetes and whether WISP1 affects insulin signalling in muscle cells and hepatocytes. METHODS: Serum and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) biopsies, for analysis of circulating WISP1 levels by ELISA and WISP1 mRNA expression by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, were collected from normal-weight men (control group, n = 33) and obese men with (n = 46) and without type 2 diabetes (n = 56) undergoing surgery...
May 12, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753766/licorice-flavonoid-oil-enhances-muscle-mass-in-kk-a-y-mice
#4
Yasukiyo Yoshioka, Yoko Yamashita, Hideyuki Kishida, Kaku Nakagawa, Hitoshi Ashida
AIMS: Muscle mass is regulated by the balance between the synthesis and degradation of muscle proteins. Loss of skeletal muscle mass is associated with an increased risk of developing metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of licorice flavonoid oil on muscle mass in KK-Ay /Ta mice. MAIN METHODS: Male genetically type II diabetic KK-Ay /Ta mice received 0, 1, or 1.5 g/kg BW of licorice flavonoid oil by mouth once daily for 4 weeks...
May 10, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750251/effect-of-aerobic-exercise-training-and-essential-amino-acid-supplementation-for-24-weeks-on-physical-function-body-composition-and-muscle-metabolism-in-healthy-independent-older-adults-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#5
Melissa M Markofski, Kristofer Jennings, Kyle L Timmerman, Jared M Dickinson, Christopher S Fry, Michael S Borack, Paul T Reidy, Rachel R Deer, Amanda Randolph, Blake B Rasmussen, Elena Volpi
Background: Essential amino acids (EAA) and aerobic exercise (AE) acutely and independently stimulate skeletal muscle protein anabolism in older adults. Objective: In this Phase 1, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized clinical trial, we determined if chronic EAA supplementation, AE training, or a combination of the two interventions could improve muscle mass and function by stimulating muscle protein synthesis. Methods: We phone screened 971, enrolled 109, and randomized 50 independent, low-active, non-frail, non-diabetic older adults (age 72±1 yrs)...
May 10, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750000/pathophysiological-analyses-of-skeletal-muscle-in-obese-type-2-diabetes-sdt-fatty-rats
#6
Yusuke Kemmochi, Takeshi Ohta, Yu Motohashi, Akihiro Kaneshige, Sohei Katsumi, Kochi Kakimoto, Yuzo Yasui, Akiko Anagawa-Nakamura, Kaoru Toyoda, Eriko Taniai-Riya, Akemi Takahashi, Toshiyuki Shoda, Takahisa Yamada
Sarcopenia is the age-related decrease of muscle mass and function. Diabetes and obesity are known to be risk factors that exacerbate sarcopenia, but the underlying mechanism of diabetes-related sarcopenia is still unknown. Obese type 2 diabetes SDT fatty rats show early onset of severe diabetes and there have been no reports on the characteristics of their skeletal muscle. Therefore, pathophysiological analyses were performed for the skeletal muscle in these rats. Diabetic male SDT fatty rats were sacrificed at 8, 16, 24, 32 and 40 weeks of age...
April 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737795/the-anti-wasting-effects-of-l-carnitine-supplementation-on-cancer-experimental-data-and-clinical-studies
#7
Mahsa Esfahani, Sahar Sahafi, Ali Derakhshandeh, Azadeh Moghaddas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cachexia is a paraneoplastic syndrome that affects the large majority of patients with end-stage cancer. No known therapy exists to effectively overcome the severe symptoms of cachexia, which include anorexia, weight loss and fatigue. This study considered the results of both experimental and clinical studies to evaluate the suitability of L-carnitine and its derivatives as potential therapies for cachexia in patients with cancer. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: All available English-language papers on the use of L-carnitine in patients with cachexia related to cancer, including reviews, case reports, case series, and clinical trials, were obtained by searching multiple databases, including all Elsevier publications, Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Scopus, clinical trials, and the Cochrane database of systematic reviews...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731967/anti-cachectic-effect-of-antrodia-cinnamomea-extract-in-lung-tumor-bearing-mice-under-chemotherapy
#8
Meng-Chuan Chen, Wen-Lin Hsu, Tz-Chong Chou
Skeletal muscle atrophy, the most characteristic feature of cancer cachexia, often occurs in patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) a widely used edible medical fungus, exhibits hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. In this study, we investigated whether combined treatment with the ethonolic extract of AC ameliorates cachexia symptoms, especially muscle wasting, in lung tumor-bearing mice treated with chemotherapy. Our results revealed that gemcitabine and cisplatin-induced severe body weight loss and skeletal muscle atrophy in the mice with cancer were greatly attenuated after AC extract administration...
