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Myocardial fibrosis mortality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875838/biomarkers-in-atrial-fibrillation-and-heart-failure
#1
Evangelos Oikonomou, Theodoros Zografos, Georgios-Angelos Papamikroulis, Gerasimos Siasos, Georgia Vogiatzi, Panagiotis Theofilis, Alexandros Briasoulis, Spyridon Papaioannou, Manolis Vavuranakis, Vasiliki Gennimata, Dimitris Tousoulis
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia encountered in clinical practice and an important contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although the exact mechanisms behind AF are not completely elucidated, the underlying pathophysiological changes have been well described. Predisposal factors for AF include the older age, the increased left atrial size, the decreased left atrial function, the presence of heart failure and left ventricular systolic dysfunction and the presence of coronary heart disease or pulmonary or mitral valve disease...
August 29, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870731/chronic-neuregulin-1%C3%AE-treatment-mitigates-the-progression-of-post-myocardial-infarction-heart-failure-in-the-setting-of-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-by-suppressing-myocardial-apoptosis-fibrosis-and-key-oxidant-producing-enzymes
#2
Manisha Gupte, Hind Lal, Firdos Ahmad, Douglas B Sawyer, Michael F Hill
BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients surviving myocardial infarction (MI) have substantially higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared to their non-diabetic counterparts owing to the more frequent development of subsequent heart failure (HF). Neuregulin (NRG)-1β is released from cardiac microvascular endothelial cells and acts as a paracrine factor via the ErbB family of tyrosine kinase receptors expressed in cardiac myocytes to regulate cardiac development and stress responses...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859786/effect-of-losartan-on-mitral-valve-changes-after-myocardial-infarction
#3
Philipp E Bartko, Jacob P Dal-Bianco, J Luis Guerrero, Jonathan Beaudoin, Catherine Szymanski, Dae-Hee Kim, Margo M Seybolt, Mark D Handschumacher, Suzanne Sullivan, Michael L Garcia, James S Titus, Jill Wylie-Sears, Whitney S Irvin, Emmanuel Messas, Albert A Hagège, Alain Carpentier, Elena Aikawa, Joyce Bischoff, Robert A Levine
BACKGROUND: After myocardial infarction (MI), mitral valve (MV) tethering stimulates adaptive leaflet growth, but counterproductive leaflet thickening and fibrosis augment mitral regurgitation (MR), doubling heart failure and mortality. MV fibrosis post-MI is associated with excessive endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), driven by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β overexpression. In vitro, losartan-mediated TGF-β inhibition reduces EMT of MV endothelial cells. OBJECTIVES: This study tested the hypothesis that profibrotic MV changes post-MI are therapeutically accessible, specifically by losartan-mediated TGF-β inhibition...
September 5, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859784/outcomes-of-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy-with-or-without-defibrillation-in-patients-with-nonischemic-cardiomyopathy
#4
MULTICENTER STUDY
Francisco Leyva, Abbasin Zegard, Edmund Acquaye, Christopher Gubran, Robin Taylor, Paul W X Foley, Fraz Umar, Kiran Patel, Jonathan Panting, Howard Marshall, Tian Qiu
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have cast doubt on the benefit of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) with defibrillation (CRT-D) versus pacing (CRT-P) for patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM). Left ventricular myocardial scar portends poor clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine whether CRT-D is superior to CRT-P in patients with NICM either with (+) or without (-) left ventricular midwall fibrosis (MWF), detected by cardiac magnetic resonance...
September 5, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836199/modeling-cardiac-fibrosis-in-mice-myo-fibroblast-phenotype-after-ischemia
#5
Daniela Fraccarollo, Paolo Galuppo, Johann Bauersachs
Cardiac (myo)fibroblasts play a key role in the regulation of wound healing and pathogenic remodeling after myocardial infarction. Impaired scar formation and alterations of the extracellular matrix network precipitate cardiac dysfunction leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Therapeutic approaches addressing (myo)fibroblast phenotype appear to be useful in preventing progressive structural, electrical, and functional impairment and heart failure.Permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery has proven to be a valuable experimental model to investigate the arrays of pathways/mechanisms involved in cardiac repair and extracellular matrix remodeling in ischemic heart failure...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832366/hiv-and-myocarditis
#6
Ntobeko A B Ntusi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to review the literature on HIV and myocarditis and HIV-associated heart failure. RECENT FINDINGS: Currently, 17 million people are receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) globally. There is a decrease in mortality from HIV in the last decade with increased survival in those receiving ART. HIV-associated cardiac failure is on the increase, with more cases of diastolic dysfunction reported in the ART era. The pathophysiology of HIV-associated myocarditis is multifactorial...
