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skeletal protein synthesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915727/the-protein-and-energy-metabolic-response-of-skeletal-muscle-to-the-low-protein-diets-in-growing-pigs
#1
Yinghui Li, Fengna Li, Yehui Duan, Qiuping Guo, Wenlong Wang, Chaoyue Wen, Xingguo Huang, Yulong Yin
This study was conducted to determine the effect of the low-protein diets on protein and energy metabolism in skeletal muscle, and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. A total of 18 growing pigs (average initial body weight = 36.47 kg) were individually penned and assigned to three treatments, each treatment was fed one of three diets containing either 18%, 15%, or 12% CP. The results showed that reducing dietary CP contents decreased (P < 0.05) the weight of half Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle and serum concentration of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911148/age-related-anabolic-resistance-of-myofibrillar-protein-synthesis-is-exacerbated-in-obese-inactive-individuals
#2
Benoit Smeuninx, James Mckendry, Daisy Wilson, Una Martin, Leigh Breen
Context: A diminished muscle anabolic response to protein nutrition may underpin age-associated muscle loss. Objective: To determine how chronological and biological aging influence myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyoPS). Design: Cross-sectional comparison. Setting: Clinical research facility. Participants: Ten older lean [OL: 71.7 ± 6 years; body mass index (BMI) ≤25 kg ⋅ m-2], 7 older obese (OO: 69...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911136/protein-rich-food-ingestion-stimulates-mitochondrial-protein-synthesis-in-sedentary-young-adults-of-different-bmis
#3
Joseph W Beals, Richard W A Mackenzie, Stephan van Vliet, Sarah K Skinner, Brandon A Pagni, Grace M Niemiro, Alexander V Ulanov, Zhong Li, Anna C Dilger, Scott A Paluska, Michael De Lisio, Nicholas A Burd
Context: Excess fat mass may diminish the anabolic potency of protein-rich food ingestion to stimulate muscle protein subfractional synthetic responses. However, the impact of adiposity on mitochondrial protein synthesis (MPS) rates after protein-rich food ingestion has not been thoroughly examined in vivo in humans. Objective: We compared basal and postprandial MPS and markers of muscle inflammation [toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88) protein content] in young adults with different body mass indices (BMIs)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899879/pronounced-energy-restriction-with-elevated-protein-intake-results-in-no-change-in-proteolysis-and-reductions-in-skeletal-muscle-protein-synthesis-that-are-mitigated-by-resistance-exercise
#4
Amy J Hector, Chris McGlory, Felipe Damas, Nicole Mazara, Steven K Baker, Stuart M Phillips
Preservation of lean body mass (LBM) may be important during dietary energy restriction (ER) and requires equal rates of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown (MPB). Currently, the relative contribution of MPS and MPB to the loss of LBM during ER in humans is unknown. We aimed to determine the impact of dietary protein intake and resistance exercise on MPS and MPB during a controlled short-term energy deficit. Adult men (body mass index, 28.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2); age 22 ± 1 yr) underwent 10 d of 40%-reduced energy intake while performing unilateral resistance exercise and consuming lower protein (1...
