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skeletal protein synthesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635952/yunis-var%C3%A3-n-syndrome-caused-by-biallelic-vac14-mutations
#1
Matthew A Lines, Yoko Ito, Kristin D Kernohan, Wendy Mears, Julie Hurteau-Miller, Sunita Venkateswaran, Leanne Ward, Karine Khatchadourian, Jeff McClintock, Priya Bhola, Philippe M Campeau, Kym M Boycott, Jean Michaud, André Bp van Kuilenburg, Sacha Ferdinandusse, David A Dyment
Yunis-Varón syndrome (YVS) is an autosomal recessive disorder comprising skeletal anomalies, dysmorphism, global developmental delay and intracytoplasmic vacuolation in brain and other tissues. All hitherto-reported pathogenic variants affect FIG4, a lipid phosphatase involved in phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,5)P2] metabolism. FIG4 interacts with PIKfyve, a lipid kinase, via the adapter protein VAC14; all subunits of the resulting complex are essential for PtdIns(3,5)P2 synthesis in the endolysosomal membrane compartment...
June 21, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634643/acute-high-caffeine-exposure-increases-autophagic-flux-and-reduces-protein-synthesis-in-c2c12-skeletal-myotubes
#2
M A Hughes, R M Downs, G W Webb, C L Crocker, S T Kinsey, Bradley L Baumgarner
Caffeine is a highly catabolic dietary stimulant. High caffeine concentrations (1-10 mM) have previously been shown to inhibit protein synthesis and increase protein degradation in various mammalian cell lines. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of short-term caffeine exposure on cell signaling pathways that regulate protein metabolism in mammalian skeletal muscle cells. Fully differentiated C2C12 skeletal myotubes either received vehicle (DMSO) or 5 mM caffeine for 6 h. Our analysis revealed that caffeine promoted a 40% increase in autolysosome formation and a 25% increase in autophagic flux...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627027/elevated-serum-myostatin-level-is-associated-with-worse-survival-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis
#3
Hiroki Nishikawa, Hirayuki Enomoto, Akio Ishii, Yoshinori Iwata, Yuho Miyamoto, Noriko Ishii, Yukihisa Yuri, Kunihiro Hasegawa, Chikage Nakano, Takashi Nishimura, Kazunori Yoh, Nobuhiro Aizawa, Yoshiyuki Sakai, Naoto Ikeda, Tomoyuki Takashima, Ryo Takata, Hiroko Iijima, Shuhei Nishiguchi
BACKGROUND: We aimed to elucidate the relationship between serum myostatin levels and other markers including skeletal muscle mass and to investigate the influence of serum myostatin levels on survival for patients with liver cirrhosis (LC). METHODS: A total of 198 LC subjects were analysed in this study. Myostatin levels were measured using stored sera. We retrospectively investigated the relationship between myostatin level and other markers, and the influence of myostatin level on overall survival (OS)...
June 18, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625951/evaluation-of-supplementing-active-peptide-s-effect-on-recovering-skeletal-muscle-micro-injury-after-track-and-field-exercises
#4
Caifeng Li, Zongyou Yang
To explore the effect of supplementing active peptide on recovering skeletal muscle injury after track and field exercises. METHOD: choose 80 patients (contain teenagers) with skeletal muscle micro-injury after the track and field exercises from March 2015 to July 2016, divide them into two groups. Normal treatment of micro-injury of skeletal muscle is given to the control group while active peptide is supplemented to the experimental group based on normal treatment. Compare the two groups to find the differences in relevant indexes of skeletal muscle after track and field exercises...
