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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109180/the-intrauterine-renin-angiotensin-system-sex-specific-effects-on-the-prevalence-of-spontaneous-preterm-birth
#1
Kirsty G Pringle, Tamas Zakar, Eugenie R Lumbers
Preterm birth (PTB) is the single largest cause of death in infants and young children. The rate of PTB is significantly higher in male infants, particularly those that are born very preterm. Here we present evidence to suggest that the decidual renin-angiotensin system may play a role in inhibiting inflammation and maintaining the integrity of the fetal membranes during pregnancy, and that sex-specific alterations in the intrauterine RAS could contribute to the increased risk of PTB in male babies. Women carrying female fetuses have high levels of expression of decidual prorenin at term...
January 21, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109019/regional-difference-in-sulcal-infolding-progression-correlated-with-cerebral-cortical-expansion-in-cynomolgus-monkey-fetuses
#2
Kazuhiko Sawada, Katsuhiro Fukunishi, Masatoshi Kashima, Noritaka Imai, Shigeyoshi Saito, Ichio Aoki, Yoshihiro Fukui
The present study aimed to specify the cerebral sulci developed by cortical expansion in cynomolgus monkey fetuses. The degree of sulcal infolding was evaluated by the gyrification index (GI), which was quantified using ex vivo MRI. The correlation of cortical volume with the sulcal GI was most frequent during embryonic days (EDs) 100 to 120. Interestingly, the high correlation was marked during EDs 140 to 150 in restricted primary sulci in prefrontal, parietotemporal and medial temporal regions. The present results suggest that cortical expansion is involved in gyral demarcation by sulcal infolding, followed by the sulcal infolding progression in phylogenetically-newer cortices...
January 21, 2017: Congenital Anomalies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108981/accuracy-of-sonographically-estimated-fetal-weight-near-delivery-in-pregnancies-complicated-with-diabetes-mellitus
#3
Amy M Valent, Tondra Newman, Sara Kritzer, Kristin Magner, Carri R Warshak
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of sonographic estimations of fetal weight (FW) and signed percent error between pregnant patients with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all singleton nonanomalous live births who delivered after 34 weeks and received a sonographic estimation of FW within 2 weeks of delivery at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center between 2008 and 2011...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108286/the-impact-of-zika-virus-in-the-brain
#4
Fabiele Baldino Russo, Patricia Cristina Baleeiro Beltrão-Braga
The recent outbreak of ZIKV in Brazil called the attention of the world because the effects of viral infection in the brain under development in fetuses. Consequences of vertical infection comprise brain malformation, especially microcephaly, eye and musculoskeletal abnormalities, among others. In adults, outcomes of infection include meningoencephalitis and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Recent data specific suggest that neural progenitor cells are the main targets of ZIKV infection, causing massive cellular death, which in turns, causes impairment in the neurogenesis process...
January 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105960/accuracy-of-prenatal-ultrasound-in-detecting-growth-abnormalities-in-triplets-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#5
Cameron Sklar, Maryna Yaskina, Sue Ross, Kentia Naud
Significant management decisions in triplet pregnancies are made based mainly on ultrasound measurements of fetal growth, although there is a paucity of data examining the accuracy of fetal weight measurements in these gestations. To evaluate accuracy of prenatal ultrasound to diagnose growth abnormalities (intrauterine growth restriction, severe growth discordance) in triplet pregnancies, a retrospective cohort study of 78 triplet pregnancies (234 fetuses) delivered at a single tertiary hospital from January 2004 to May 2015 was performed...
February 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105130/biological-characterization-of-sheep-kidney-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#6
Meng Ji, Chunyu Bai, Lu Li, Ya'Nan Fan, Caiyun Ma, Xiangchen Li, Weijun Guan
The aim of the present study was to isolate, culture and characterize sheep metanephric mesenchymal stem cells (MMSCs). The MMSCs were isolated from the kidney tissue of six-week-old sheep fetus. This study investigated whether primary MMSCs could be grown for 26 passages and expressed Oct-4, which is involved in the self-renewal of undifferentiated pluripotent stem cells. The MMSCs also expressed the renal lineage marker gene PAX2, and mesenchymal cell marker genes CD44, FN1 and VIM. Expression of these genes was detected using immunofluorescence and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104460/fetal-growth-retardation-and-brain-sparing-by-malnutrition-are-associated-to-changes-in-neurotransmitters-profile
#7
C García-Contreras, D Valent, M Vázquez-Gómez, L Arroyo, B Isabel, S Astiz, A Bassols, A Gónzalez-Bulnes
The present study assesses possible changes in the levels of different neurotransmitters (catecholamines and indoleamines) in fetuses affected by nutrient shortage. Hence, we determined the concentration of catecholamines and indoleamines at the hypothalamus of 56 swine fetuses obtained at both 70 and 90days of pregnancy (n=33 and 23 fetuses, respectively). The degree of fetal development and the fetal sex affected the neurotransmitters profile at both stages. At Day 70, there were found higher mean concentrations of l-DOPA in both female and male fetuses with severe IUGR; male fetuses with severe IUGR also showed higher concentrations of TRP than normal male littermates...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103998/-the-causes-and-adjustment-methods-of-prenatal-anxiety-disorder-during-the-han-and-tang-dynasties
#8
Y Ding, R Q Zhang
Though the title of prenatal anxiety disorder didn't mentioned in the literature of the Han and Tang Dynasties, the effect of anxiety on the fetus and its delivery were already recognized. The causes of anxiety were mainly the physical discomfort caused by pregnancy, or the worries about fetus sex, health, appearance, and its fate etc., or the fear of delivery. Although the adjustment methods were often tainted with superstition, yet it could ease the anxiety of pregnant women to some extent.
