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skeletal protein synthesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069737/mtorc1-plays-an-important-role-in-skeletal-development-by-controlling-pre-osteoblast-differentiation
#1
Stephen Fitter, Mary P Matthews, Sally K Martin, Jianling Xie, Soo Siang Ooi, Carl R Walkley, John D Codrington, Markus A Ruegg, Michael N Hall, Christopher G Proud, Stan Gronthos, Andrew C W Zannettino
The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is activated by extracellular factors that control bone accrual. However, the direct role of this complex in osteoblast biology remains to be determined. To investigate this question, we disrupted mTORC1 function in pre-osteoblasts by targeted deletion of Raptor (Rptor) in Osterix-expressing cells. Deletion of Rptor resulted in reduced limb length that was associated with smaller epiphyseal growth plates in the postnatal skeleton. Rptor deletion caused a marked reduction in pre- and post-natal bone accrual, which was evident in skeletal elements derived from both intramembranous and endochondrial ossification...
January 9, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068143/adaptations-to-excess-choline-in-insulin-resistant-and-pcyt2-deficient-skeletal-muscle
#2
Adrian Taylor, Laila Cigana Schenkel, Maiya Yokich, Marica Bakovic
It was hypothesized that choline supplementation in insulin resistant (IR) CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase deficient (Pcyt2(+/-)) mice would ameliorate muscle function by remodeling glucose and fatty acid (FA) metabolism. Pcyt2(+/-) mice either received no treatment or were allowed access to 2 mg/mL choline in drinking water for 4 weeks. Skeletal muscle was harvested from choline treated and untreated mice. Lipid analysis and metabolic gene expression and signaling pathways were compared between untreated Pcyt2(+/-) mice, treated Pcyt2(+/-) mice, and Pcyt2(+/+) mice...
September 6, 2016: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064564/aspartate-inhibits-lps-induced-mafbx-and-murf1-expression-in-skeletal-muscle-in-weaned-pigs-by-regulating-akt-ampk%C3%AE-and-foxo1
#3
Yulan Liu, Xiuying Wang, Weibo Leng, Dingan Pi, Zhixiao Tu, Huiling Zhu, Haifeng Shi, Shuang Li, Yongqing Hou, Chien-An Andy Hu
Infection and inflammation can result in the rapid loss of muscle mass and myofibrillar proteins (muscle atrophy). In addition, aspartate (Asp) is necessary for protein synthesis in mammalian cells. We hypothesized that Asp could attenuate LPS-induced muscle atrophy in a piglet model. Twenty-four weaning piglets were allotted to four treatments, including non-challenged control, LPS challenged control, LPS+0.5% Asp and LPS+1.0% Asp. On d 21, the piglets were injected with i.p. injection of LPS (100 ug/kg BM) or saline...
January 2017: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056084/sbds-deficient-cells-have-an-altered-homeostatic-equilibrium-due-to-translational-inefficiency-which-explains-their-reduced-fitness-and-provides-a-logical-framework-for-intervention
#4
Piera Calamita, Annarita Miluzio, Arianna Russo, Elisa Pesce, Sara Ricciardi, Farhat Khanim, Cristina Cheroni, Roberta Alfieri, Marilena Mancino, Chiara Gorrini, Grazisa Rossetti, Ivana Peluso, Massimiliano Pagani, Diego L Medina, Johanna Rommens, Stefano Biffo
Ribosomopathies are a family of inherited disorders caused by mutations in genes necessary for ribosomal function. Shwachman-Diamond Bodian Syndrome (SDS) is an autosomal recessive disease caused, in most patients, by mutations of the SBDS gene. SBDS is a protein required for the maturation of 60S ribosomes. SDS patients present exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, neutropenia, chronic infections, and skeletal abnormalities. Later in life, patients are prone to myelodisplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia (AML)...