January 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621016/acute-effects-of-phenylbutyrate-on-glutamine-branched-chain-amino-acid-and-protein-metabolism-in-skeletal-muscles-of-rats
#5
Milan Holecek, Melita Vodenicarovova, Pavel Siman
Phenylbutyrate (PB) acts as chemical chaperone and histone deacetylase inhibitor, which is used to decrease ammonia in urea cycle disorders and has been investigated for use in the treatment of a number of lethal illnesses. We performed in vivo and in vitro experiments to examine the effects of PB on glutamine (GLN), branched-chain amino acid (BCAA; valine, leucine and isoleucine) and protein metabolism in rats. In the first study, animals were sacrificed one hour after three injections of PB (300mg/kg b...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615380/leucine-differentially-regulates-gene-specific-translation-in-mouse-skeletal-muscle
#6
Micah J Drummond, Paul T Reidy, Lisa M Baird, Brian K Dalley, Michael T Howard
Background: Amino acids, especially leucine, are particularly effective in promoting protein synthesis. Leucine is known to increase the rate of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle through the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1-dependent, as well as -independent, signaling pathways. However, the overall translation program is poorly defined, and it is unknown how the activation of these pathways differentially controls the translation of specific mRNAs.Objective: Ribosome profiling and RNA sequencing were used to precisely define the translational program activated by an acute oral dose of leucine...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607086/specific-targeting-of-tgf-%C3%AE-family-ligands-demonstrates-distinct-roles-in-the-regulation-of-muscle-mass-in-health-and-disease
#7
Justin L Chen, Kelly L Walton, Adam Hagg, Timothy D Colgan, Katharine Johnson, Hongwei Qian, Paul Gregorevic, Craig A Harrison
The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) network of ligands and intracellular signaling proteins is a subject of intense interest within the field of skeletal muscle biology. To define the relative contribution of endogenous TGF-β proteins to the negative regulation of muscle mass via their activation of the Smad2/3 signaling axis, we used local injection of adeno-associated viral vectors (AAVs) encoding ligand-specific antagonists into the tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of C57BL/6 mice. Eight weeks after AAV injection, inhibition of activin A and activin B signaling produced moderate (∼20%), but significant, increases in TA mass, indicating that endogenous activins repress muscle growth...
June 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605113/muscle-carnitine-availability-plays-a-central-role-in-regulating-fuel-metabolism-in-the-rodent
#8
Craig Porter, Dumitru Constantin-Teodosiu, Despina Constantin, Brendan Leighton, Simon M Poucher, Paul L Greenhaff
The body carnitine pool is primarily confined to skeletal muscle, where it regulates carbohydrate (CHO) and fat usage. Mildronate (3-(2,2,2-trimethylhydrazinium)-propionate) inhibits carnitine synthesis and tissue uptake, but the impact of carnitine depletion on whole-body fuel selection, muscle fuel metabolism and its molecular regulation is under-investigated. Male lean Zucker rats received water (control, n = 8) or mildronate-supplemented water (mildronate, n = 8) for 10 days (1.6 g kg(-1) body mass (bm)(...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596275/skeletal-muscle-morphology-protein-synthesis-and-gene-expression-in-ehlers-danlos-syndrome
#9
Rie H Nygaard, Jacob K Jensen, Nicol C Voermans, Katja Maria Heinemeier, Peter Schjerling, Lars Holm, Jakob Agergaard, Abigail Louise Mackey, Jesper Løvind Andersen, Lars Remvig, Michael Kjaer
INTRODUCTION: Patients with Ehlers Danlos Syndrome are known to have genetically impaired connective tissue and skeletal muscle symptoms in form of pain, fatigue and cramps, however earlier studies have not been able to link these symptoms to morphological muscle changes. METHODS: We obtained skeletal muscle biopsies in patients with classic EDS (cEDS, n=5 (Denmark)+ 8 (The Netherlands)) and vascular EDS (vEDS, n=3) and analyzed muscle fiber morphology and content (Western blotting and muscle fiber type/area distributions) and muscle mRNA expression and protein synthesis rate (RT-PCR and stable isotope technique)...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595527/creatine-supplementation-and-skeletal-muscle-metabolism-for-building-muscle-mass-review-of-the-potential-mechanisms-of-action
#10
Farnaz Farshidfar, Mark A Pinder, Semone B Myrie
Creatine, a very popular supplement among athletic populations, is of growing interest for clinical applications. Since over 90% of creatine is stored in skeletal muscle, the effect of creatine supplementation on muscle metabolism is a widely studied area. While numerous studies over the past few decades have shown that creatine supplementation has many favorable effects on skeletal muscle physiology and metabolism, including enhancing muscle mass (growth/hypertrophy); the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood...