September 12, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887874/small-molecule-inhibition-of-murf1-attenuates-skeletal-muscle-atrophy-and-dysfunction-in-cardiac-cachexia
#5
Thomas Scott Bowen, Volker Adams, Sarah Werner, Tina Fischer, Paulien Vinke, Maria Noel Brogger, Norman Mangner, Axel Linke, Peter Sehr, Joe Lewis, Dittmar Labeit, Alexander Gasch, Siegfried Labeit
BACKGROUND: Muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1) is a muscle-specific ubiquitin E3 ligase activated during clinical conditions associated with skeletal muscle wasting. Yet, there remains a paucity of therapeutic interventions that directly inhibit MuRF1 function, particularly in vivo. The current study, therefore, developed a novel compound targeting the central coiled coil domain of MuRF1 to inhibit muscle wasting in cardiac cachexia. METHODS: We identified small molecules that interfere with the MuRF1-titin interaction from a 130 000 compound screen based on Alpha Technology...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883046/case-studies-in-physiology-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-protein-synthesis-and-respiration-in-response-to-the-energetic-stress-of-an-ultra-endurance-race
#6
Adam R Konopka, William M Castor, Christopher A Wolff, Robert V Musci, Justin J Reid, Jaime L Laurin, Zackary J Valenti, Karyn L Hamilton, Benjamin F Miller
The 2016 Colorado Trail Race (CTR) was an ultra-endurance mountain bike race where competitors cycled for up to 24 hrs/day between altitudes of 1675 to 4025 meters to complete 800 kilometers and 21,000 meters of elevation gain. In one athlete, we had the unique opportunity to characterize skeletal muscle protein synthesis and mitochondrial respiration in response to a normal activity control period (CON) and the CTR. We hypothesized that mitochondrial protein synthesis would be elevated and mitochondrial respiration would be maintained during the extreme stresses of the CTR...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880122/expression-of-ampk-sirt1-and-acc-differs-between-winter-and-summer-acclimatized-djungarian-hamsters
#7
Sanni M E Kinnunen, Satu K Mänttäri, Seppo Y O Saarela
The wintering strategy of the Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) includes a naturally occurring decrease in food intake and body mass. Our aim was to investigate the conceivable role of the metabolic regulators, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), in the seasonal adaptation of the Djungarian hamster. In addition, a rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid synthesis and oxidation, acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), was studied. Relative protein expressions and phosphorylated forms (pAMPK and pACC) were determined by Western blot from subcutaneous white adipose tissues (sWAT), abdominal white adipose tissues (aWAT), interscapular brown adipose tissues (iBAT), skeletal muscle, and hypothalamus of winter- and summer-acclimatized hamsters...
November 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870245/mice-overexpressing-growth-hormone-exhibit-increased-skeletal-muscle-myostatin-and-murf1-with-attenuation-of-muscle-mass
#8
Leslie A Consitt, Alicson Saneda, Gunjan Saxena, Edward O List, John J Kopchick
BACKGROUND: In contrast to the acute effects of growth hormone (GH) on skeletal muscle protein synthesis, long-term GH treatment appears to have negligible effects on muscle mass. Despite this knowledge, little is known regarding the chronic effects of GH on skeletal muscle protein synthesis and atrophy signaling pathways. The purpose of this study was to determine if protein synthesis pathways are attenuated and/or muscle atrophy intracellular signaling pathways are altered in the skeletal muscle of transgenic bovine GH (bGH) mice...
September 4, 2017: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869034/plasticity-and-function-of-human-skeletal-muscle-in-relation-to-disuse-and-rehabilitation-influence-of-ageing-and-surgery
#9
Charlotte Suetta
In order to study the influence of disuse and aging on skeletal muscle homeostasis, different human models were employed. Effects of chronic disuse were investigated in elderly patients suffering from uni-lateral hip-osteoarthritis, whereas the effect of short-term disuse (4 and 14 days of unilateral lower limb immobilisation) was assessed in healthy young and old individuals. In summary, chronic muscle disuse in the elderly was associated with marked quantitative as well as qualitative neuromuscular impairments...
August 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867395/nanoformulated-copper-zinc-superoxide-dismutase-exerts-differential-effects-on-glucose-vs-lipid-homeostasis-depending-on-the-diet-composition-possibly-via-altered-ampk-signaling
#10
Gopalakrishnan Natarajan, Curtis Perriotte-Olson, Fatema Bhinderwala, Robert Powers, Cyrus V Desouza, Geoffrey A Talmon, Jiang Yuhang, Matthew C Zimmerman, Alexander V Kabanov, Viswanathan Saraswathi
Evidence suggests that superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) promotes glucose vs lipid metabolism depending on the diet type. We recently reported that nanoformulated SOD1 (Nano) improved lipid metabolism without altering glucose homeostasis in high-fat (HF) diet-fed mice. Here, we sought to determine the effects and potential mechanisms of Nano in modulating glucose and lipid homeostasis in mice fed a normal chow diet (CD) vs HF diet. Mice were fed a CD or a HF diet (45%) for 10 wk and injected with Nano once every 2 days for 15 days...