January 5, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053672/serotonin-improves-glucose-metabolism-by-serotonylation-of-the-small-gtpase-rab4-in-l6-skeletal-muscle-cells
#5
Ramona Al-Zoairy, Michael T Pedrini, Mohammad Imran Khan, Julia Engl, Alexander Tschoner, Christoph Ebenbichler, Gerhard Gstraunthaler, Karin Salzmann, Rania Bakry, Andreas Niederwanger
BACKGROUND: Serotonin (5-HT) improves insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism, however, the underlying molecular mechanism has remained elusive. Previous studies suggest that 5-HT can activate intracellular small GTPases directly by covalent binding, a process termed serotonylation. Activated small GTPases have been associated with increased GLUT4 translocation to the cell membrane. Therefore, we investigated whether serotonylation of small GTPases may be involved in improving Insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046182/regulation-in-free-amino-acid-profile-and-protein-synthesis-pathway-of-growing-pig-skeletal-muscles-by-low-protein-diets-for-different-time-periods
#6
Y H Li, H K Wei, F N Li, S W Kim, C Y Wen, Y H Duan, Q P Guo, W L Wang, H N Liu, Y L Yin
The objective of the study was to explore the extent to which the dietary CP level can be reduced for maintaining muscle protein deposition in growing pigs as well as the related mechanism and whether the response to dietary protein restriction is diversely modified throughout the 2 trial periods. A total of 36 pigs (9.57 ± 0.64 kg initial BW) were individually penned and fed 1 of 3 diets for 10 or 25 d. During each period, the diets contained 20, 17, and 14% CP, respectively. Both the 17% CP diet and the 14% CP diet were supplemented with Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp to provide the same total concentrations as those in the 20% CP diet...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039193/short-term-intense-exercise-training-reduces-stress-markers-and-alters-the-transcriptional-response-to-exercise-in-skeletal-muscle
#7
James Matthew Hinkley, Adam R Konopka, Miranda K Suer, Matthew P Harber
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of short-term intense endurance training on cycling performance, along with the acute and chronic signaling responses of skeletal muscle stress and stability markers. Ten recreationally active subjects (25 ± 2 yr, 79 ± 3 kg, 47 ± 2 ml·kg·min-1) were studied before and after a 12-day cycling protocol to examine the effects of short-term intense (70-100% VO2max) exercise training on resting and exercise-induced regulation of molecular factors related to skeletal muscle cellular stress and protein stability...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036018/effects-of-supplementation-of-branched-chain-amino-acids-to-reduced-protein-diet-on-skeletal-muscle-protein-synthesis-and-degradation-in-the-fed-and-fasted-states-in-a-piglet-model
#8
Liufeng Zheng, Hongkui Wei, Pingli He, Shengjun Zhao, Quanhang Xiang, Jiaman Pang, Jian Peng
Supplementation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) has been demonstrated to promote skeletal muscle mass gain, but the mechanisms underlying this observation are still unknown. Since the regulation of muscle mass depends on a dynamic equilibrium (fasted losses-fed gains) in protein turnover, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of BCAA supplementation on muscle protein synthesis and degradation in fed/fasted states and the related mechanisms. Fourteen 26- (Experiment 1) and 28-day-old (Experiment 2) piglets were fed reduced-protein diets without or with supplemental BCAA...
December 28, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028127/myofibrillar-z-discs-are-a-protein-phosphorylation-hot-spot-with-pkc-%C3%AE-modulating-protein-dynamics
#9
Lena Reimann, Heike Wiese, Yvonne Leber, Anja N Schwäble, Anna L Fricke, Anne Rohland, Bettina Knapp, Christian D Peikert, Friedel Drepper, Peter F M van der Ven, Gerald Radziwill, Dieter O Fürst, Bettina Warscheid
The Z-disc is a protein-rich structure critically important for the development and integrity of myofibrils, which are the contractile organelles of cross-striated muscle cells. We here used mouse C2C12 myoblast which were differentiated into myotubes followed by electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) to generate contracting myotubes comprising mature Z-discs. Using a quantitative proteomics approach, we analyzed changes in the relative abundance of 2,588 proteins, of which 387 were significantly regulated in myoblasts versus myotubes...
