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Bijan Esmaeilnejad, Mousa Tavassoli, Awat Samiei, Nasser Hajipour
Ovine and caprine malignant theileriosis (OCMT), a critical condition in small ruminant production, causes lethal infections. In September 2016, a total number of 400 goats of Marghoz breed (the largest population of goat breed in Iran), in northwest of Iran, were examined for approximately 25 pre-partum abortions and 7 goats' mortality for a period of 3 days. A dead goat and her aborted fetus were brought into the Urmia Veterinary Hospital for further diagnostic investigations. The microbiological assessments including direct microscopical examination of the vaginal discharges and placentome with respect to the differential staining (Gram's staining method), conventional pure culturing, fetal abomasal contents, and the liver were negative...
July 13, 2018: Parasitology Research
Trisha V Vigneswaran, Ranjit Akolekar, Argyro Syngelaki, Marietta Charakida, Lindsey D Allan, Kypros H Nicolaides, Vita Zidere, John M Simpson
BACKGROUND: Assessment of the outflow tract views is an integral part of routine fetal cardiac scanning. For some congenital heart defects, notably coarctation of the aorta, pulmonary valve stenosis, and aortic valve stenosis, the size of vessels is important both for diagnosis and prognosis. Existing reference ranges of fetal outflow tracts are derived from a small number of cases. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study population comprised 7945 fetuses at 13 to 36 weeks' gestation with no detectable abnormalities from pregnancies resulting in normal live births...
July 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
Toshihiro Muraji, Hidenori Tanaka, Satoshi Ieiri
The cause of biliary atresia (BA) remains an enigma. However, an ethnic diversity in the incidence of BA is so unique that anthropological approach may provide some etiopathogenetic implications in the disease mechanism. We previously reported that an association of maternal microchimerism (MMc) in BA and a significant compatibility of HLA-A between the patient with BA and their mother. Acrossthe 10 countries (Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Philippines, New Zealand (Maori population), UK, France, Germany, Norway, and Sweden), we determined the frequency of the most prevalentHLA haplotypes of each country from Allele Frequency Database and found that it was significantly correlated with the incidence of BA of the respective country (p =0...
July 10, 2018: Human Immunology
Lior Greenbaum, Yinon Gilboa, Annick Raas-Rothschild, Ortal Barel, Nitzan Kol, Haike Reznik Wolf, Ben Pode-Shakked, Yael Finezilber, Baruch Messing, Michal Berkenstadt
Diaphanospondylodysostosis (DSD) is a rare autosomal recessive skeletal disorder, characterized mainly by ossification defects in vertebrae, thorax malformations, renal cystic dysplasia and usually death in the perinatal period. DSD is caused by mutations in the BMPER (Bone Morphogenetic Protein-Binding Endothelial Cell Precursor-Derived Regulator) gene. We describe the prenatal findings of a non-consanguineous Jewish couple (shared Balkan origin), with three affected fetuses that presented with malformations in the spine and chest, reduced ossification of the skull and spine, horseshoe kidney and increased nuchal translucency...
July 10, 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Mineshi Sakamoto, Nozomi Tatsuta, Hing Man Chan, José L Domingo, Katsuyuki Murata, Kunihiko Nakai
Fetuses and neonates are known to be highly susceptible to methylmercury (MeHg) toxicity, but little is known about the relative uptake of MeHg from blood to the developing brain. We measured time-course changes in mercury (Hg) concentrations in the brain of fetal, neonate, weanling, and adult rats after an injection of 0.08 μg (0.4 nmol) Hg/g MeHg. In the prenatal experiment, MeHg was subcutaneously injected to pregnant dams on embryonic days 17, 18, 18.5, 19, 19.5, or 20, and Hg concentrations in tissues were measured in both mothers and fetuses on embryonic day 21 (1 day before parturition)...
July 5, 2018: Environmental Research
Qian Zhu, Peifeng Xie, Huawei Li, Cui Ma, Wanghong Zhang, Yulong Yin, Xiangfeng Kong
Low birth weight may negatively affect energy storage and nutrient metabolism, and impair fetal growth and development. We analyzed effects of body weight (BW) and gestational period on nutrient composition in fetal Huanjiang mini-pigs. Fetuses with the lowest BW (LBW), middle BW (MBW), and highest BW (HBW) were collected at days 45, 75, and 110 of gestation. Crude protein (CP), crude fat, amino acid (AA), and fatty acid (FA) concentrations were determined. The BW gain, carcass weight, fat percentage, and uterus weight of sows increased as gestation progressed, as did litter weight, average individual fetal weight, fetal body weight, and dry matter (DM)...