September 28, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Shi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103875/effects-of-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-on-umbilical-artery-resistance-and-intrafetal-blood-flow-distribution-a-doppler-ultrasound-study-from-papua-new-guinea
#9
Maria Ome-Kaius, Stephan Karl, Regina Alice Wangnapi, John Walpe Bolnga, Glen Mola, Jane Walker, Ivo Mueller, Holger Werner Unger, Stephen John Rogerson
BACKGROUND: Doppler velocimetry studies of umbilical artery (UA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) flow help to determine the presence and severity of fetal growth restriction. Increased UA resistance and reduced MCA pulsatility may indicate increased placental resistance and intrafetal blood flow redistribution. Malaria causes low birth weight and fetal growth restriction, but few studies have assessed its effects on uteroplacental and fetoplacental blood flow. METHODS: Colour-pulsed Doppler ultrasound was used to assess UA and MCA flow in 396 Papua New Guinean singleton fetuses...
January 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103589/the-effects-of-body-mass-index-on-second-trimester-amniotic-fluid-cytokine-and-matrix-metalloproteinase-levels
#10
Rauf Melekoglu, Osman Ciftci, Sevil Eraslan, Nese Basak, Ebru Celik
AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of obesity on amniotic fluid (AF) inflammatory markers in second-trimester AF, testing the hypothesis that there is a relationship between maternal body mass index (BMI) and fetal inflammatory exposure. METHODS: AF was obtained from 84 singleton pregnant women undergoing elective amniocentesis for karyotype analysis at 16-24 weeks of gestation between April 2014 and May 2016. The cell-free AF was used to analyze interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-6, and MMP-13...
January 20, 2017: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103462/low-adherence-to-mediterranean-diet-in-portugal-pregnant-women-nutrition-in-portugal-and-its-repercussions
#11
REVIEW
Luis Pereira-da-Silva, Elisabete Pinto
INTRODUCTION: Portuguese population is drifting away from the Mediterranean diet-like pattern. In this context, the current nutritionalstatus of women of childbearing age and of pregnant Portuguese women and their growing fetuses is critically reviewed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A narrative critical review was performed on recent published high quality studies assessing diet and nutritional status of women of childbearing age and pregnant women and its influence on the nutritional status of their offspring...
October 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103309/folate-transporters-in-placentas-from-preterm-newborns-and-their-relation-to-cord-blood-folate-and-vitamin-b12-levels
#12
Erika Castaño, Lorena Caviedes, Sandra Hirsch, Miguel Llanos, Germán Iñiguez, Ana María Ronco
Folate deficiency during pregnancy has been related to low birth weight, preterm (PT) birth and other health risks in the offspring; however, it is unknown whether prematurity is related to low folate transport through the placenta due to altered expression of specific folate transporters. We determined placental expression (mRNA and protein concentrations by RT-qPCR and WB respectively) of specific folate transporters: RFC, PCFT/HCP1 and FOLR1 in chorionic (fetal) and basal (maternal) plates of placentas of PT pregnancies (PT, 32-36 weeks, n = 51)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103212/coverage-with-tetanus-diphtheria-and-acellular-pertussis-vaccine-and-influenza-vaccine-among-pregnant-women-minnesota-march-2013-december-2014
#13
Alexandra Barber, Miriam Halstead Muscoplat, Anna Fedorowicz
Pertussis and influenza infections can result in severe disease in infants. The diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine is recommended for infants beginning at age 2 months, and influenza vaccine is recommended for infants aged ≥6 months. Vaccination of pregnant women induces the production of antibodies that are transferred across the placenta to the fetus and provide passive protection until infants are old enough to receive DTaP and influenza vaccines (1-3). To protect young infants before they are age-eligible for vaccination, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has recommended since 2004 that all women who are or will be pregnant during influenza season receive inactivated influenza vaccine (1), and since 2013 that all pregnant women receive the tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine (3)...
