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skeletal protein synthesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736036/-regulation-of-the-expression-of-coenzyme-q-synthesis-complex-during-ageing
#1
Carmen Campos-Silva, Iván Reyes-Torres, Maximiliano Rivera, Catherine Meza-Torres, Juan Diego Hernández-Camacho, Elisabet Rodríguez-Bies, Plácido Navas, Guillermo López-Lluch
INTRODUCTION: Coenzyme Q is an essential component in the activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Its synthesis involves, at least, a complex of ten different proteins. In this study, an attempt is made to determine the evolution of the expression of the genes involved in coenzyme Q synthesis during mouse ageing. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The messenger RNA (mRNA) of different organs, such as brain, liver, kidney and skeletal muscle from young (8 months), mature (18 months), and old (24 months) mice was extracted by using Trizol and was then analysed by real time PCR (qPCR) using specific primers for all the known components of the coenzyme Q-synthesis complex (COQ genes)...
July 20, 2017: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735095/regulation-of-lipid-droplet-associated-proteins-by-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptors
#2
REVIEW
Montserrat A de la Rosa Rodriguez, Sander Kersten
Excess fatty acids are stored in cells as triglycerides in specialized organelles called lipid droplets (LD). LD can be found in nearly all cell types and may expand during certain (patho)physiological conditions. The synthesis and breakdown of triglycerides and their deposition in LD is governed by a diverse set of enzymes and LD-associated proteins. These proteins serve structural roles in and around LD and regulate the activity of key lipogenic and lipolytic enzymes. The LD-associated proteins are subject to multiple regulatory mechanisms at the protein and gene expression level...
July 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734207/in-silico-designing-of-therapeutic-protein-enriched-with-branched-chain-amino-acids-for-the-dietary-treatment-of-chronic-liver-disease
#3
Sunil L, Prasanna Vasu
Leucine, isoleucine, and valine are three essential branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) account for 40-45% of total essential amino acids. BCAA stimulates protein synthesis primarily in skeletal muscles, and it can directly transport to circulatory blood stream bypassing the liver. Hence, a protein enriched with BCAA is an important therapeutic target for the dietary treatment of chronic liver disease. The present study is to design a synthetic protein enriched with BCAA and the challenge is to maximize the BCAA content, keeping the balanced ratio of leucine, isoleucine, valine - 2: 1: 1...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732569/high-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-1-igfbp-1-is-associated-with-low-relative-muscle-mass-in-older-women
#4
Frej Stilling, Sara Wallenius, Karl Michaëlsson, Christine Dalgård, Kerstin Brismar, Alicja Wolk
OBJECTIVE: Skeletal muscles serve several important roles in maintaining good health. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a promoter of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. Its binding protein, Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) can be one determinant of IGF-1 activity. In the present study we investigate the association between serum IGFBP-1 and muscle mass. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of 4908 women, between 55 and 85years old, participating in the Swedish Mammography Cohort-Clinical...
August 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732027/serum-irisin-and-myostatin-levels-after-2-weeks-of-high-altitude-climbing
#5
Ewa Śliwicka, Tomasz Cisoń, Zbigniew Kasprzak, Alicja Nowak, Łucja Pilaczyńska-Szcześniak
Exposure to high-altitude hypoxia causes physiological and metabolic adaptive changes by disturbing homeostasis. Hypoxia-related changes in skeletal muscle affect the closely interconnected energy and regeneration processes. The balance between protein synthesis and degradation in the skeletal muscle is regulated by several molecules such as myostatin, cytokines, vitamin D, and irisin. This study investigates changes in irisin and myostatin levels in male climbers after a 2-week high-altitude expedition, and their association with 25(OH)D and indices of inflammatory processes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725197/skeletal-muscle-remodeling-in-response-to-eccentric-vs-concentric-loading-morphological-molecular-and-metabolic-adaptations
#6
REVIEW
Martino V Franchi, Neil D Reeves, Marco V Narici
Skeletal muscle contracts either by shortening or lengthening (concentrically or eccentrically, respectively); however, the two contractions substantially differ from one another in terms of mechanisms of force generation, maximum force production and energy cost. It is generally known that eccentric actions generate greater force than isometric and concentric contractions and at a lower metabolic cost. Hence, by virtue of the greater mechanical loading involved in active lengthening, eccentric resistance training (ECC RT) is assumed to produce greater hypertrophy than concentric resistance training (CON RT)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720584/protein-kinase-n2-regulates-amp-kinase-signaling-and-insulin-responsiveness-of-glucose-metabolism-in-skeletal-muscle
#7
Maxwell A Ruby, Isabelle Riedl, Julie Massart, Marcus Åhlin, Juleen R Zierath
Insulin resistance is central to the development of type 2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders. As skeletal muscle is responsible for the majority of whole body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, regulation of glucose metabolism in this tissue is of particular importance. While Rho GTPases and many of their affecters influence skeletal muscle metabolism, there is a paucity of information on the protein kinase N (PKN) family of serine/threonine protein kinases. We investigated the impact of PKN2 on insulin signaling and glucose metabolism in primary human skeletal muscle cells in vitro and mouse tibialis anterior muscle in vivo...
