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Cardiac steatosis

Louise Barbier, Manuela Cesaretti, Federica Dondero, François Cauchy, Linda Khoy-Ear, Takeshi Aoyagi, Emmanuel Weiss, Olivier Roux, Safi Dokmak, Claire Francoz, Catherine Paugam-Burtz, Ailton Sepulveda, Jacques Belghiti, François Durand, Olivier Soubrane
BACKGROUND: Older liver grafts have been considered in the past decade due to organ shortage. The aim was to compare outcomes after liver transplantation with either younger or older donors. METHODS: Patients transplanted in our center between 2004 and 2014 with younger donors (younger than 60 years; n = 253) were compared with older donors (older than 75 years; n = 157). Multiorgan transplantations, split grafts, or non-heart-beating donors were not included. RESULTS: Donors in the older group were mostly women deceased from stroke, and only 3 patients had experienced cardiac arrest...
November 2016: Transplantation
Wen-Jin Zhang, Wei-Liang Xia, Hui-Yun Pan, Shu-Sen Zheng
BACKGROUND: With the increasing use of donation after cardiac death (DCD), especially of the graft liver with steatosis or other pathological changes, the frequency of postreperfusion hyperkalemia in liver transplantation has increased significantly. The present study aimed to determine the factors associated with developing postreperfusion hyperkalemia in liver transplantation from DCD. METHODS: One hundred thirty-one consecutive adult patients who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation from DCD were retrospectively studied...
October 2016: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
Xiaodong Yang, John Mudgett, Ghina Bou-About, Marie-France Champy, Hugues Jacobs, Laurent Monassier, Guillaume Pavlovic, Tania Sorg, Yann Herault, Benoit Petit-Demouliere, Ku Lu, Wen Feng, Hongwu Wang, Li-Jun Ma, Roger Askew, Mark D Erion, David E Kelley, Robert W Myers, Cai Li, Hong-Ping Guan
Mutations of AMPKγ2 subunit, N488I (AMPKγ2NI) and R531G (AMPKγ2RG), are associated with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome, a cardiac disorder characterized by ventricular pre-excitation in humans. Cardiac-specific transgenic overexpression of human AMPKγ2NI or AMPKγ2RG leads to constitutive AMPK activation and the WPW phenotype in mice. However, overexpression of these mutant proteins also caused profound, non-physiological increase in cardiac glycogen, which might abnormally alter the true phenotype...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Eleonora Scorletti, Christopher D Byrne
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of liver diseases from simple steatosis with hepatic lipid accumulation to end-stage liver disease with decompensated cirrhosis, liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. Recent data from the USA showed that in 2013, NAFLD was the second most frequent indication for liver transplantation behind hepatitis C. Since there are now effective treatments for hepatitis C and there is currently no licensed treatment for NAFLD, it has been predicted that over the next 10-15 years, NAFLD will replace hepatitis C as the most frequent indication for liver transplantation...
2016: Digestive Diseases
Rohini Mehta, Munkzhul Otgonsuren, Zahra Younoszai, Hussain Allawi, Bryan Raybuck, Zobair Younossi
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease (CAD) is the cardiac manifestation of metabolic syndrome. NAFLD is strongly linked to CAD and hepatic steatosis is an independent risk factor for CAD and cardiac mortality. The pathogenic mechanism underlying this association remains poorly understood. In this study, we explored expression of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in patients with NAFLD and associated CAD...
2016: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
Sarmad Said, Debabrata Mukherjee, Thomas F Whayne
Cardiovascular (CV) disease is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in the presence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Classifications and treatment of the MetS have recently been redefined. While the majority of the cardiac components such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM) and dyslipidemia are objectively measurable elements, a few disparities among the definitions have to be considered that can variably modify diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Noncardiac factors such as liver disease (including, but not limited to, alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatosis/hepatitis), renal disease, severe obesity, polycystic ovarian syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea, may have independent or synergistic relationship with complementary cardiac MetS elements, and these additional risk factors may have an incremental adverse impact on CV outcome...
