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skeletal protein synthesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909410/mechanosensitive-molecular-networks-involved-in-transducing-resistance-exercise-signals-into-muscle-protein-accretion
#1
REVIEW
Emil Rindom, Kristian Vissing
Loss of skeletal muscle myofibrillar protein with disease and/or inactivity can severely deteriorate muscle strength and function. Strategies to counteract wasting of muscle myofibrillar protein are therefore desirable and invite for considerations on the potential superiority of specific modes of resistance exercise and/or the adequacy of low load resistance exercise regimens as well as underlying mechanisms. In this regard, delineation of the potentially mechanosensitive molecular mechanisms underlying muscle protein synthesis (MPS), may contribute to an understanding on how differentiated resistance exercise can transduce a mechanical signal into stimulation of muscle accretion...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908965/inf-%C3%AE-encoding-plasmid-administration-triggers-bone-loss-and-disrupts-bone-marrow-microenvironment
#2
Dimitrios Agas, Guilherme Gusmâo Silva, Fulvio Laus, Andrea Marchigiani, Melania Capitani, Cecilia Vullo, Giuseppe Catone, Giovanna Lavava, Antonio Concetti, Luigi Marchetti, Maria Giovanna Sabbieti
IFN-γ is a pleotropic cytokine produced in the bone microenvironment. Although IFN-γ is known to play a critical role on bone remodeling, its function is not fully elucidated. Consistently, outcomes on the effects of IFN-γ recombinant protein on bone loss are contradictory among reports. In our work we explored, for the first time, the role of IFN-γ encoding plasmid (pIFN-γ) in a mouse model of osteopenia induced by ovariectomy and in the sham-operated counterpart to estimate its effects in skeletal homeostasis...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875962/the-beneficial-effects-of-taurine-to-counteract-sarcopenia
#3
Bianca M Scicchitano, Gigliola Sica
Aging is a multifactorial process characterized by several features including low-grade inflammation, increased oxidative stress and reduced regenerative capacity, which ultimately lead to alteration in morpho-functional properties of skeletal muscle, thus promoting sarcopenia. This condition is characterized by a gradual loss of muscle mass due to an unbalance between protein synthesis and degradation, finally conveying in functional decline and disability. The development of specific therapeutic approaches able to block or reverse this condition may represent an invaluable tool for the promotion of a healthy aging among elderly...
November 22, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875947/skeletal-muscle-insulin-resistance-as-a-precursor-to-diabetes-beyond-glucoregulation
#4
Nicholas P Greene, Jacob L Brown, Megan E Rosa-Caldwell, David E Lee, Thomas A Blackwell, Tyrone A Washington
Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) has reached pandemic levels in Western societies. T2DM begins with the development of peripheral insulin resistance which prior research suggests may commonly originate within skeletal muscle. A number of mechanisms have been proposed for the development of muscle insulin resistance including those of classical glucose handling, but also other cellular derangements observed in this disease which include mitochondrial degeneration, alterations in muscle protein turnover and early evidences for dysregulation of microRNAs...
November 22, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875290/whole-body-protein-turnover-and-net-protein-balance-after-pediatric-thoracic-surgery-a-noninvasive-single-dose-15n-glycine-stable-isotope-protocol-with-end-product-enrichment
#5
Brenna S Fullerton, Eric A Sparks, Faraz A Khan, Jeremy G Fisher, Rocco Anzaldi, Michael R Scoville, Yong-Ming Yu, David A Wagner, Tom Jaksic, Nilesh M Mehta
BACKGROUND: We used the (15)N glycine urinary end-product enrichment technique to quantify whole body protein turnover following thoracic surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single dose of (15)N glycine (2 mg/kg) was administered orally on postoperative day 1 to children (1-18 years) following thoracic surgery. (15)N enrichment of ammonia and urea was measured in mixed urine after 12 and 24 hours, respectively, and protein synthesis, breakdown, and net balance determined...