July 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712655/insulin-regulation-of-proteostasis-and-clinical-implications
#8
REVIEW
Haleigh A James, Brian T O'Neill, K Sreekumaran Nair
Maintenance and modification of the cellular proteome are at the core of normal cellular physiology. Although insulin is well known for its control of glucose homeostasis, its critical role in maintaining proteome homeostasis (proteostasis) is less appreciated. Insulin signaling regulates protein synthesis and degradation as well as posttranslational modifications at the tissue level and coordinates proteostasis at the organism level. Here, we review regulation of proteostasis by insulin in postabsorptive, postprandial, and diabetic states...
July 10, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710921/effects-of-short-term-fasting-on-the-akt-mediated-pathway-involved-in-protein-metabolism-in-chicken-skeletal-muscle
#9
T Saneyasu, N Tsuchii, Y Nakano, A Kitashiro, T Tsuchihashi, H Shindo, K Honda, H Kamisoyama
In the present study, we show that short-term (4 h) fasting significantly decreased the levels of protein synthesis-related factors such as the plasma insulin concentration, skeletal muscle pAkt, and pS6 levels in 2-wk-old chickens (P < 0.05). An intravenous injection of insulin significantly elevated the contents of pAkt and p-S6 in the skeletal muscle (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that decreasing the plasma insulin causes the downregulation of the Akt/S6 pathway in chicken skeletal muscle under short-term fasting conditions...
June 22, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705990/systemic-pan-ampk-activator-mk-8722-improves-glucose-homeostasis-but-induces-cardiac-hypertrophy
#10
Robert W Myers, Hong-Ping Guan, Juliann Ehrhart, Aleksandr Petrov, Srinivasa Prahalada, Effie Tozzo, Xiaodong Yang, Marc M Kurtz, Maria Trujillo, Dinko Gonzalez Trotter, Danqing Feng, Shiyao Xu, George Eiermann, Marie A Holahan, Daniel Rubins, Stacey Conarello, Xiaoda Niu, Sandra C Souza, Corin Miller, Jinqi Liu, Ku Lu, Wen Feng, Ying Li, Ronald E Painter, James A Milligan, Huaibing He, Franklin Liu, Aimie Ogawa, Douglas Wisniewski, Rory J Rohm, Liyang Wang, Michelle Bunzel, Ying Qian, Wei Zhu, Hongwu Wang, Bindu Bennet, Lisa LaFranco Scheuch, Guillermo E Fernandez, Cai Li, Michael Klimas, Gaochao Zhou, Margaret van Heek, Tesfaye Biftu, Ann Weber, David E Kelley, Nancy Thornberry, Mark D Erion, Daniel M Kemp, Iyassu K Sebhat
5'-Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master regulator of energy homeostasis in eukaryotes. Despite investigations over three decades, the biological roles of AMPK and its potential as a drug target remain incompletely understood, due largely to the lack of optimized pharmacological tools. We now report MK-8722, a potent, direct, allosteric activator of all twelve mammalian AMPK complexes. In rodents and rhesus monkeys, MK-8722-mediated AMPK activation in skeletal muscle induces robust, durable, insulin-independent glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis, with resultant improvements in glycemia and no evidence of hypoglycemia...