2018: PloS One
Navein Arumugasaamy, Leila E Ettehadieh, Che-Ying Kuo, Dominic Paquin-Proulx, Shannon M Kitchen, Marco Santoro, Jesse K Placone, Paola P Silveira, Renato S Aguiar, Douglas F Nixon, John P Fisher, Peter C W Kim
Recent global epidemics of viral infection such as Zika virus (ZIKV) and associated birth defects from maternal-fetal viral transmission highlights the critical unmet need for experimental models that adequately recapitulates the biology of the human maternal-fetal interface and downstream fetal development. Herein, we report an in vitro biomimetic placenta-fetus model of the maternal-fetal interface and downstream fetal cells. Using a tissue engineering approach, we built a 3D model incorporating placental trophoblast and endothelial cells into an extracellular matrix environment and validated formation of the maternal-fetal interface...
July 12, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Tom E C Kieffer, Anne Laskewitz, Marijke M Faas, Sicco A Scherjon, Jan Jaap H M Erwich, Sanne J Gordijn, Jelmer R Prins
Pregnancies with a male fetus are associated with higher risks of pregnancy complications through maladaptation of the maternal immune system. The pathophysiology of this phenomenon is unknown. A possible pathway could be a fetal sex-dependent maternal immune response, since males have a Y chromosome encoding specific allogenic proteins, possibly contributing to a different response and higher complication risks. To analyze whether fetal sex affects mRNA expression of maternal immune genes in early pregnancy, real-time PCR quantification was performed in the decidual tissue from primigravid pregnancies ( n = 20) between 10 and 12 weeks with uncomplicated term outcomes...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
Angesom Gebreweld, Delayehu Bekele, Aster Tsegaye
Background: In pregnancy, hematological changes occur in order to meet the demands of the developing fetus and placenta, with major alterations in blood volume. Abnormal hematological profile affects pregnancy and its outcome. This study aimed to assess hematological profiles of pregnant women at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Method: This cross sectional study was conducted among 284 consecutive pregnant women at St. Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College...
2018: BMC Hematology
Mohammad Ehsan Jaripour, Kourosh Hayatigolkhatmi, Vahid Iranmanesh, Farhad Khadivi Zand, Zahra Badiei, Hamid Farhangi, Ali Ghasemi, Abdollah Banihashem, Reza Jafarzadeh Esfehani, Ariane Sadr-Nabavi
Background and Objective: β-thalassemia results from a diverse range of mutations inside the hemoglobin subunit β ( HBB ) gene. In a study of β-thalassemia carriers and some of their at-risk fetuses in the Khorasan province of Iran, we aimed to recognize the most common mutations in the region. We also investigated a possible link between these mutations and some of the relevant hematological indices. Methods: Amplification-refractory mutation system-PCR (ARMS-PCR) was used to detect the typical HBB mutations among 1593 individuals, suspected of having a mutated HBB allele from March/2011 to January/2018...
2018: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
Bridget A Knight, Beverley M Shields, Xuemei He, Elizabeth N Pearce, Lewis E Braverman, Rachel Sturley, Bijay Vaidya
Background: Iodine is important for thyroid hormone synthesis, and iodine deficiency in pregnancy may impair fetal neurological development. As perchlorate and thiocyanate inhibit sodium-iodide symporter reducing the transport of iodine from circulation into the thyroid follicular cells, environmental exposure to these substances in pregnancy may impair maternal thyroid hormone synthesis. We aimed to explore the impact of perchlorate and thiocyanate exposure on thyroid status in a cohort of pregnant mothers from South West England...
2018: Thyroid Research
Marialuigia Spinelli, Carmine Sica, Fabio Ghezzi, Antonella Cromi, Daniel Surbek, Luigi Raio
INTRODUCTION: Anomalies in cortical development are often associated with an adverse outcome, but prenatal diagnosis is often impeded by the limited knowledge about normal sulci biometries throughout fetal brain development. Our aim was to provide two-dimensional ultrasonographical (2D US) nomograms of the depth of the Sylvian fissure (SF) and insular lobe (IL), as well as of the SF ratio throughout gestation in a large number of fetuses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective cross-sectional study of 329 normal singleton pregnancies...
July 12, 2018: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
Tal Rafaeli-Yehudai, Majdi Imterat, Amos Douvdevani, Dan Tirosh, Neta Benshalom-Tirosh, Salvatore Andrea Mastrolia, Ruthy Beer-Weisel, Vered Klaitman, Reut Riff, Shirley Greenbaum, Alex Alioshin, Gal Rodavsky Hanegbi, Giuseppe Loverro, Mariana Rita Catalano, Offer Erez
OBJECTIVES: Preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction are obstetrical syndromes associated with abnormal placental implantation and changes in the activation status of maternal leukocytes. This study is aimed to determine by a simple, rapid fluorescent assay the changes in maternal serum total cell-free DNA (t-cfDNA) concentrations in women with preeclampsia and those with fetal growth restriction (FGR). STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted measuring maternal serum t-cfDNA concentrations...