November 15, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874066/cl316-243-a-%C3%AE-3-adrenergic-receptor-agonist-induces-muscle-hypertrophy-and-increased-strength
#6
Daniela Puzzo, Roberto Raiteri, Clotilde Castaldo, Raffaele Capasso, Ester Pagano, Mariateresa Tedesco, Walter Gulisano, Lisaveta Drozd, Pellegrino Lippiello, Agostino Palmeri, Pietro Scotto, Maria Concetta Miniaci
Studies in vitro have demonstrated that β3-adrenergic receptors (β3-ARs) regulate protein metabolism in skeletal muscle by promoting protein synthesis and inhibiting protein degradation. In this study, we evaluated whether activation of β3-ARs by the selective agonist CL316,243 modifies the functional and structural properties of skeletal muscles of healthy mice. Daily injections of CL316,243 for 15 days resulted in a significant improvement in muscle force production, assessed by grip strength and weight tests, and an increased myofiber cross-sectional area, indicative of muscle hypertrophy...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866827/nucleoprotein-supplementation-enhances-the-recovery-of-rat-soleus-mass-with-reloading-after-hindlimb-unloading-induced-atrophy-via-myonuclei-accretion-and-increased-protein-synthesis
#7
Ryosuke Nakanishi, Yusuke Hirayama, Minoru Tanaka, Noriaki Maeshige, Hiroyo Kondo, Akihiko Ishihara, Roland R Roy, Hidemi Fujino
Hindlimb unloading results in muscle atrophy and a period of reloading has been shown to partially recover the lost muscle mass. Two of the mechanisms involved in this recovery of muscle mass are the activation of protein synthesis pathways and an increase in myonuclei number. The additional myonuclei are provided by satellite cells that are activated by the mechanical stress associated with the reloading of the muscles and eventually incorporated into the muscle fibers. Amino acid supplementation with exercise also can increase skeletal muscle mass through enhancement of protein synthesis and nucleotide supplements can promote cell cycle activity...
October 23, 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865617/panaxatriol-derived-from-ginseng-augments-resistance-exercised-induced-protein-synthesis-via-mtorc1-signaling-in-rat-skeletal-muscle
#8
Yusuke Takamura, Yuhei Makanae, Satoru Ato, Naomi Yoshii, Kohei Kido, Mitsuru Nomura, Akira Uchiyama, Naruhiro Shiozawa, Satoshi Fujita
Resistance exercise activates muscle protein synthesis via the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway and subsequent muscle hypertrophy. Upstream components of the mTORC1 pathway are widely known to be involved in Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling. Previous studies have shown that ginseng stimulated Akt and ERK1/2 signaling. Therefore, we hypothesized that panaxatriol (PT) derived from ginseng triggers mTORC1 signaling and muscle protein synthesis by activating both the Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways, and that PT additively stimulates muscle protein synthesis when combined with resistance exercise...
September 13, 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861863/exploring-the-role-of-pgc-1%C3%AE-in-defining-nuclear-organisation-in-skeletal-muscle-fibres
#9
Jacob A Ross, Adam Pearson, Yotam Levy, Bettina Cardel, Christoph Handschin, Julien Ochala
Muscle fibres are multinucleated cells, with each nucleus controlling the protein synthesis in a finite volume of cytoplasm termed the myonuclear domain (MND). What determines MND size remains unclear. In the present study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that the level of expression of the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α and subsequent activation of the mitochondrial biogenesis are major contributors. Hence, we used two transgenic mouse models with varying expression of PGC-1α in skeletal muscles. We isolated myofibres from the fast twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and slow twitch diaphragm muscles...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856250/ectopical-expression-of-fabp4-gene-can-induce-bovine-muscle-derived-stem-cells-adipogenesis
#10
Le Zhang, Yanfang Zhao, Yue Ning, Hongbao Wang, Linsen Zan
Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) plays a key role in Fatty acid catabolism in mammals. Findings from our previous studies have indicated that FABP4 neither affect the differentiation of bovine preadipocytes nor does it change the expression of upstream genes. To investigate whether ectopically expressed FABP4 can induces Muscle-Derived Stem Cells (MDSCs) lipid synthesis and understand the regulatory mechanism behind it. In this study, adenoviruses infection is achieved to ectopically expressed FABP4 in bovine MDSCs, RNA-seq analyses at the very early stages of induction were performed to reveal gene expression level changes during MDSCs transdifferentiation...