April 13, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728917/short-and-long-term-effects-of-leucine-and-branched-chain-amino-acid-supplementation-of-a-protein-and-energy-reduced-diet-on-muscle-protein-metabolism-in-neonatal-pigs
#9
Rodrigo Manjarín, Daniel A Columbus, Jessica Solis, Adriana D Hernandez-García, Agus Suryawan, Hanh V Nguyen, Molly M McGuckin, Rafael T Jimenez, Marta L Fiorotto, Teresa A Davis
The objective of this study was to determine if enteral leucine or branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation increases muscle protein synthesis in neonates who consume less than their protein and energy requirements, and whether this increase is mediated via the upregulation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway or the decrease in muscle protein degradation signaling. Neonatal pigs were fed milk replacement diets containing reduced energy and protein (R), R supplemented with BCAA (RBCAA), R supplemented with leucine (RL), or complete protein and energy (CON) at 4-h intervals for 9 (n = 24) or 21 days (n = 22)...
May 4, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723871/cd38-cadpr-serca-signaling-axis-determines-skeletal-muscle-contractile-force-in-response-to-%C3%AE-adrenergic-stimulation
#10
Dae-Ryoung Park, Tae-Sik Nam, Ye-Won Kim, Seo-Ho Lee, Uh-Hyun Kim
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) is a Ca2+ -mobilization messenger that acts on ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ channels in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ stores. Moreover, it has been proposed that cADPR serves an additional role in activating the sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -ATPase (SERCA) pump. The aim of this study was to determine the exact mechanism by which cADPR regulates SR Ca2+ stores in physiologically relevant systems. METHODS: We analyzed Ca2+ signals as well as the production of Ca2+ mobilizing messengers in the skeletal muscle cells of mice subjected to intensive exercise or in the SR fractions from skeletal muscle cells after β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) stimulation...
April 28, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723655/effects-of-aging-and-insulin-resistant-states-on-protein-anabolic-responses-in-older-adults
#11
REVIEW
Jose A Morais, Kathryn Wright Jacob, Stéphanie Chevalier
Insulin is the principal postprandial anabolic hormone and resistance to its action could contribute to sarcopenia. We developed different types of hyperinsulinemic clamp protocols to measure glucose and protein metabolism in insulin resistant states (older adults, obesity, diabetes, etc.). To define effects of healthy aging in response to insulin, we employed the hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic and isoaminoacidemic (HYPER-1) clamp. The net whole-body anabolic (protein balance) response to hyperinsulinemia was lower in the elderly vs young (p = 0...
May 1, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723585/platycodon-grandiflorum-derived-saponin-enhances-exercise-function-skeletal-muscle-protein-synthesis-and-mitochondrial-function
#12
Yong An Kim, Sun Woo Jin, Suck Hoon Oh, Gi Ho Lee, Hoa Thi Pham, Jae Ho Choi, Young Chul Chung, Wang Lok Lee, Sang Kyum Kim, Hye Gwang Jeong
Lower physical performance is an important risk factor in hypokinetic-related chronic disease, metabolic syndrome, and muscle atrophy. Our previous research demonstrated that Platycodon grandiflorum-derived saponin (PS) protects against eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage and mitochondrial function-related peroxisomal acyl-coenzme A oxidase (ACOX-1) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-1) in high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and it inhibits osteoclast differentiation. However, the effects of PS on physical performance remain unknown...
April 30, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722201/treating-cachexia-using-soluble-acvr2b-improves-survival-alters-mtor-localization-and-attenuates-liver-and-spleen-responses
#13
Tuuli A Nissinen, Jaakko Hentilä, Fabio Penna, Anita Lampinen, Juulia H Lautaoja, Vasco Fachada, Tanja Holopainen, Olli Ritvos, Riikka Kivelä, Juha J Hulmi
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia increases morbidity and mortality, and blocking of activin receptor ligands has improved survival in experimental cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms have not yet been fully uncovered. METHODS: The effects of blocking activin receptor type 2 (ACVR2) ligands on both muscle and non-muscle tissues were investigated in a preclinical model of cancer cachexia using a recombinant soluble ACVR2B (sACVR2B-Fc). Treatment with sACVR2B-Fc was applied either only before the tumour formation or with continued treatment both before and after tumour formation...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720191/pulmonary-inflammation-induced-loss-and-subsequent-recovery-of-skeletal-muscle-mass-require-functional-poly-ubiquitin-conjugation
#14
Judith J M Ceelen, Annemie M W J Schols, Nathalie G M Thielen, Astrid Haegens, Douglas A Gray, Marco C J M Kelders, Chiel C de Theije, Ramon C J Langen
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary inflammation in response to respiratory infections can evoke muscle wasting. Increased activity of the ubiquitin (Ub)-proteasome system (UPS) and the autophagy lysosome pathway (ALP) have been implicated in inflammation-induced muscle atrophy. Since poly-Ub conjugation is required for UPS-mediated proteolysis and has been implicated in the ALP, we assessed the effect of impaired ubiquitin conjugation on muscle atrophy and recovery following pulmonary inflammation, and compared activation and suppression of these proteolytic systems to protein synthesis regulation...