2018: PloS One
Laura Beth Cohen
Since the early 1990s, jurisdictions around the country have been using civil child abuse laws to penalize women for using illicit drugs during their pregnancies. Using civil child abuse laws in this way infringes on pregnant women's civil rights and deters them from seeking prenatal care. Child Protective Services agencies are key players in this system. Women often become entangled with the Child Protective Services system through their health care providers. Providers will drug test pregnant women without first alerting them to the potential negative consequences stemming from a positive drug test...
2018: Michigan Law Review
Takekazu Miyoshi, Hiroshi Hosoda, Takashi Umekawa, Takashi Asada, Akihiro Fujiwara, Ken-Ichi Kurosaki, Isao Shiraishi, Michikazu Nakai, Kunihiro Nishimura, Mikiya Miyazato, Kenji Kangawa, Tomoaki Ikeda, Jun Yoshimatsu, Naoto Minamino
BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that umbilical cord plasma natriuretic peptide (NP) levels reflect the severity of heart failure (HF) in fetuses with congenital heart defects (CHD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of amniotic fluid (AF) NP levels in the assessment of HF in fetuses with CHD or arrhythmia.Methods and Results:This was a prospective observational study at a tertiary pediatric cardiac center. A total of 95 singletons with CHD or arrhythmia, and 96 controls from 2012 to 2015 were analyzed...
July 10, 2018: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Kristen A Sullivan, Maggie Little, Nora E Rosenberg, Tiwonge Mtande, Chifundo Zimba, Elana Jaffe, Jean Anderson, Jenell S Coleman, Sappho Gilbert, Marielle S Gross Wolf, Irving Hoffman, Lisa Rahangdale, Ruth Faden, Anne Drapkin Lyerly
Clinical research to inform the evidence base to guide nonobstetrical care during pregnancy is critically important for the well-being of women and their future offspring. Conversations about regulations for such research, including whether paternal consent should ever be required, should be informed by the perspectives of those most affected, namely, pregnant women. We conducted in-depth interviews with 140 pregnant women living with or at risk of HIV-70 in Malawi, 70 in the United States-exploring their views on requiring paternal consent for pregnant women's participation in trials offering the prospect of direct benefit solely to the fetus...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: JERHRE
G L Malin, Svf Wallace, M Hall, A Ferraro
We present the case of a 28-year-old woman who was para 1, with end-stage renal failure secondary to reflux nephritis. She conceived after two years on peritoneal dialysis. She successfully continued this throughout pregnancy, although her antenatal course was complicated by an episode of peritonitis. Induction at 34 weeks resulted in a vaginal birth of a live boy. Her postnatal course was uncomplicated. We reviewed the literature regarding peritoneal dialysis in pregnancy. A recent systematic review identified 14 cases...
June 2018: Obstetric Medicine
Emily J Camm, Kimberley J Botting, Amanda N Sferruzzi-Perri
The development of the fetal heart is exquisitely controlled by a multitude of factors, ranging from humoral to mechanical forces. The gatekeeper regulating many of these factors is the placenta, an external fetal organ. As such, resistance within the placental vascular bed has a direct influence on the fetal circulation and therefore, the developing heart. In addition, the placenta serves as the interface between the mother and fetus, controlling substrate exchange and release of hormones into both circulations...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Sungsam Gong, Ulla Sovio, Irving Lmh Aye, Francesca Gaccioli, Justyna Dopierala, Michelle D Johnson, Angela M Wood, Emma Cook, Benjamin J Jenkins, Albert Koulman, Robert A Casero, Miguel Constância, D Stephen Charnock-Jones, Gordon Cs Smith
Preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction (FGR) are major causes of the more than 5 million perinatal and infant deaths occurring globally each year, and both are associated with placental dysfunction. The risk of perinatal and infant death is greater in males, but the mechanisms are unclear. We studied data and biological samples from the Pregnancy Outcome Prediction (POP) study, a prospective cohort study that followed 4,212 women having first pregnancies from their dating ultrasound scan through delivery...
July 12, 2018: JCI Insight
Saba Sheikhbahaei, Roya Sherkat, Nadezhda Camacho-Ordonez, Razie Khoshnevisan, Asadollah Kalantari, Mansour Salehi, Seyed Saman Nazemian, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani, Christophe Klein
BACKGROUND: Patients with primary immunodeficiency disease (PID) who survive to adulthood and willing to have a child mostly are worried whether their disease affects their fertility and/or pregnancy and also if their child would be predisposed to PID. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the outcome of conception, pregnancy and their management in 9 families with definite diagnosis of PID. A chronic granulomatous disease subject with an uneventful pregnancy developed fungal sacral osteomyelitis few weeks after delivery...
July 11, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
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