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lung valves

Olivier Castagna, Sébastien de Maistre, Bruno Schmid, Delphine Caudal, Jacques Regnard
In healthy divers, the occurrence of immersion pulmonary oedema (IPE) is commonly caused by contributory factors including strenuous exercise, cold water and negative-pressure breathing. Contrary to this established paradigm, this case reports on a 26-year-old, well-trained combat swimmer who succumbed to acute IPE during static immersion in temperate (21°C) water, while using a front-mounted counterlung rebreather. The incident occurred during repeated depth-controlled ascent practice at the French military diving school...
March 31, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Rafael Arboleda Salazar, Jane Heggie, Piotr Wolski, Eric Horlick, Mark Osten, Massimiliano Meineri
BACKGROUND: Twenty percent of patients born with congenital heart disease present with right ventricular outflow tract abnormalities. These patients require multiple surgical procedures in their lifetime. Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (TPVR) has become a viable alternative to conventional pulmonary valve and right ventricular outflow tract surgery in pediatric and adult populations. In this retrospective review, we analyze the perioperative management of adult patients who underwent TPVR in our center...
March 14, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Megumi Yazaki, Takehiko Oami, Kazuya Nakanishi, Ryota Hase, Hiroyuki Watanabe
Although vancomycin administration is recommended for the treatment of infective endocarditis (IE) caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), it is unclear whether an alternative agent, daptomycin, can be used to treat IE with pulmonary complications. A 26-year-old female who had undergone surgical repair of a ventricular septal defect as an early teenager presented with fever, headache, and vomiting. She was admitted to our hospital and diagnosed with right-sided IE with septic pulmonary embolism caused by MRSA...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Fabian Kording, Jin Yamamura, Manuela Tavares de Sousa, Christian Ruprecht, Erik Hedström, Anthony H Aletras, P Ellen Grant, Andrew J Powell, Kai Fehrs, Gerhard Adam, Hendrik Kooijman, Bjoern P Schoennagel
BACKGROUND: Fetal cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging may provide a valuable adjunct to fetal echocardiography in the evaluation of congenital cardiovascular pathologies. However, dynamic fetal CMR is difficult due to the lack of direct in-utero cardiac gating. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a newly developed Doppler ultrasound (DUS) device in humans for fetal CMR gating. METHODS: Fifteen fetuses (gestational age 30-39 weeks) were examined using 1...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Brianna J Shinn, Laura J Tafe, Pantila Vanichakarn
BACKGROUND Carcinoid tumor, benign, low-grade malignant, and high-grade malignant, can be associated with the release of vasoactive substances that cause symptoms including cutaneous flushing, diarrhea, and bronchospasm. In 50-60% of patients with carcinoid syndrome, the vasoactive substances cause fibrosis of the pulmonary and tricuspid heart valves which lead to regurgitation and right-sided heart failure. The right side of the heart is usually affected because monoamine oxidases in the lungs usually inactivate the vasoactive substances...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Marta Thio, Jennifer A Dawson, Kelly J Crossley, Timothy J Moss, Charles C Roehr, Graeme R Polglase, Peter G Davis, Stuart B Hooper
BACKGROUND: In neonatal resuscitation, a ventilation device providing positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is recommended. There is limited information about PEEP delivery in vivo, using different models of self-inflating bag (SIB) at different inflation rates and PEEP settings. METHODS: We compared PEEP delivery to intubated preterm lambs using four commonly available models of paired SIBs and PEEP valves, with a T-piece, with gas flow of 8 L/min. Peak inspiratory pressure inflations of 30 cmH2 O, combined with set PEEP of 5, 7 and 10 cmH2 O, were delivered at rates of 20, 40 and 60/min...
March 2, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Gabrielle Drevet, J M Maury, F Farhat, F Tronc
A 75 year old man presented with left upper lobe squamous cell carcinoma. Severe aortic stenosis has been discovered during preoperative assessment. In this situation, two therapeutic strategies are described: concomitant or two-staged procedures. The debate has not yet led to the conclusion on whether preferably performing one or the other. Furthermore, in an oncologic context, using cardiopulmonary bypass is still controversial. So, thoracic and cardiac surgeons jointly proposed to the patient a transcatheter aortic valve implantation followed, 72 h later, by lung cancer resection...