July 22, 2016: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Eylem Levelt, Michael Pavlides, Rajarshi Banerjee, Masliza Mahmod, Catherine Kelly, Joanna Sellwood, Rina Ariga, Sheena Thomas, Jane Francis, Christopher Rodgers, William Clarke, Nikant Sabharwal, Charalambos Antoniades, Jurgen Schneider, Matthew Robson, Kieran Clarke, Theodoros Karamitsos, Oliver Rider, Stefan Neubauer
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity are associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiomyopathy, and cardiovascular mortality. Both show stronger links between ectopic and visceral fat deposition, and an increased cardiometabolic risk compared with subcutaneous fat. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether lean patients (Ln) with T2D exhibit increased ectopic and visceral fat deposition and whether these are linked to cardiac and hepatic changes...
July 5, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Tomasz Bednarski, Aleksandra Pyrkowska, Agnieszka Opasińska, Paweł Dobrzyń
The heart has a limited capacity for lipogenesis and de novo lipid synthesis. However, expression of lipogenic genes in cardiomyocytes is unexpectedly high. Recent studies showed that lipogenic genes are important factors regulating cardiac metabolism and function. Long chain fatty acids are a major source of ATP required for proper heart function, and under aerobic conditions, the heart derives 60-90% of the energy necessary for contractile function from fatty acid oxidation. On the other hand, cardiac lipid over-accumulation (e...
2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Carrie Down, Natasha Mehta, Kristen Marks
BACKGROUND: Coinfection with HIV/HCV is associated with more severe liver disease, including increased frequency of steatosis and significant fibrosis, compared to patients mono-infected with HCV or HIV. We sought to explore the impact of steatosis on cardiovascular disease (CVD), liver-related outcomes, and survival. METHODS: An IRB-approved, single-center retrospective cohort study was undertaken to analyze 10-year clinical outcomes in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients...
September 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Mohamed Gharib, Huan Tao, Thomas V Fungwe, Tahar Hajri
RATIONALE: Obesity is often associated with a state of oxidative stress and increased lipid deposition in the heart. More importantly, obesity increases lipid influx into the heart and induces excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to cell toxicity and metabolic dysfunction. Cluster differentiating 36 (CD36) protein is highly expressed in the heart and regulates lipid utilization but its role in obesity-associated oxidative stress is still not clear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of CD36 deficiency on cardiac steatosis, oxidative stress and lipotoxicity associated with obesity...
2016: PloS One
A M Quintieri, E Filice, D Amelio, T Pasqua, F R Lupi, F Scavello, P Cantafio, C Rocca, A Lauria, C Penna, B De Cindio, M C Cerra, T Angelone
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity is often associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. The food industry and the associated research activities focus on formulating products that are a perfect mix between an adequate fat content and health. We evaluated whether a diet enriched with Bio-Oil Spread (SD), an olive oil-based innovative food, is cardioprotective in the presence of high-fat diet (HFD)-dependent obesity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Rats were fed for 16 weeks with normolipidic diet (ND; fat: 6...
July 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Csaba Matyas, Zoltan V Varga, Partha Mukhopadhyay, Janos Paloczi, Tamas Lajtos, Katalin Erdelyi, Balazs T Nemeth, Mintong Nan, Gyorgy Hasko, Bin Gao, Pal Pacher
Alcoholic cardiomyopathy in humans develops in response to chronic excessive alcohol consumption; however, good models of alcohol-induced cardiomyopathy in mice are lacking. Herein we describe mouse models of alcoholic cardiomyopathies induced by chronic and binge ethanol (EtOH) feeding and characterize detailed hemodynamic alterations, mitochondrial function, and redox signaling in these models. Mice were fed a liquid diet containing 5% EtOH for 10, 20, and 40 days (d) combined with single or multiple EtOH binges (5 g/kg body wt)...
June 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Yingmei Zhang, Jun Ren
Uncorrected obesity has been associated with cardiac hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction. Several mechanisms for this cardiomyopathy have been identified, including oxidative stress, autophagy, adrenergic and renin-angiotensin aldosterone overflow. Another process that may regulate effects of obesity is epigenetics, which refers to the heritable alterations in gene expression or cellular phenotype that are not encoded on the DNA sequence. Advances in epigenome profiling have greatly improved the understanding of the epigenome in obesity, where environmental exposures during early life result in an increased health risk later on in life...
May 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Shirin Elizabeth Khorsandi, Vincent S Yip, Miriam Cortes, Wayel Jassem, Alberto Quaglia, John O'Grady, Michael Heneghan, Varuna Aluvihare, Kosh Agarwal, Krishna Menon, Hector Vilca-Melendez, Andreas Prachalias, Parthi Srinivasan, Abid Suddle, Mohamed Rela, Nigel Heaton
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular cancer (HCC) is an established indication for liver transplantation. This group is often allocated a donor after cardiac death (DCD) liver as a solution for waiting times. There are concerns that this approach may oncologically disadvantage HCC recipients. The aim of this study was to determine whether DCD transplantation was associated with poorer cancer-related survival in HCC. METHODS: Study population was from a single institute (2001-2014) with an HCC listing diagnosis...