November 14, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845261/ddit3-suppresses-the-differentiation-of-mouse-chondroprogenitor-cells
#11
Miao Yu, Si-Qi Yi, Yan-Ru Wu, Hua-Ling Sun, Fang-Fang Song, Jia-Wei Wang
Endochondral ossification is an essential skeletal development process which is strongly linked to chondrocyte differentiation. DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 (Ddit3), a member of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein family of transcription factors, is highly expressed in the cartilage plate. However, the role of DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 in chondrocyte differentiation remains to be investigated. Immunofluorescent staining was used to detect Ddit3 expression in the mouse growth plate and in the mouse chondroprogenitor cell line ATDC5...
November 11, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833457/itraq-based-proteomic-analysis-of-myofibrillar-contents-and-relevant-synthesis-and-proteolytic-proteins-in-soleus-muscle-of-hibernating-daurian-ground-squirrels-spermophilus-dauricus
#12
Hui Chang, Shan-Feng Jiang, Kai Dang, Hui-Ping Wang, Shen-Hui Xu, Yun-Fang Gao
BACKGROUND: Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus) deviate from significant increase of protein catabolism and loss of myofibrillar contents during long period of hibernation inactivity. METHODS: Here we use iTRAQ based quantitative analysis to examine proteomic changes in the soleus of squirrels in pre-hibernation, hibernation and post-hibernation states. The total proteolysis rate of soleus was measured by the release of the essential amino acid tyrosine from isolated muscles...
2016: Proteome Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832095/increased-muscular-5%C3%AE-dihydrotestosterone-in-response-to-resistance-training-relates-to-skeletal-muscle-mass-and-glucose-metabolism-in-type-2-diabetic-rats
#13
Naoki Horii, Koji Sato, Noboru Mesaki, Motoyuki Iemitsu
Regular resistance exercise induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy and improvement of glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients. Administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a sex steroid hormone precursor, increases 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) synthesis and is associated with improvements in fasting blood glucose level and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether increase in muscle DHT levels, induced by chronic resistance exercise, can contribute to skeletal muscle hypertrophy and concomitant improvement of muscular glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830109/pelger-hu%C3%A3-t-anomaly-and-greenberg-skeletal-dysplasia-lbr-associated-diseases-of-cholesterol-metabolism
#14
Elizabeth M Turner, Christian Schlieker
Lamin B Receptor (LBR) is an inner nuclear membrane protein associated with the rare human diseases Pelger-Huët anomaly and Greenberg skeletal dysplasia. A new study has used CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genetic manipulations in a human cell system to determine that the molecular etiology of these previously poorly understood disorders is a defect in cholesterol synthesis due to loss of LBR-associated sterol C14 reductase activity. The study furthermore determined that disease-associated LBR point mutations reduce sterol C14 reductase activity by decreasing the affinity of LBR for the reducing agent NADPH...
2016: Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827806/citrulline-directly-modulates-muscle-protein-synthesis-via-the-pi3k-mapk-4e-bp1-pathways-evidence-from-in-vivo-ex-vivo-and-in-vitro-studies
#15
Servane Le Plénier, Arthur Goron, Athanassia Sotiropoulos, Eliane Archambault, Chantal Guihenneuc, Stéphane Walrand, Jerome Salles, Marion Jourdan, Nathalie Neveux, Luc Cynober, Christophe Moinard
Citrulline (CIT) is an endogenous amino acid produced by the intestine. Recent literature consistently shows CIT to be an activator of muscle protein synthesis (MPS). However, the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Our working hypothesis was that CIT might regulate muscle homeostasis directly through the mTORC1/PI3K/MAPK pathways. Because CIT undergoes both inter-organ and intra-organ trafficking and metabolism, we combined three approaches: in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro. Using a model of malnourished aged rats, CIT supplementation activated the phosphorylation of S6K1 and 4E-BP1 in muscle...