July 13, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698283/long-term-rates-of-mitochondrial-protein-synthesis-are-increased-in-mouse-skeletal-muscle-with-high-fat-feeding-regardless-of-insulin-sensitizing-treatment
#11
Sean A Newsom, Benjamin F Miller, Karyn L Hamilton, Sarah E Ehrlicher, Harrison D Stierwalt, Matthew M Robinson
Skeletal muscle mitochondrial protein synthesis is regulated in part by insulin. The development of insulin resistance with diet-induced obesity may therefore contribute to impairments to protein synthesis and decreased mitochondrial respiration. Yet, the impact of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance on mitochondrial energetics is controversial with reports varying from decreases to increases in mitochondrial respiration. We investigated the impact of changes in insulin sensitivity on long-term rates of mitochondrial protein synthesis as a mechanism for changes to mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle...
July 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694500/resistance-exercise-initiates-mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-mtor-translocation-and-protein-complex-co-localisation-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#12
Zhe Song, Daniel R Moore, Nathan Hodson, Carl Ward, Jessica R Dent, Mary F O'Leary, Andrew M Shaw, D Lee Hamilton, Sovan Sarkar, Yann-Gaël Gangloff, Troy A Hornberger, Lawrence L Spriet, George J Heigenhauser, Andrew Philp
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central mediator of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. We utilized immunofluorescence approaches to study mTOR cellular distribution and protein-protein co-localisation in human skeletal muscle in the basal state as well as immediately, 1 and 3 h after an acute bout of resistance exercise in a fed (FED; 20 g Protein/40 g carbohydrate/1 g fat) or energy-free control (CON) state. mTOR and the lysosomal protein LAMP2 were highly co-localised in basal samples...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690550/targeting-inflammation-and-downstream-protein-metabolism-in-sarcopenia-a-brief-up-dated-description-of-concurrent-exercise-and-leucine-based-multimodal-intervention
#13
REVIEW
Zhi Xia, Jason Cholewa, Yan Zhao, Hua-Yu Shang, Yue-Qin Yang, Kassiana Araújo Pessôa, Quan-Sheng Su, Fernanda Lima-Soares, Nelo Eidy Zanchi
Sarcopenia is defined as the progressive loss of muscle mass with age, and poses a serious threat to the physiological and psychological health of the elderly population with consequential economic and social burdens. Chronic low-grade inflammation plays a central role in the development of sarcopenia such that it alters cellular protein metabolism to favor proteolysis over synthesis, and thereby accelerates muscular atrophy. The purpose of this review is to highlight how exercise and nutrition intervention strategies can attenuate or treat sarcopenia...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675664/obestatin-controls-the-ubiquitin-proteasome-and-autophagy-lysosome-systems-in-glucocorticoid-induced-muscle-cell-atrophy
#14
Tania Cid-Díaz, Icía Santos-Zas, Jessica González-Sánchez, Uxía Gurriarán-Rodríguez, Carlos S Mosteiro, Xesús Casabiell, Tomás García-Caballero, Vincent Mouly, Yolanda Pazos, Jesús P Camiña
BACKGROUND: Many pathological states characterized by muscle atrophy are associated with an increase in circulating glucocorticoids and poor patient prognosis, making it an important target for treatment. The development of treatments for glucocorticoid-induced and wasting disorder-related skeletal muscle atrophy should be designed based on how the particular transcriptional program is orchestrated and how the balance of muscle protein synthesis and degradation is deregulated. Here, we investigated whether the obestatin/GPR39 system, an autocrine/paracrine signaling system acting on myogenesis and with anabolic effects on the skeletal muscle, could protect against glucocorticoid-induced muscle cell atrophy...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673470/differential-acute-and-chronic-responses-in-insulin-action-in-cultured-myotubes-following-from-nondiabetic-severely-obese-humans-following-gastric-bypass-surgery
#15
J Matthew Hinkley, Kai Zou, Sanghee Park, Donghai Zheng, G Lynis Dohm, Joseph A Houmard
BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery has been shown to induce positive metabolic adaptations for individuals with severe obesity (body mass index ≥40 kg/m(2)), including improved peripheral insulin action. Although a major site of insulin action, the time course changes in skeletal muscle glucose metabolism following RYGB is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the acute and chronic effects of RYGB surgery on insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism in cultured human primary myotubes derived from nondiabetic severely obese humans...