August 21, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822689/cholesterol-lowering-gene-therapy-counteracts-the-development-of-non-ischemic-cardiomyopathy-in-mice
#7
Ilayaraja Muthuramu, Ruhul Amin, Andrey Postnov, Mudit Mishra, Joseph Pierre Aboumsallem, Tom Dresselaers, Uwe Himmelreich, Paul P Van Veldhoven, Olivier Gheysens, Frank Jacobs, Bart De Geest
A causal role of hypercholesterolemia in non-ischemic heart failure has never been demonstrated. Adeno-associated viral serotype 8 (AAV8)-low-density lipoprotein receptor (AAV8-LDLr) gene transfer was performed in LDLr-deficient mice without and with pressure overload induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). AAV8-LDLr gene therapy resulted in an 82.8% (p < 0.0001) reduction of plasma cholesterol compared with controls. Mortality rate was lower (p < 0.05) in AAV8-LDLr TAC mice compared with control TAC mice (hazard ratio for mortality 0...
August 1, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812526/parvovirus-infection-is-associated-with-myocarditis-and-myocardial-fibrosis-in-young-dogs
#8
Jordan Ford, Laura McEndaffer, Randall Renshaw, Alex Molesan, Kathleen Kelly
Perinatal parvoviral infection causes necrotizing myocarditis in puppies, which results in acute high mortality or progressive cardiac injury. While widespread vaccination has dramatically curtailed the epidemic of canine parvoviral myocarditis, we hypothesized that canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) myocardial infection is an underrecognized cause of myocarditis, cardiac damage, and/or repair by fibrosis in young dogs. In this retrospective study, DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from 40 cases and 41 control dogs under 2 years of age from 2007 to 2015...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808788/shocks-after-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator-implantation-in-idiopathic-cardiomyopathy-patients-a-myocardial-biopsy-study
#9
Erdal Safak, Giuseppe D Ancona, Heinz-Peter Schultheiss, Uwe Kühl, Stephan Kische, Hilmi Kaplan, Hüseyin Ince, Jasmin Ortak
Prediction of follow-up shock is crucial to stratify patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) requiring implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). The objective of the article is to assess the predictive value of endo-myocardial biopsy (EMB) towards ICD shock and follow-up mortality. A series of patients with DCM scheduled for ICD implantation underwent EMB to further determine the genesis of DCM. Presence of fibrosis and inflammation was documented and related to outcomes. A total of 240 patients were referred for ICD as primary (56%) and secondary (44%) prophylaxis...
August 14, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770018/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-attenuates-septic-myocardial-dysfunction-via-enos-no-pathway-in-rats
#10
Ni Zeng, Junmei Xu, Weifeng Yao, Suobei Li, Wei Ruan, Feng Xiao
Sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction increases mortality in sepsis, yet the underlying mechanism is unclear. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been found to enhance cardiomyocyte function, but whether BDNF has a beneficial effect against septic myocardial dysfunction is unknown. Septic shock was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). BDNF was expressed in primary cardiomyocytes, and its expression was significantly reduced after sepsis. In rats with sepsis, a sharp decline in survival was observed after CLP, with significantly reduced cardiac BDNF expression, enhanced myocardial fibrosis, elevated oxidative stress, increased myocardial apoptosis, and decreased endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) and NO...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768320/effects-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-heart-failure-proposal-of-a-novel-mechanism-of-action
#11
Milton Packer, Stefan D Anker, Javed Butler, Gerasimos Filippatos, Faiez Zannad
Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducing the risk of the development or progression of heart failure. In a landmark trial called Empagliflozin, Cardiovascular Outcomes, and Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes [EMPA-REG Outcomes], long-term treatment with empagliflozin prevented fatal and nonfatal heart failure events but did not reduce the risk of myocardial infarction or stroke in diabetic patients...
September 1, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759817/left-atrial-remodeling-hypertrophy-and-fibrosis-in-mouse-models-of-heart-failure
#12
Waqas Hanif, Linda Alex, Ya Su, Arti V Shinde, Ilaria Russo, Na Li, Nikolaos G Frangogiannis
Left ventricular dysfunction increases left atrial pressures and causes atrial remodeling. In human subjects, increased left atrial size is a powerful predictor of mortality and adverse events in a broad range of cardiac pathologic conditions. Moreover, structural remodeling of the atrium plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atrial tachyarrhythmias. Despite the potential value of the atrium in assessment of functional endpoints in myocardial disease, atrial pathologic alterations in mouse models of left ventricular disease have not been systematically investigated...
September 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748766/atrial-fibrillation-biomarkers-determining-prognosis
#13
Savas Mazaris, Gerasimos Siasos, Evangelos Oikonomou, Vicky Tsigkou, Manolis Vavuranakis, Eleni Kokkou, Marina Zaromitidou, Georgios-Angelos Papamikroulis, Athanasios G Papavassiliou, Spyridon Papaioannou, Nikolaos Papageorgiou, George Latsios, Christodoulos Stefanadis, Dimitris Tousoulis
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia known to incite increased thromboembolic and mortality risks, especially among patients not under anticoagulant therapy when that is indicated. Several routine scores exist to help stratify AF patients, such as the CHAD2DS2-VASc score and upon which physicians are based to decide whether to administer anticoagulant therapy. Being that anticoagulant regimen is a double-edged situation with both benefits and risks, decision-making process demands a definite and reliable, evidence-based set of data to rely on...