November 8, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817029/signaling-targets-of-alcoholic-intoxication-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#16
T M Mirzoev, Y N Lomonosova, O E Zinovyeva, E A Lysenko, B S Shenkman, T L Nemirovskaya
Intracellular signaling pathways were investigated in skeletal muscle cells at the early stages of alcohol addiction manifestations. No muscle fiber atrophy was observed in m. vastus lateralis of male patients. No significant changes in the signaling mechanisms that control protein degradation were detected as well. However, the concentration of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) in blood plasma as well as the content of markers of intracellular signaling pathways regulating protein synthesis were significantly reduced compared to the control group...
September 2016: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815474/effect-of-20-hydroxyecdysone-on-proteolytic-regulation-in-skeletal-muscle-atrophy
#17
Muthita Hirunsai, Tossaporn Yimlamai, Apichart Suksamrarn
BACKGROUND/AIM: 20-Hydroxyecdystone (20E) is an ecdysteroid hormone which controls molting and reproduction in arthropods. 20E also produces a variety of effects in vertebrates, including enhancing protein synthesis and skeletal muscle regeneration. The effect of 20E on disuse muscle atrophy has not been reported to date. This study examined the proteolytic regulation of 20E in tenotomized rat slow soleus and fast plantaris muscles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: sedentary control (CON), tenotomy without 20E treatment (TEN), and tenotomy with treatment of 5 mg/kg BW of 20E (TEN+20E)...
November 2016: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814296/early-evidence-of-low-bone-density-and-decreased-serotonergic-synthesis-in-the-dorsal-raphe-of-a%C3%A2-tauopathy-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Christine M Dengler-Crish, Matthew A Smith, Gina N Wilson
Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and its clinical sequelae, osteoporosis, occur at a much greater rate the rate in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), often emerging early in the disease before significant cognitive decline is seen. Reduced BMD translates to increased bone fracture risk, decreased quality of life, and increased mortality for AD patients. However, the mechanism responsible for this observation is unclear. We hypothesize that bone loss is an additional component of an AD prodrome, changes that emerge prior to dementia and are mediated by dysfunction of the central serotonergic pathways...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813490/insights-into-the-role-and-regulation-of-tctp-in-skeletal-muscle
#19
Craig A Goodman, Allison M Coenen, John W Frey, Jae-Sung You, Robert G Barker, Barnaby P Frankish, Robyn M Murphy, Troy A Hornberger
The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is upregulated in a range of cancer cell types, in part, by the activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). Recently, TCTP has also been proposed to act as an indirect activator of mTOR. While it is known that mTOR plays a major role in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass, very little is known about the role and regulation of TCTP in this post-mitotic tissue. This study shows that muscle TCTP and mTOR signaling are upregulated in a range of mouse models (mdx mouse, mechanical load-induced hypertrophy, and denervation- and immobilization-induced atrophy)...
November 1, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811170/marginal-dietary-zinc-deprivation-augments-sepsis-induced-alterations-in-skeletal-muscle-tnf-%C3%AE-but-not-protein-synthesis
#20
Kristen T Crowell, Shannon L Kelleher, David I Soybel, Charles H Lang
Severe zinc deficiency is associated with an increased systemic inflammatory response and mortality after sepsis. However, the impact of mild zinc deficiency, which is more common in populations with chronic illnesses and sepsis, is unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that marginal dietary Zn deprivation (ZM) would amplify tissue inflammation and exacerbate the sepsis-induced decrease in muscle protein synthesis. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were fed a zinc-adequate (ZA) or ZM diet (30 or 10 mg Zn/kg, respectively) over 4 weeks, peritonitis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), and mice were examined at either 24 h (acute) or 5 days (chronic) post-CLP Acute sepsis decreased the in vivo rate of skeletal muscle protein synthesis and the phosphorylation of the mTOR substrate 4E-BP1...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
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