October 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863859/grafting-materials-for-alveolar-cleft-reconstruction-a-systematic-review-and-best-evidence-synthesis
#11
REVIEW
C Wu, W Pan, C Feng, Z Su, Z Duan, Q Zheng, C Hua, C Li
The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of alveolar bone reconstruction for alveolar cleft patients performed with the traditional iliac graft or alternative/supplementary bone grafting materials. Electronic databases, relevant journals, and reference lists of the included studies were searched to the end of June 2016. A best-evidence synthesis was performed to draw conclusions. A total of 38 studies were included, which provided 25 pieces of evidence: seven of moderate evidence and 18 of insufficient evidence...
August 29, 2017: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862673/igf-1-attenuates-hypoxia-induced-atrophy-but-inhibits-myoglobin-expression-in-c2c12-skeletal-muscle-myotubes
#12
Eva L Peters, Sandra M van der Linde, Ilse S P Vogel, Mohammad Haroon, Carla Offringa, Gerard M J de Wit, Pieter Koolwijk, Willem J van der Laarse, Richard T Jaspers
Chronic hypoxia is associated with muscle wasting and decreased oxidative capacity. By contrast, training under hypoxia may enhance hypertrophy and increase oxidative capacity as well as oxygen transport to the mitochondria, by increasing myoglobin (Mb) expression. The latter may be a feasible strategy to prevent atrophy under hypoxia and enhance an eventual hypertrophic response to anabolic stimulation. Mb expression may be further enhanced by lipid supplementation. We investigated individual and combined effects of hypoxia, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and lipids, in mouse skeletal muscle C2C12 myotubes...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860165/influence-of-nutrient-ingestion-on-amino-acid-transporters-and-protein-synthesis-in-human-skeletal-muscle-after-sprint-exercise
#13
Håkan Claes Rundqvist, Mona Esbjörnsson, Olav Rooyackers, Ted Osterlund, Marcus Moberg, William Apró, Eva Blomstrand, Eva Jansson
Nutrient ingestion is known to increase the exercise-induced stimulation of muscle protein synthesis following resistance exercise. Less is known about the effect of nutrients on muscle protein synthesis following sprint exercise. At two occasions separated by one month, twelve healthy subjects performed three 30-s sprints with 20-min rest between bouts. In randomized order, they consumed a drink with essential amino acids and maltodextrin (nutrient) or flavored water (placebo). Muscle biopsies were obtained 80 and 200 min after the last sprint and blood samples were taken repeatedly during the experiment...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858257/lamin-b-receptor-interplay-between-structure-function-and-localization
#14
REVIEW
Eleni Nikolakaki, Ilias Mylonis, Thomas Giannakouros
Lamin B receptor (LBR) is an integral protein of the inner nuclear membrane, containing a hydrophilic N-terminal end protruding into the nucleoplasm, eight hydrophobic segments that span the membrane and a short, nucleoplasmic C-terminal tail. Two seemingly unrelated functions have been attributed to LBR. Its N-terminal domain tethers heterochromatin to the nuclear periphery, thus contributing to the shape of interphase nuclear architecture, while its transmembrane domains exhibit sterol reductase activity...