May 2, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719042/early-endplate-remodeling-and-skeletal-muscle-signaling-events-following-rat-hindlimb-suspension
#15
Alexander V Chibalin, Boubacar Benziane, Guzalija F Zakyrjanova, Violetta V Kravtsova, Igor I Krivoi
Motor endplates naturally undergo continual morphological changes that are altered in response to changes in neuromuscular activity. This study examines the consequences of acute (6-12 hr) disuse following hindlimb suspension on rat soleus muscle endplate structural stability. We identify early changes in several key signaling events including markers of protein kinase activation, AMPK phosphorylation and autophagy markers which may play a role in endplate remodeling. Acute disuse does not change endplate fragmentation, however, it decreases both the individual fragments and the total endplate area...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718201/perk-inhibition-delays-neurodegeneration-and-improves-motor-function-in-a-mouse-model-of-marinesco-sj%C3%A3-gren-syndrome
#16
Valentina Grande, Francesca Ornaghi, Liliana Comerio, Elena Restelli, Antonio Masone, Alessandro Corbelli, Daniele Tolomeo, Vanessa Capone, Jeffrey M Axten, Nicholas J Laping, Fabio Fiordaliso, Michele Sallese, Roberto Chiesa
Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome (MSS) is a rare, early-onset, autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by cerebellar ataxia, cataracts and myopathy. Most MSS cases are caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding SIL1, a nucleotide exchange factor for the molecular chaperone BiP which is essential for correct protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. Woozy mice carrying a spontaneous Sil1 mutation recapitulate key pathological features of MSS, including cerebellar atrophy with degeneration of Purkinje cells, and progressive myopathy...
April 28, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708079/barriers-to-cancer-nutrition-therapy-excess-catabolism-of-muscle-and-adipose-tissues-induced-by-tumour-products-and-chemotherapy
#17
Dalton L Schiessel, Vickie E Baracos
Cancer-associated malnutrition is driven by reduced dietary intake and by underlying metabolic changes (such as inflammation, anabolic resistance, proteolysis, lipolysis and futile cycling) induced by the tumour and activated immune cells. Cytotoxic and targeted chemotherapies also elicit proteolysis and lipolysis at the tissue level. In this review, we summarise specific mediators and chemotherapy effects that provoke excess proteolysis in muscle and excess lipolysis in adipose tissue. A nutritionally relevant question is whether and to what degree these catabolic changes can be reversed by nutritional therapy...
April 30, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703782/adipose-and-skeletal-muscle-thermogenesis-studies-from-large-animals
#18
REVIEW
John-Paul Fuller-Jackson, Belinda A Henry
The balance between energy intake and energy expenditure establishes and preserves a 'set-point' body weight. The latter is comprised of three major components including metabolic rate, physical activity and thermogenesis. Thermogenesis is defined as the cellular dissipation of energy via heat production. This process has been extensively characterised in brown adipose tissue (BAT), wherein uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) creates a proton leak across the inner mitochondrial membrane, diverting protons away from ATP synthesis and resulting in heat dissipation...
June 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695977/effect-of-resistance-training-on-extracellular-matrix-adaptations-in-skeletal-muscle-of-older-rats
#19
Vinicius Guzzoni, Manoel B T Ribeiro, Gisele N Lopes, Rita de Cássia Marqueti, Rosângela V de Andrade, Heloisa S Selistre-de-Araujo, João L Q Durigan
Accumulation of connective tissue, particularly extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, has been observed in skeletal muscles with advancing age. Resistance training (RT) has been widely recommended to attenuate age-induced sarcopenia, even though its effects on the components that control ECM turnover in skeletal muscles remain to be elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of RT on connective tissue content and gene expression of key components of ECM in the skeletal muscles of aged rats...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683099/identifying-potential-therapeutics-for-osteoporosis-by-exploiting-the-relationship-between-mevalonate-pathway-and-bone-metabolism
#20
Wan Nuraini Wan Hasan, Kok-Yong Chin, James Jam Jolly, Norzana Abd Ghafar, Ima Nirwana Soelaiman
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a silent skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass and destruction of skeletal microarchitecture, leading to an increased fracture risk. This occurs due to an imbalance in bone remodelling, whereby the rate of bone resorption is greater than bone formation. Mevalonate pathway, previously known to involve in cholesterol synthesis, is an important regulatory pathway for bone remodelling. OBJECTIVE: This review aimed to provide an overview of the relationship between mevalonate pathway and bone metabolism, as well as agents which act through this pathway to achieve their therapeutic potential...
April 23, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
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