February 28, 2018: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Johan van der Merwe, Frank Van Praet, Bernard Stockman, Ivan Degrieck, Yvette Vermeulen, Filip Casselman
OBJECTIVES: This study reports the factors that contribute to sternotomy conversions (SCs) and adverse intraoperative events in minimally invasive aortic valve surgery (MI-AVS) and minimally invasive Endoscopic Port Access™ atrioventricular valve surgery (MI-PAS). METHODS: In total, 3780 consecutive patients with either aortic valve disease or atrioventricular valve disease underwent minimally invasive valve surgery (MIVS) at our institution between 1 February 1997 and 31 March 2016...
February 14, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Milad Kiaee, Herbert Wachtel, Michelle L Noga, Andrew R Martin, Warren H Finlay
The present work examines regional deposition within the nose for nasal sprays over a large and wide ranging parameter space by using numerical simulation. A set of seven realistic adult nasal airway geometries was defined based on Computed Tomography (CT) images. Deposition in six regions of each nasal airway geometry (the vestibule, valve, anterior turbinate, posterior turbinate, olfactory, and nasopharynx) was determined for varying particle diameter, spray cone angle, spray release direction, particle injection speed, and particle injection location...
February 17, 2018: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
Nilab Sarmand, Daniela Gompelmann, Konstantina Kontogianni, Markus Polke, Felix Jf Herth, Ralf Eberhardt
Background: Bronchoscopic valve implantation is an established treatment in selected patients with severe lung emphysema. There is evidence in literature of increased bacterial colonization of various implants. So far, it is unclear if an increased bacterial colonization can also be observed after endoscopic valve therapy. Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients with examination of the bronchial secretions for presence or change of bacterial growth before and after valve implantation...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Iván R Caviedes, Gonzalo Labarca, Hugo G de Oliveira, Felix J F Herth, Sebastián Fernandez-Bussy
Endoscopic lung volume reduction is a minimally invasive procedure performed to reduce the space occupied by the emphysemas' lobes. This procedure has been demonstrated to be beneficial for patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and severe hyperinflation. The use of endobronchial valves is increasing, as well as the number of reports of adverse events. The most common complications after the procedure are a pneumothorax, bleeding, infections, the need for valve removal, and valve expulsion...
February 14, 2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
D Gompelmann, K Kontogianni, M Schuhmann, R Eberhardt, C P Heussel, F J Herth
Objective: Endoscopic valve therapy aims at target lobe volume reduction (TLVR) that is associated with improved lung function, exercise tolerance and quality of life in emphysema patients. So far, a TLVR of >350 mL was considered to be indicative of a positive response to treatment. However, it is not really known what amount of TLVR is crucial following valve implantation. Patients and methods: TLVR, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ), residual volume (RV) and 6-minute walk distance (6-MWD) were assessed before and 3 months after valve implantation in 119 patients...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Javier Flandes, Francisco J Soto, Rosa Cordovilla, Enrique Cases, Javier Alfayate
Since the publication of the National Emphysema Treatment Trial study, lung volume reduction (LVR) has been considered a therapeutic alternative for patients with advanced obstructive lung disease. The high complication rate of surgical LVR has led to the development of bronchoscopic LVR (BLVR). Of the currently available BLVR alternatives, coils and unidirectional endobronchial valves lead the list. The choice of each device depends on emphysema characteristics and presence of collateral ventilation. Evaluation of these patients at centers with expertise in interventional pulmonology and management of BLVR is strongly recommended...
March 2018: Clinics in Chest Medicine
Damien J LaPar, Donald S Likosky, Min Zhang, Patty Theurer, C Edwin Fonner, John A Kern, Stephen F Bolling, Daniel H Drake, Alan M Speir, Jeffrey B Rich, Irving L Kron, Richard L Prager, Gorav Ailawadi
BACKGROUND: While tricuspid valve (TV) operations remain associated with high mortality (∼8-10%), no robust prediction models exist to support clinical decision-making. We developed a preoperative clinical risk model with an easily calculable clinical risk score (CRS) to predict mortality and major morbidity after isolated TV surgery. METHODS: Multi-state Society of Thoracic Surgeons database records were evaluated for 2,050 isolated TV repair and replacement operations for any etiology performed at 50 hospitals (2002-2014)...