July 27, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718833/coconut-oil-aggravates-pressure-overload-induced-cardiomyopathy-without-inducing-obesity-systemic-insulin-resistance-or-cardiac-steatosis
#14
Ilayaraja Muthuramu, Ruhul Amin, Andrey Postnov, Mudit Mishra, Frank Jacobs, Olivier Gheysens, Paul P Van Veldhoven, Bart De Geest
Studies evaluating the effects of high-saturated fat diets on cardiac function are most often confounded by diet-induced obesity and by systemic insulin resistance. We evaluated whether coconut oil, containing C12:0 and C14:0 as main fatty acids, aggravates pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in C57BL/6 mice. Mortality rate after TAC was higher (p < 0.05) in 0.2% cholesterol 10% coconut oil diet-fed mice than in standard chow-fed mice (hazard ratio 2.32, 95% confidence interval 1...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696268/personalizing-risk-stratification-for-sudden-death-in-dilated-cardiomyopathy-the-past-present-and-future
#15
REVIEW
Brian P Halliday, John G F Cleland, Jeffrey J Goldberger, Sanjay K Prasad
Results from the DANISH Study (Danish Study to Assess the Efficacy of ICDs in Patients With Non-Ischemic Systolic Heat Failure on Mortality) suggest that for many patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), implantable cardioverter-defibrillators do not increase longevity. Accurate identification of patients who are more likely to die of an arrhythmia and less likely to die of other causes is required to ensure improvement in outcomes and wise use of resources. Until now, left ventricular ejection fraction has been used as a key criterion for selecting patients with DCM for an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator for primary prevention purposes...
July 11, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690022/absence-of-myostatin-improves-cardiac-function-following-myocardial-infarction
#16
Sarina Lim, Chris D McMahon, Kenneth G Matthews, Gerard P Devlin, Marianne S Elston, John V Conaglen
BACKGROUND: Myostatin inhibits the development of skeletal muscle and regulates the proliferation of skeletal muscle fibroblasts. However, the role of myostatin in regulating cardiac muscle or myofibroblasts, specifically in acute myocardial infarction (MI), is less clear. This study sought to determine whether absence of myostatin altered left ventricular function post-MI. METHODS: Myostatin-null mice (Mstn(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice underwent ligation of the left anterior descending artery to induce MI...
June 15, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684437/the-role-and-clinical-implications-of-diastolic-dysfunction-in-aortic-stenosis
#17
REVIEW
Polydoros N Kampaktsis, Damianos G Kokkinidis, Shing-Chiu Wong, Manolis Vavuranakis, Nikolaos J Skubas, Richard B Devereux
Diastolic dysfunction in aortic stenosis results primarily from left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis due to chronically elevated left ventricular systolic pressure. Currently, diastolic dysfunction does not have an explicit clinical role in management of patients with aortic stenosis. Studies have shown that improvement in diastolic dysfunction follows left ventricular remodelling after aortic valve replacement and that it occurs gradually or incompletely. Retrospective studies suggest that advanced grades of diastolic dysfunction at baseline are associated with increased mortality and adverse events even after aortic valve replacement...
October 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678142/ultrastructural-and-histomorphologic-properties-of-the-internal-thoracic-artery-implications-for-coronary-revascularization
#18
Diogo A Fonseca, Pedro E Antunes, Maria D Cotrim
Coronary artery disease represents a major health problem worldwide for which coronary artery bypass surgery remains a standard of care. Among the several grafts that are available, the internal thoracic artery (ITA) has long been considered the best as several advantages have been described compared with other vessels (e.g. saphenous vein or radial artery), namely, an absent to minor atherosclerotic development. In fact, several studies showed the presence of preatherosclerotic lesions, such as intimal and/or medial thickening, medial fibrosis, among others, in the presence of certain cardiovascular risk factors as well as established atherosclerotic lesions (i...
September 2017: Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675194/aortic-stenosis-pathogenesis-prediction-of-progression-and-percutaneous-intervention
#19
D Natarajan, B Prendergast
Aortic stenosis is common and an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Prevalence will increase significantly in forthcoming decades as a function of the ageing population; treatment by means of surgery or percutaneous intervention is expensive. Epidemiological, mechanistic and interventional studies are therefore vital to determine optimal and innovative treatments and their funding. Recent studies suggest that aortic stenosis is not a passive degenerative disease, but an active process involving several pathways, including lipid infiltration, chronic inflammation, fibrosis formation, osteoblast activation, and active valve mineralisation...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668140/clinical-features-diagnosis-and-management-of-patients-with-anderson-fabry-cardiomyopathy
#20
REVIEW
Haran Yogasundaram, Daniel Kim, Omar Oudit, Richard B Thompson, Frank Weidemann, Gavin Y Oudit
Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) is an X-linked recessive, multisystem disease of lysosomal storage. A mutation in the gene encoding the hydrolase enzyme α-galactosidase A results in its deficiency, or complete absence of activity. Subsequent progressive intracellular accumulation of glycosphingolipids, predominantly globotriaosylceramide, in various tissues, results in progressive organ dysfunction and failure, most commonly affecting the kidneys, nervous system, skin, eyes, vascular endothelium, and the heart...
July 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
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