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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742677/committee-opinion-no-712-intrapartum-management-of-intraamniotic-infection
#1
(no author information available yet)
Intraamniotic infection, also known as chorioamnionitis, is an infection with resultant inflammation of any combination of the amniotic fluid, placenta, fetus, fetal membranes, or decidua. Intraamniotic infection is a common condition noted among preterm and term parturients. However, most cases of intraamniotic infection detected and managed by obstetrician-gynecologists or other obstetric care providers will be noted among term patients in labor. Intraamniotic infection can be associated with acute neonatal morbidity, including neonatal pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, and death...
August 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742673/practice-bulletin-no-181-prevention-of-rh-d-alloimmunization
#2
(no author information available yet)
Advances in the prevention and treatment of Rh D alloimmunization have been one of the great success stories of modern obstetrics. There is wide variation in prevalence rates of Rh D-negative individuals between regions, for example from 5% in India to 15% in North America (1). However, high birth rates in low prevalence areas means Rh hemolytic disease of the newborn is still an important cause of morbidity and mortality in countries without prophylaxis programs (1). In such countries, 14% of affected fetuses are stillborn and one half of live born infants suffer neonatal death or brain injury (1)...
August 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742671/committee-opinion-no-712-summary-intrapartum-management-of-intraamniotic-infection
#3
(no author information available yet)
Intraamniotic infection, also known as chorioamnionitis, is an infection with resultant inflammation of any combination of the amniotic fluid, placenta, fetus, fetal membranes, or decidua. Intraamniotic infection is a common condition noted among preterm and term parturients. However, most cases of intraamniotic infection detected and managed by obstetrician-gynecologists or other obstetric care providers will be noted among term patients in labor. Intraamniotic infection can be associated with acute neonatal morbidity, including neonatal pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, and death...
August 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742667/practice-bulletin-no-181-summary-prevention-of-rh-d-alloimmunization
#4
(no author information available yet)
Advances in the prevention and treatment of Rh D alloimmunization have been one of the great success stories of modern obstetrics. There is wide variation in prevalence rates of Rh D-negative individuals between regions, for example from 5% in India to 15% in North America (1). However, high birth rates in low prevalence areas means Rh hemolytic disease of the newborn is still an important cause of morbidity and mortality in countries without prophylaxis programs (1). In such countries, 14% of affected fetuses are stillborn and one half of live born infants suffer neonatal death or brain injury (1)...
August 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742598/arterial-and-venous-doppler-in-evaluation-of-the-at-risk-fetus
#5
Sifa Turan, Ozhan M Turan
Our practice utilizes Doppler ultrasound as one of the most objective and effective methods to assess at-risk pregnancies. This review will discuss the application of arterial and venous Doppler techniques in assessing and managing various diseases and conditions for high-risk fetuses.
September 2017: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742595/fetal-anatomic-imaging-between-11-and-14-weeks-gestation
#6
Ingrid Liff, Bryann Bromley
Fetal imaging between 11 and 14 weeks is a standard component of prenatal risk assessment for aneuploidy. Evaluating the fetus during this gestational age window provides the opportunity to reliably examine anatomic structures. Using a defined imaging protocol, approximately 50% of major abnormalities can be detected. Some abnormalities should almost always be detected, some may be detected on occasion and others are not currently detectable. Imagers must be familiar with embryologic patterns of development and natural history of anomalies...
September 2017: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742593/prenatal-diagnosis-and-evaluation-of-abnormal-placentation
#7
Karin A Fox, Wesley Lee
Abnormalities in placental location or adherence can have important consequences on pregnancy outcome for both mother and fetus. Accurate antenatal detection is crucial for delivery timing and planning to help reduce perinatal risks for adverse events. We review the relevant literature and present a practical approach for the prenatal detection of abnormal placentation.
September 2017: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742216/the-fetuses-at-risk-approach-survival-analysis-from-a-fetal-perspective
#8
K S Joseph, Michael S Kramer
Several phenomena in contemporary perinatology create challenges for analyzing pregnancy outcomes. These include recent increases in iatrogenic delivery at late preterm and early term gestation which are incongruent with the belief that stillbirth and neonatal death risk decrease exponentially with advancing gestational age. Perinatal epidemiologists have also puzzled over the paradox of intersecting birth weight- and gestational age-specific perinatal mortality curves for decades. For example, neonatal mortality rates among preterm infants of women who smoke are substantially lower than neonatal mortality rates among preterm infants of non-smoking women, whereas the reverse pattern occurs at term gestation...