June 5, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594869/compound-heterozygous-mutations-in-glycyl-trna-synthetase-gars-cause-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-dysfunction
#11
Michael Nafisinia, Lisa G Riley, Wendy A Gold, Kaustuv Bhattacharya, Carolyn R Broderick, David R Thorburn, Cas Simons, John Christodoulou
Glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS; OMIM 600287) is one of thirty-seven tRNA-synthetase genes that catalyses the synthesis of glycyl-tRNA, which is required to insert glycine into proteins within the cytosol and mitochondria. To date, eighteen mutations in GARS have been reported in patients with autosomal-dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2D (CMT2D; OMIM 601472), and/or distal spinal muscular atrophy type V (dSMA-V; OMIM 600794). In this study, we report a patient with clinical and biochemical features suggestive of a mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) disorder including mild left ventricular posterior wall hypertrophy, exercise intolerance, and lactic acidosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594135/the-igf-1-akt-s6-pathway-and-expressions-of-glycolytic-myosin-heavy-chain-isoforms-are-upregulated-in-chicken-skeletal-muscle-during-the-first-week-after-hatching
#12
Takaoki Saneyasu, Tatsuya Tsuchihashi, Ayana Kitashiro, Nami Tsuchii, Sayaka Kimura, Kazuhisa Honda, Hiroshi Kamisoyama
Skeletal muscle mass is an important trait in the animal industry. We previously reported an age-dependent downregulation of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)/Akt/S6 pathway, major protein synthesis pathway, in chicken breast muscle after 1 week of age, despite a continuous increase of breast muscle weight. Myosin heavy chain (HC), a major protein in muscle fiber, has several isoforms depending on chicken skeletal muscle types. HC I (fast-twitch glycolytic type) is known to be expressed in adult chicken breast muscle...
June 8, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592272/betaine-promotes-cell-differentiation-of-human-osteoblasts-in-primary-culture
#13
Isabella Villa, Pamela Senesi, Anna Montesano, Anita Ferraretto, Fernanda Vacante, Alice Spinello, Michela Bottani, Simona Bolamperti, Alessandro Rubinacci, Livio Luzi, Ileana Terruzzi
BACKGROUND: Betaine (BET), a component of many foods, is an essential osmolyte and a source of methyl groups; it also shows an antioxidant activity. Moreover, BET stimulates muscle differentiation via insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I). The processes of myogenesis and osteogenesis involve common mechanisms with skeletal muscle cells and osteoblasts sharing the same precursor. Therefore, we have hypothesized that BET might be effective on osteoblast cell differentiation. METHODS: The effect of BET was tested in human osteoblasts (hObs) derived from trabecular bone samples obtained from waste material of orthopedic surgery...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586124/shp-deletion-prevents-hepatic-steatosis-and-when-combined-with-fxr-loss-protects-against-type-2-diabetes
#14
Oludemilade Akinrotimi, Ryan Riessen, Philip VanDuyne, Jung Eun Park, Yoon Kwang Lee, Lee-Jun Wong, Ann M Zavacki, Kristina Schoonjans, Sayeepriyadarshini Anakk
Nuclear receptors Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) and Small Heterodimer Partner (SHP) are important regulators of bile acid, lipid and glucose homeostasis. Here we show that global Fxr (-/-) Shp(-/-) double knockout (DKO) mice are refractory to weight gain, glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis when challenged with high-fat diet. DKO mice display an inherently increased capacity to burn fat and suppress de novo hepatic lipid synthesis. Moreover, DKO mice are also very active and that correlates well with the observed increase in Pepck expression, type IA fibers and mitochondrial function in the skeletal muscle...
June 6, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578881/increased-myogenic-and-protein-turnover-signaling-in-skeletal-muscle-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patients-with-sarcopenia
#15
Anita E M Kneppers, Ramon C J Langen, Harry R Gosker, Lex B Verdijk, Nanca Cebron Lipovec, Pieter A Leermakers, Marco C J M Kelders, Chiel C de Theije, Daniel Omersa, Mitja Lainscak, Annemie M W J Schols
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia was recently recognized as an independent condition by an International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification code, and is a frequently observed comorbidity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Muscle mass is primarily dictated by the balance between protein degradation and synthesis, but their relative contribution to sarcopenia is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess potential differential molecular regulation of protein degradation and synthesis, as well as myogenesis, in the skeletal muscle of COPD patients with and without sarcopenia...