May 26, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661490/mutations-in-c-natriuretic-peptide-nppc-a-novel-cause-of-autosomal-dominant-short-stature
#16
Alfonso Hisado-Oliva, Alba Ruzafa-Martin, Lucia Sentchordi, Mariana F A Funari, Carolina Bezanilla-López, Marta Alonso-Bernáldez, Jimena Barraza-García, Maria Rodriguez-Zabala, Antonio M Lerario, Sara Benito-Sanz, Miriam Aza-Carmona, Angel Campos-Barros, Alexander A L Jorge, Karen E Heath
PurposeC-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and its principal receptor, natriuretic peptide receptor B (NPR-B), have been shown to be important in skeletal development. CNP and NPR-B are encoded by natriuretic peptide precursor-C (NPPC) and natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (NPR2) genes, respectively. While NPR2 mutations have been described in patients with skeletal dysplasias and idiopathic short stature (ISS), and several Npr2 and Nppc skeletal dysplasia mouse models exist, no mutations in NPPC have been described in patients to date...
June 29, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659288/overload-mediated-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy-is-not-impaired-by-loss-of-myofiber-stat3
#17
Joaquín Pérez-Schindler, Mary Esparza, James McKendry, Leigh Breen, Andrew Philp, Simon Schenk
Although the signal pathways mediating muscle protein synthesis and degradation are well characterized, the transcriptional processes modulating skeletal muscle mass and adaptive growth are poorly understood. Recently, studies in mouse models of muscle wasting or acutely exercised human muscle have suggested a potential role for the transcription factor, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), in adaptive growth. Hence, in the present study we sought to define the contribution of STAT3 to skeletal muscle adaptive growth...
June 28, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659285/upregulation-of-circulating-myomir-following-short-term-energy-restriction-is-inversely-associated-with-whole-body-protein-synthesis
#18
Lee M Margolis, Donato A Rivas, Stefan M Pasiakos, James P McClung, Lisa Ceglia, Roger A Fielding
The objective of the present investigation was to determine whether energy restriction (ER) influences expression of skeletal muscle specific microRNA in circulation (c-myomiR), and if changes in c-myomiR are associated with rates of whole-body protein synthesis. Sixteen older (64 ± 2 yrs) overweight (28.5 ± 1.2 kg·m(-2)) males enrolled in this 35-day controlled feeding trial. A 7-day weight maintenance (WM) period was followed by 28 days of 30% ER. Whole-body protein turnover was determined from (15)N-glycine enrichments in 24-hr urine collections, and c-myomiR (miR-1-3p, miR-133a-3p, miR-133b, and miR-206) expressions were assessed from serum samples using RT-qPCR at the conclusions of WM and ER...
June 28, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653652/obesity-and-age-related-alterations-in-fat-cd36-translocation-and-lipin-1-subcellular-localization-in-skeletal-muscle-of-the-zucker-rats
#19
Snjezana Romic, Katarina Krskova, Rafal Olszanecki, Lucia Balazova, Viktoria Lory, Goran Koricanac, Miroslava Slamkova, Stefan Zorad
Fatty acid (FA) uptake and/or intramuscular triglyceride (TG) accumulation in skeletal muscle are increased in obesity, type 2 diabetes and aging. FA translocase (FAT/CD36) translocation, lipin-1 subcellular localization and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65 protein content in quadriceps muscle of young and old obese Zucker fa/fa rats and their lean controls were analyzed by immunoblot to define obesity- and aging-related alterations in FA uptake, their subsequent metabolic fate and potential to activate pro-inflammatory signaling...
June 27, 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653367/significance-of-l-carnitine-for-human-health
#20
REVIEW
María M Adeva-Andany, Isabel Calvo-Castro, Carlos Fernández-Fernández, Cristóbal Donapetry-García, Ana María Pedre-Piñeiro
Carnitine acyltransferases catalyze the reversible transfer of acyl groups from acyl-coenzyme A esters to l-carnitine, forming acyl-carnitine esters that may be transported across cell membranes. l-Carnitine is a wáter-soluble compound that humans may obtain both by food ingestion and endogenous synthesis from trimethyl-lysine. Most l-carnitine is intracellular, being present predominantly in liver, skeletal muscle, heart and kidney. The organic cation transporter-2 facilitates l-carnitine uptake inside cells...
August 2017: IUBMB Life
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