July 25, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742214/association-of-combined-gif290t-c-heterozygous-mutation-fut2-secretor-variant-with-neural-tube-defects
#9
R M Guéant-Rodriguez, C Chery, B-M Fofou-Caillierez, J Voirin, B Foliguet, T Josse, D Tramoy, F François, J-L Guéant
Folate and vitamin B12 are needed for the proper embryo-fetal development possibly through their interacting role in the one-carbon metabolism. Folate fortification reduces the prevalence of complex birth defects, and more specifically neural tube defects (NTD). GIF and FUT2 are two genes associated with the uptake and blood level of vitamin B12. We evaluated GIF and FUT2 as predictors of severe birth defects, in 181 aborted fetuses compared to 375 healthy newborns. The GIF290C allele frequency was estimated to 0...
July 25, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742068/a-peptide-based-viral-inactivator-inhibits-zika-virus-infection-in-pregnant-mice-and-fetuses
#10
Yufeng Yu, Yong-Qiang Deng, Peng Zou, Qian Wang, Yanyan Dai, Fei Yu, Lanying Du, Na-Na Zhang, Min Tian, Jia-Nan Hao, Yu Meng, Yuan Li, Xiaohui Zhou, Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Cheng-Feng Qin, Shibo Jiang, Lu Lu
Zika virus (ZIKV), a re-emerging flavivirus associated with neurological disorders, has spread rapidly to more than 70 countries and territories. However, no specific vaccines or antiviral drugs are currently available to prevent or treat ZIKV infection. Here we report that a synthetic peptide derived from the stem region of ZIKV envelope protein, designated Z2, potently inhibits infection of ZIKV and other flaviviruses in vitro. We show that Z2 interacts with ZIKV surface protein and disrupts the integrity of the viral membrane...
July 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741751/assessment-of-diastolic-function-of-normal-fetal-heart-using-the-dual-gate-doppler-method
#11
Mayumi Takano, Masahiko Nakata, Sumito Nagasaki, Rei Ueyama, Mineto Morita
OBJECTIVES: The ratio of mitral peak early diastolic filling to early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E/e') reflects diastolic cardiac function in adults. The Dual gate Doppler (DD) method enables measurements of E/e' in the same heartbeat. This study was designed to assess the utility of the DD method for measurement of fetal E/e', and to determine reference ranges for normal fetuses. METHODS: This prospective study comprised normal singleton pregnancies between 16 and 36 weeks of gestational age (GA)...
July 25, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741709/prenatal-diagnosis-of-dural-sinus-malformation-in-a-fetus-presenting-with-general-oedema
#12
Michal Lipa, Przemyslaw Kosinski, Ritsuko K Pooh, Miroslaw Wielgos
Dural sinus malformation (DSM) is an extremely rare, congenital dilatation of the dural sinus pouch. DSM cases associated with arteriovenous shunt (AV shunt) usually have a poor pregnancy outcome due to an excessive hemodynamic load and progressive cardiac failure.
July 25, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741114/-fetal-autopsies-relic-or-still-a%C3%A2-gold-standard
#13
J Andruszkow, W Weichert, T Braunschweig, R Knüchel-Clarke, F Erlmeier
BACKGROUND: Fetal autopsy rates are decreasing in Western countries although post-mortem examinations render important information for the parents concerning the cause of abortion and risk of recurrence in future pregnancies. OBJECTIVE: The intention of the presented study was to analyze the development of fetal autopsies in Germany during the last decade and to review accessible information obtained by fetal autopsy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Reports of fetal autopsies conducted in two German university Institutes of pathology between 2005 and 2014 were evaluated retrospectively...
July 24, 2017: Der Pathologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741093/fetal-right-ventricular-prominence-associated-postnatal-abnormalities-and-coarctation-clinical-prediction-tool
#14
Alyssa Power, Alberto Nettel-Aguirre, Deborah Fruitman
Fetal right ventricular (RV) prominence is a known indicator of possible left-sided structural heart disease with a low positive predictive value for aortic coarctation. There is a paucity of data on identifying which fetuses with RV prominence will have postnatal arch obstruction. Our study objectives were to create a clinical prediction tool for coarctation and to describe the diagnostic outcomes of our cohort with fetal RV prominence. We performed a retrospective review of patients referred with fetal RV prominence from January 2009 to October 2015...