August 31, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856713/leucine-supplementation-after-mechanical-stimulation-activates-protein-synthesis-via-l-type-amino-acid-transporter-1-in-vitro
#15
Naoya Nakai, Fuminori Kawano, Taro Murakami, Ken Nakata, Kazuhiko Higashida
Branched-chain amino acid supplements consumed following exercise are widely used to increase muscle mass. Although both exercise (i.e., mechanical stimulation) and branched-chain amino acid leucine supplementation have been reported to stimulate muscle protein synthesis by activating the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway independently, the mechanisms underlying their synergistic effects are largely unknown. Utilizing cultured differentiated C2C12 myotubes, we established a combination treatment model in which the cells were subjected to cyclic uniaxial mechanical stretching (4 h, 15%, 1 Hz) followed by stimulation with 2 mM leucine for 45 min...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855419/protein-ingestion-before-sleep-increases-overnight-muscle-protein-synthesis-rates-in-healthy-older-men-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Imre Wk Kouw, Andrew M Holwerda, Jorn Trommelen, Irene Fleur Kramer, Jacqueline Bastiaanse, Shona L Halson, Will Kwh Wodzig, Lex B Verdijk, Luc Jc van Loon
Background: The loss of skeletal muscle mass with aging has been attributed to the blunted anabolic response to protein intake. Presleep protein ingestion has been suggested as an effective strategy to compensate for such anabolic resistance.Objective: We assessed the efficacy of presleep protein ingestion on dietary protein digestion and absorption kinetics and overnight muscle protein synthesis rates in older men.Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, parallel design, 48 older men (mean ± SEM age: 72 ± 1 y) ingested 40 g casein (PRO40), 20 g casein (PRO20), 20 g casein plus 1...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855275/dynamic-proteome-profiling-of-individual-proteins-in-human-skeletal-muscle-after-a-high-fat-diet-and-resistance-exercise
#17
Donny M Camera, Jatin G Burniston, Mark A Pogson, William J Smiles, John A Hawley
It is generally accepted that muscle adaptation to resistance exercise (REX) training is underpinned by contraction-induced, increased rates of protein synthesis and dietary protein availability. By using dynamic proteome profiling (DPP), we investigated the contribution of both synthesis and breakdown to changes in abundance on a protein-by-protein basis in human skeletal muscle. Age-matched, overweight males consumed 9 d of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet during which time they either undertook 3 sessions of REX or performed no exercise...
August 30, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846669/creatine-supplementation-to-total-parenteral-nutrition-improves-creatine-status-and-supports-greater-liver-and-kidney-protein-synthesis-in-neonatal-piglets
#18
O Chandani Dinesh, Robert F Bertolo, Janet A Brunton
BACKGROUND: Creatine is not included in commercial pediatric parenteral products; the entire creatine requirement must be met by de novo synthesis from arginine during parenteral nutrition (PN). Poor arginine status is common during PN in neonates which may compromise creatine accretion. We hypothesized that creatine supplementation will improve creatine status and spare arginine in PN-fed piglets. METHODS: Piglets (3-5 d old) were provided PN with or without creatine for 14 d...
August 28, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835387/supplementing-breakfast-with-a-vitamin-d-and-leucine-enriched-whey-protein-medical-nutrition-drink-enhances-postprandial-muscle-protein-synthesis-and-muscle-mass-in-healthy-older-men
#19
Audrey Chanet, Sjors Verlaan, Jérôme Salles, Christophe Giraudet, Véronique Patrac, Véronique Pidou, Corinne Pouyet, Nordine Hafnaoui, Adeline Blot, Noël Cano, Nicolas Farigon, Anke Bongers, Marion Jourdan, Yvette Luiking, Stéphane Walrand, Yves Boirie
Background: A promising strategy to help older adults preserve or build muscle mass is to optimize muscle anabolism through providing an adequate amount of high-quality protein at each meal.Objective: This "proof of principle" study investigated the acute effect of supplementing breakfast with a vitamin D and leucine-enriched whey protein medical nutrition drink on postprandial muscle protein synthesis and longer-term effect on muscle mass in healthy older adults.Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was conducted in 24 healthy older men [mean ± SD: age 71 ± 4 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)) 24...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832372/nutrient-modulation-in-the-management-of-disease-induced-muscle-wasting-evidence-from-human-studies
#20
Matthew S Brook, Daniel J Wilkinson, Philip J Atherton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In addition to being essential for movement, skeletal muscles act as both a store and source of key macronutrients. As such, muscle is an important tissue for whole body homeostasis, undergoing muscle wasting in times of starvation, disease, and stress, for example, to provide energy substrates for other tissues. Yet, muscle wasting is also associated with disability, comorbidities, and mortality. As nutrition is so crucial to maintaining muscle homeostasis 'in health', it has been postulated that muscle wasting in cachexia syndromes may be alleviated by nutritional interventions...
August 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
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