December 27, 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025104/adrenoceptors-promote-glucose-uptake-into-adipocytes-and-muscle-by-an-insulin-independent-signalling-pathway-involving-mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-complex-2
#10
Saori Mukaida, Bronwyn A Evans, Tore Bengtsson, Dana S Hutchinson, Masaaki Sato
Uptake of glucose into skeletal muscle and adipose tissue plays a vital role in metabolism and energy balance. Insulin released from β-islet cells of the pancreas promotes glucose uptake in these target tissues by stimulating translocation of GLUT4 transporters to the cell surface. This process is complex, involving signalling proteins including the mechanistic (or mammalian) target of rapamycin (mTOR) and Akt that intersect with multiple pathways controlling cell survival, growth and proliferation. mTOR exists in two forms, mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2)...
December 23, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017945/-pathological-state-or-cause-of-sarcopenia
#11
Yasumoto Matsui
Skeletal muscle atrophy by aging(Sarcopenia)is more likely to occur in lower limbs rather than upper ones, and in the thigh rather than in the lower leg, and in the anterior side of thigh rather than posterior, faster in men than in women. It differs from disuse muscle atrophy in that it occurs slowly and gradually, hard to be recovered, or fast twitch fibers are mainly involved. Many factors or phenomena are known to contribute to proceed sarcopenia. In the aged skeletal muscle tissue, the number of satellite cells or motor neurons decrease and the function of the neuro-muscular junction declines...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017449/anabolic-resistance-does-not-explain-sarcopenia-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-compared-with-healthy-controls-despite-reduced-mtor-pathway-activity
#12
Daniel J Cuthbertson, John Babraj, Graham Leese, Mario Siervo
BACKGROUND: Ageing and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are risk factors for skeletal muscle loss. We investigated whether anabolic resistance to feeding might underlie accelerated muscle loss in older people with T2DM and whether dysregulated mTOR signalling was implicated. SUBJECTS: 8 obese men with T2DM, and 12 age-matched controls were studied (age 68 ± 3 vs. 68±6 y; BMI: 30 ± 2 vs. 27 ± 5 kg m(-2)). METHODS: Body composition was measured by dual-X-ray absorptiometry...
November 25, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011956/repeated-cures-with-paracetamol-worsen-sarcopenia-in-old-rats-with-suboptimal-food-intake
#13
C Mast, I Savary-Auzeloux, D Remond, C Pouyet, D Centeno, G Voyard, L Combaret, D Dardevet, I Papet
The availability of all amino acids is of prime importance to prevent the ageing-associated decrease in skeletal muscle mass i.e. sarcopenia. Cysteine is the precursor of sulfate and glutathione that are both utilized in the liver to detoxify paracetamol (APAP). Cysteine availability could become limiting under repeated cures with APAP, especially when food intake is suboptimal. The aim of the study was to determine whether repeated cures with APAP could worsen sarcopenia. Twenty-two-month-old male Wistar rats received 3 two-week-long cures of APAP (1% of the diet) intercalated with washout periods of two weeks (APAP group)...
October 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011205/macrocyclic-mek1-2-inhibitor-with-efficacy-in-a-mouse-model-of-cardiomyopathy-caused-by-lamin-a-c-gene-mutation
#14
Wei Wu, Mahendra D Chordia, Barry P Hart, E Sathyajith Kumarasinghe, Min K Ji, Ajay Bhargava, Michael W Lawlor, Ji-Yeon Shin, Fusako Sera, Shunichi Homma, Antoine Muchir, Uday R Khire, Howard J Worman
Signaling mediated by extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) is involved in numerous cellular processes. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MEK1/2) catalyze the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, converting it into an active kinase that regulates the expression of numerous genes and cellular processes. Inhibitors of MEK1/2 have demonstrated preclinical and clinical efficacy in certain cancers and types of cardiomyopathy. We report the synthesis of a novel, allosteric, macrocyclic MEK1/2 inhibitor that potently inhibits ERK1/2 activity in cultured cells and tissues of mice after systemic administration...