May 31, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557005/sarcopenia-in-alcoholic-liver-disease-clinical-and-molecular-advances
#16
Jaividhya Dasarathy, Arthur J McCullough, Srinivasan Dasarathy
Despite advances in treatment of alcohol use disorders that focus on increasing abstinence and reducing recidivism, alcoholic liver disease is projected to be the major cause of cirrhosis and its complications. Malnutrition is recognized as the most frequent complication in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and despite the high clinical significance, there are no effective therapies to reverse malnutrition in ALD. Malnutrition is a relatively imprecise term and sarcopenia or skeletal muscle loss, the major component of malnutrition, is primarily responsible for the adverse clinical consequences in patients with liver disease...
May 29, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554144/muscle-specific-deletion-of-socs3-does-not-reduce-the-anabolic-response-to-leucine-in-a-mouse-model-of-acute-inflammation
#17
M K Caldow, D J Ham, A Chee, J Trieu, T Naim, D I Stapleton, K Swiderski, G S Lynch, R Koopman
Excessive inflammation reduces skeletal muscle protein synthesis leading to wasting and weakness. The janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 (JAK/STAT3) pathway is important for the regulation of inflammatory signaling. As such, suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3), the negative regulator of JAK/STAT signaling, is thought to be important in the control of muscle homeostasis. We hypothesized that muscle-specific deletion of SOCS3 would impair the anabolic response to leucine during an inflammatory insult...
May 25, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546288/dynamic-changes-in-the-skeletal-muscle-proteome-during-denervation-induced-atrophy
#18
Franziska Lang, Sriram Aravamudhan, Hendrik Nolte, Clara Tuerk, Soraya Hölper, Stefan Müller, Stefan Günther, Bert Blaauw, Thomas Braun, Marcus Krüger
Loss of neuronal stimulation enhances protein breakdown and reduces protein synthesis, causing rapid muscle mass loss. To elucidate the pathophysiological adaptations that occur in atrophying muscles, we used stable isotope labelling and mass spectrometry to accurately quantify protein expression changes during denervation-induced atrophy after sciatic nerve section in the mouse gastrocnemius muscle (GAST). Additionally, mice were fed a SILAC diet containing (13)C6 lysine for four, seven, or eleven days to calculate relative levels of protein synthesis in denervated and control muscles...
May 25, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545481/therapeutic-strategies-to-address-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-deficiency-and-the-loss-of-nitric-oxide-bioavailability-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#19
REVIEW
Cara A Timpani, Alan Hayes, Emma Rybalka
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is a rare and fatal neuromuscular disease in which the absence of dystrophin from the muscle membrane induces a secondary loss of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and the muscles capacity for endogenous nitric oxide synthesis. Since nitric oxide is a potent regulator of skeletal muscle metabolism, mass, function and regeneration, the loss of nitric oxide bioavailability is likely a key contributor to the chronic pathological wasting evident in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. As such, various therapeutic interventions to re-establish either the neuronal nitric oxide synthase protein deficit or the consequential loss of nitric oxide synthesis and bioavailability have been investigated in both animal models of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and in human clinical trials...
May 25, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533755/proteomic-analysis-of-chicken-skeletal-muscle-during-embryonic-development
#20
Hongjia Ouyang, Zhijun Wang, Xiaolan Chen, Jiao Yu, Zhenhui Li, Qinghua Nie
Embryonic growth and development of skeletal muscle is a major determinant of muscle mass, and has a significant effect on meat production in chicken. To assess the protein expression profiles during embryonic skeletal muscle development, we performed a proteomics analysis using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) in leg muscle tissues of female Xinghua chicken at embryonic age (E) 11, E16, and 1-day post hatch (D1). We identified 3,240 proteins in chicken embryonic muscle and 491 of them were differentially expressed (fold change ≥ 1...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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