July 24, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740412/prevalence-of-diabetes-and-obesity-in-association-with-prematurity-and-growth-restriction
#15
REVIEW
Gretchen Kopec, Prem S Shekhawat, Maroun J Mhanna
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is when fetuses and newborn infants have not reached their true growth potential as genetically defined. Fetuses with IUGR develop in a less than ideal environment that leads to epigenetic changes and marks infants' metabolism for the rest of their lives. Epigenetic changes affect insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels and lead to insulin resistance and ultimately to a metabolic syndrome. The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of illnesses that raise one's risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and ischemic heart disease, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, central obesity, insulin resistance, and inflammation...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739638/undue-inducement-or-unfair-exclusion-considering-a-case-study-of-pregnancy-in-an-hiv-prevention-trial
#16
Bridget G Haire, Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan
In their recent paper' Undue inducement: a case study in CAPRISA 008', Mngadi et al conclude that a participant in an HIV prevention study who deliberately concealed her pregnancy was not'unduly induced' to participate by the offer of an experimental product. This paper argues that while the authors' conclusion is sound, the framing of this case study is consistent with the preoccupation in research ethics with the concept of undue inducement, coupled with a highly risk-averse attitude to pregnancy (regardless of whether those risks may be willingly assumed by pregnant women themselves)...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739627/reconstruction-of-urethra-using-appendix-in-a-patient-with-cloacal-malformation
#17
Sandeep Gupta, Barun Kumar, Sandip Basu, Dilip Kumar Pal
We report a case of 21-year-old young woman with congenital cloacal malformation. She was operated at the age of 1.5 years separating the rectum from common opening as a two-stage repair. She was incontinent in the earlier part of her life but she became continent to some extent later in early adulthood. She presented with urinary stress incontinence following delivery of dead fetus of 6 months. She underwent multiple investigations revealing common opening of bladder neck and vagina. A multidisciplinary evaluation was done and she underwent closure of common channel and neourethra reconstruction using pedicled appendix...
July 24, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739554/46-xy-disorder-of-sex-development-due-to-17-beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-type-3-deficiency-in-an-infant-of-greek-origin
#18
Assimina Galli-Tsinopoulou, Anastasios Serbis, Eleni Kotanidou, Eleni Litou, Vaia Dokousli, Konstantina Mouzaki, Pavlos Fanis, Vassos Neocleous, Nicos Skordis
17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 (17βHSD-3) enzyme catalyzes the conversion of androstenedione (Δ4) to testosterone (T) in the testes of the developing fetus, thus playing a crucial role in the differentiation of the gonads and in establishing the male sex phenotype. Any mutation in the encoding gene (HSD17B3) can lead to a varying degree of undervirilization of the affected male that ranges from completely undervirilized external female genitalia to predominantly male with micropenis and hypospadias...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739513/intrauterine-inflammation-induces-sex-specific-effects-on-neuroinflammation-white-matter-and-behavior
#19
Ryan Makinson, Kelsey Lloyd, Aditya Rayasam, Sarah McKee, Amy Brown, Guillermo Barila, Nicola Grissom, Robert George, Matt Marini, Zsuzsanna Fabry, Michal Elovitz, Teresa M Reyes
Exposure to inflammation during pregnancy has been linked to adverse neurodevelopmental consequences for the offspring. One common route through which a developing fetus is exposed to inflammation is with intrauterine inflammation. To that end, we utilized an animal model of intrauterine inflammation (IUI; intrauterine lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration, 50 µg, E15) to assess placental and fetal brain inflammatory responses, white matter integrity, anxiety-related behaviors (elevated zero maze, light dark box, open field), microglial counts, and the CNS cytokine response to an acute injection of LPS in both males and females...
July 21, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739114/ethical-and-medical-management-of-a-pregnant-woman-with-brain-stem-death-resulting-in-delivery-of-a-healthy-child-and-organ-donation
#20
A Gopčević, B Rode, M Vučić, A Horvat, M Širanović, Ž Gavranović, V Košec, A Košec
Maternal brain death during pregnancy remains an exceedingly complex situation that requires not only a well-considered medical management plan, but also careful decision-making in a legally and ethically delicate situation. Management of brain dead pregnant patients needs to adhere to special strategies that support the mother in a way that she can deliver a viable and healthy child. Brain death in pregnant women is very rare, with only a few published cases. We present a case of a pregnant woman with previously diagnosed multiple brain cavernomas that led to intracranial hemorrhage and brain stem death during the 21st week of pregnancy...
June 24, 2017: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
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