September 2016: Transplantation
Evgin Goceri, Zarine K Shah, Rick Layman, Xia Jiang, Metin N Gurcan
Fat accumulation in the liver causes metabolic diseases such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes or dyslipidemia by affecting insulin resistance, and increasing the risk of cardiac complications and cardiovascular disease mortality. Fatty liver diseases are often reversible in their early stage; therefore, there is a recognized need to detect their presence and to assess its severity to recognize fat-related functional abnormalities in the liver. This is crucial in evaluating living liver donors prior to transplantation because fat content in the liver can change liver regeneration in the recipient and donor...
April 1, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
María E Cabalén, María F Cabral, Liliana M Sanmarco, Marta C Andrada, Luisina I Onofrio, Nicolás E Ponce, María P Aoki, Susana Gea, Roxana C Cano
Chronic obesity and Chagas disease (caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi) represent serious public health concerns. The interrelation between parasite infection, adipose tissue, immune system and metabolism in an obesogenic context, has not been entirely explored. A novel diet-induced obesity model (DIO) was developed in C57BL/6 wild type mice to examine the effect of chronic infection (DIO+I) on metabolic parameters and on obesity-related disorders. Dyslipidemia, hyperleptinemia, and cardiac/hepatic steatosis were strongly developed in DIO mice...
March 22, 2016: Oncotarget
Dianna L Ng, Farida Al Hosani, M Kelly Keating, Susan I Gerber, Tara L Jones, Maureen G Metcalfe, Suxiang Tong, Ying Tao, Negar N Alami, Lia M Haynes, Mowafaq Ali Mutei, Laila Abdel-Wareth, Timothy M Uyeki, David L Swerdlow, Maha Barakat, Sherif R Zaki
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection causes an acute respiratory illness and is associated with a high case fatality rate; however, the pathogenesis of severe and fatal MERS-CoV infection is unknown. We describe the histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural findings from the first autopsy performed on a fatal case of MERS-CoV in the world, which was related to a hospital outbreak in the United Arab Emirates in April 2014. The main histopathologic finding in the lungs was diffuse alveolar damage...
March 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Balázs Nemes, György Gámán, Wojciech G Polak, Fanni Gelley, Takanobu Hara, Shinichiro Ono, Zhassulan Baimakhanov, Laszlo Piros, Susumu Eguchi
The definition and factors of extended criteria donors have already been set; however, details of the various opinions still differ in many respects. In this review, we summarize the impact of these factors and their clinical relevance. Elderly livers must not be allocated for hepatitis C virus (HCV) positives, or patients with acute liver failure. In cases of markedly increased serum transaminases, donor hemodynamics is an essential consideration. A prolonged hypotension of the donor does not always lead to an increase in post-transplantation graft loss if post-OLT care is proper...
July 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Balázs Nemes, György Gámán, Wojciech G Polak, Fanni Gelley, Takanobu Hara, Shinichiro Ono, Zhassulan Baimakhanov, Laszlo Piros, Susumu Eguchi
Extended-criteria donors (ECDs) have an impact on early allograft dysfunction (EAD), biliary complications, relapse of hepatitis C virus (HCV), and survivals. Early allograft dysfunction was frequently seen in grafts with moderate and severe steatosis. Donors after cardiac death (DCD) have been associated with higher rates of graft failure and biliary complications compared to donors after brain death. Extended warm ischemia, reperfusion injury and endothelial activation trigger a cascade, leading to microvascular thrombosis, resulting in biliary necrosis, cholangitis, and graft failure...
July 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Kathleen Jacobs, Sharon Brouha, Ricki Bettencourt, Elizabeth Barrett-Connor, Claude Sirlin, Rohit Loomba
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is related closely to risk factors for coronary artery disease, but it is unclear whether NAFLD independently contributes to atherosclerosis. We investigated the association between NAFLD and coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores, determined based on noncontrast cardiac computed tomography data, in an elderly cohort. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal, cross-sectional study of data from 250 participants (mean age, 67...
September 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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