February 1, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Nikolas Lessmann, Bram van Ginneken, Majd Zreik, Pim A de Jong, Bob D de Vos, Max A Viergever, Ivana Isgum
Heavy smokers undergoing screening with low-dose chest CT are affected by cardiovascular disease as much as by lung cancer. Low-dose chest CT scans acquired in screening enable quantification of atherosclerotic calcifications and thus enable identification of subjects at increased cardiovascular risk. This paper presents a method for automatic detection of coronary artery, thoracic aorta, and cardiac valve calcifications in low-dose chest CT using two consecutive convolutional neural networks. The first network identifies and labels potential calcifications according to their anatomical location and the second network identifies true calcifications among the detected candidates...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
J Matthew Reinersman, Mark S Allen, Shanda H Blackmon, Stephen D Cassivi, Francis C Nichols, Dennis A Wigle, K Robert Shen
BACKGROUND: Persistent air leak can complicate pulmonary resection, and one management option is dismissal with a chest tube in place. This study evaluated the rate of empyema and readmission after dismissal with a chest tube. METHODS: A retrospective review of our prospective database from January 2004 to December 2013 identified 236 patients who were discharged from our institution with an indwelling chest tube and attached one-way valve for air leak. Empyema was defined by leukocytosis or fever and undrained effusion on chest roentgenogram or computed tomography...
February 1, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Allison K Cabalka, Jeremy D Asnes, David T Balzer, John P Cheatham, Matthew J Gillespie, Thomas K Jones, Henri Justino, Dennis W Kim, Te-Hsin Lung, Daniel R Turner, Doff B McElhinney
BACKGROUND: Stented bioprosthetic valves (BPVs) are commonly used for surgical pulmonary valve (PV) replacement in postoperative congenital heart disease, but develop structural failure in a time-related fashion. The Melody transcatheter PV (TPV) (Medtronic, Minneapolis, Minn) has been used to treat BPV dysfunction, but there have been few studies in this population. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, multicenter study to evaluate Melody valve function in patients who underwent TPV replacement (TPVR) into a dysfunctional pulmonary BPV...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Hongwei Zhu, Qingrong Huang, Xiaoliang Hu, Wenhui Chu, Jianlong Zhang, Linlin Jiang, Xin Yu, Xingxiao Zhang, Shipeng Cheng
BACKGROUND: Caprine herpesvirus 2 (CpHV-2) infection usually induces chronic malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in sika deer (Cervus nippon), with the primary signs of weight loss, dermatitis and alopecia. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report a case of CpHV-2-associated acute MCF in a sika deer herd raised in an intensive management system distant to the reservoir goats. Affected deer developed clinical signs of high fever (41 °C) followed by nasal discharge and lameness...
February 1, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Daniel Bos, Maarten J G Leening
Non-contrast cardiac computed tomography in order to obtain the coronary artery calcium score has become an established diagnostic procedure in the clinical setting, and is commonly employed in clinical and population-based research. This state-of-the-art review paper highlights the potential gain in information that can be obtained from the non-contrast coronary calcium scans without any necessary modifications to the scan protocol. This includes markers of cardio-metabolic health, such as the amount of epicardial fat and liver fat, but also markers of general health including bone density and lung density...
January 30, 2018: European Radiology
Yuki Obayashi, Chisato Izumi, Yoshihisa Nakagawa
CLINICAL INTRODUCTION: A man in his 50s with sudden-onset chest pain and dyspnoea was transferred to the emergency room. He had a history of aortic valve replacement due to aortic regurgitation with a mechanical valve 6 years previously. Heart rate was 90 bpm, and blood pressure was too low to measure. In the emergency room, he presented with severe dyspnoea and a chest X-ray showed severe lung congestion (figure 1A). ECG showed complete left bundle branch block. His respiratory status rapidly worsened, and he went into cardiopulmonary arrest...
January 30, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
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