January 20, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102936/unbiased-and-quantitative-proteomics-reveals-highly-increased-angiogenesis-induction-by-the-secretome-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-isolated-from-fetal-rather-than-adult-skin
#14
Massimiliano Gaetani, Cinzia Maria Chinnici, Anna Paola Carreca, Claudia Di Pasquale, Giandomenico Amico, Pier Giulio Conaldi
Scarless wound healing and functional regeneration are typical processes of the fetus, gradually lost during post-natal life, and maximally attributed to fetal skin tissue and induced by fetal skin fibroblasts. The latter have been successfully applied to post-natal wounds, with clear advantages compared with autologous dermis grafts or adult fibroblast applications. Our goal was to functionally identify and uncover key factors and mechanisms through the analysis of secretomes, the principal players in all cell therapies based on mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs)...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101958/a-review-of-maternal-alloimmunisation-to-rh-d-in-northern-ireland
#15
C J McCauley, K Morris, K Maguire
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the current incidence of maternal sensitisation to Rhesus (Rh) D in Northern Ireland, examine adherence to recommendations for administration of anti-D immunoglobulin and identify potential causes for all cases of anti-D alloimmunisation sensitisation from January 2010 to September 2015. BACKGROUND: Post-partum anti-D immunoglobulin administered to Rh D-negative women and routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis have greatly reduced the incidence of haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn due to immune anti-D...
January 19, 2017: Transfusion Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101432/atypical-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-in-first-trimester-pregnancy-successfully-treated-with-eculizumab
#16
Gabriela Andries, Michael Karass, Srikanth Yandrapalli, Katherine Linder, Delong Liu, John Nelson, Rahul Pawar, Savneek Chugh
BACKGROUND: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is a rare disorder which is known to cause acute thrombotic microangiopathy during pregnancy with poor maternal and fetal outcomes. Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is caused mostly by dysregulation of alternative complement pathway secondary to genetic mutations. Most of the cases reported have been in the post-partum period. We report a rare case of a patient who presents with thrombotic microangiopathy in the first trimester of her eleventh pregnancy and was successfully treated with eculizumab...
2017: Experimental Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100972/unrepaired-tetralogy-of-fallot-with-absent-pulmonary-valve-in-a-mildly-symptomatic-16-year-old-boy
#17
Diana E Drogalis-Kim, Brian L Reemtsen, Leigh Christopher Reardon
Absent pulmonary valve is a rare and severe variant seen in only 3% to 6% of patients with tetralogy of Fallot. Fetuses with this combined condition who survive through birth typically need intervention in infancy or early childhood because of respiratory distress, heart failure, or failure to thrive. We describe the unusual case of a mildly symptomatic 16-year-old boy with these conditions who underwent successful primary repair. Our search of the medical literature yielded fewer than 5 cases of tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve (or variants with an absent left pulmonary artery) and survival without repair into later adolescence or adulthood...
December 2016: Texas Heart Institute Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100476/chronic-anemic-hypoxemia-attenuates-glucose-stimulated-insulin-secretion-in-fetal-sheep
#18
Joshua S Benjamin, Christine B Culpepper, Laura D Brown, Stephanie R Wesolowski, Sonnet S Jonker, Melissa Ann Davis, Sean W Limesand, Randall B Wilkening, William W Hay, Paul J Rozance
Fetal insulin secretion is inhibited by acute hypoxemia. The relationship between prolonged hypoxemia and insulin secretion, however, is less well defined. To test the hypothesis that prolonged fetal hypoxemia impairs insulin secretion, studies were performed in sheep fetuses that were bled to anemic conditions for 9 ± 0 days (anemic, n=19) and compared to control fetuses (n=15). Arterial hematocrit and oxygen content were 34% and 52% lower, respectively, in anemic vs. control fetuses (P<0.0001). Plasma glucose concentrations were 21% higher in the anemic group (P<0...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100412/virome-of-us-bovine-calf-serum
#19
Mohammadreza Sadeghi, Beatrix Kapusinszky, Danielle M Yugo, Tung Gia Phan, Xutao Deng, Isis Kanevsky, Tanja Opriessnig, Amelia R Woolums, David J Hurley, Xiang-Jin Meng, Eric Delwart
Using viral metagenomics we analyzed four bovine serum pools assembled from 715 calves in the United States. Two parvoviruses, bovine parvovirus 2 (BPV2) and a previously uncharacterized parvovirus designated as bosavirus (BosaV), were detected in 3 and 4 pools respectively and their complete coding sequences generated. Based on NS1 protein identity, bosavirus qualifies as a member of a new species in the copiparvovirus genus. Also detected were low number of reads matching ungulate tetraparvovirus 2, bovine hepacivirus, and several papillomaviruses...
January 15, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100316/optimizing-nutrition-of-the-preterm-infant
#20
William W Jr Hay
The goal of nutrition of the preterm infant is to meet the growth rate of the healthy fetus of the same gestational age and to produce the same body composition of the healthy fetus in terms of organ growth, tissue components, and cell number and structure. Nutritional quantity and quality are fundamental for normal growth and development of preterm infants, including neurodevelopmental outcomes. Failure to provide the necessary amounts of all of the essential nutrients has produced not only growth failure, but also increased morbidity and less than optimal neurodevelopment...
January 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
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