December 9, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009536/leucine-protects-against-skeletal-muscle-atrophy-in-lipopolysaccharide-challenged-rats
#15
Jin Wan, Daiwen Chen, Bing Yu, Yuheng Luo, Xiangbing Mao, Ping Zheng, Jie Yu, Junqiu Luo, Jun He
Skeletal muscle atrophy is a decrease in muscle mass that occurs when protein degradation exceeds protein synthesis. Leucine (Leu), an essential branched-chain amino acid in animal nutrition, regulates skeletal muscle protein metabolism. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate whether Leu could alleviate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced skeletal muscle wasting by modulating skeletal muscle protein synthesis and degradation. A total of 24 rats were randomly allocated into three groups (n = 8): (1) non-challenged control; (2) LPS-challenged control; and (3) LPS +3...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983587/role-of-redox-signaling-and-inflammation-in-skeletal-muscle-adaptations-to-training
#16
REVIEW
Maria Carmen Gomez-Cabrera, Jose Viña, Li Li Ji
The inflammatory response to exercise-induced muscle damage has been extensively described. Exercise has important modulatory effects on immune function. These effects are mediated by diverse factors including pro-inflammatory cytokines, classical stress hormones, and hemodynamic effects leading to cell redistribution. As has been reported regarding oxidative stress, inflammation can have both detrimental and beneficial effects in skeletal muscle. In this review we will address the role of inflammation on protein metabolism in skeletal muscle...
December 13, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979985/changes-in-muscle-fiber-contractility-and-extracellular-matrix-production-during-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy
#17
Christopher L Mendias, Andrew J Schwartz, Jeremy A Grekin, Jonathan P Gumucio, Kristoffer B Sugg
Skeletal muscle can adapt to increased mechanical loads by undergoing hypertrophy. Transient reductions in whole muscle force production have been reported during the onset of hypertrophy, but contractile changes in individual muscle fibers have not previously been studied. Additionally, the extracellular matrix (ECM) stores and transmits forces from muscle fibers to tendons and bones, and determining how the ECM changes during hypertrophy is important in understanding the adaptation of muscle tissue as a whole to mechanical loading...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976396/an-intricate-balance-of-muscle-damage-and-protein-synthesis-the-key-players-in-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy-following-resistance-training
#18
Giselle Keefe, Craig Wright
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966783/the-role-of-exercise-and-tfam-in-preventing-skeletal-muscle-atrophy
#19
REVIEW
Nicholas T Theilen, George H Kunkel, Suresh C Tyagi
Skeletal muscle atrophy is the consequence of protein degradation exceeding protein synthesis. This arises for a multitude of reasons including the unloading of muscle during microgravity, post-surgery bedrest, immobilization of a limb after injury, and overall disuse of the musculature. The development of therapies prior to skeletal muscle atrophy settings to diminish protein degradation is scarce. Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with skeletal muscle atrophy and contributes to the induction of protein degradation and cell apoptosis through increased levels of ROS observed with the loss of organelle function...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955686/nutrigenomic-effects-of-glucosinolates-on-liver-muscle-and-distal-kidney-in-parasite-free-and-salmon-louse-infected-atlantic-salmon
#20
Stanko Skugor, Helle Jodaa Holm, Anne Kari Bjelland, Jorge Pino, Øystein Evensen, Aleksei Krasnov, Simon Wadsworth
BACKGROUND: Reduction of Lepeophtheirus salmonis infection in Atlantic salmon achieved by glucosinolates (GLs) from Brassica plants was recently reported. However, wider application of functional feeds based on GLs requires better knowledge of their positive and adverse effects. METHODS: Liver, distal kidney and muscle transcriptomes of salmon exposed to the extreme dose of GLs were profiled by microarray, while qPCR analysis followed up selected hepatic and renal responses under the extreme and moderate GLs dose during the L...
December 12, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
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