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Structures of membrane protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535337/overall-structural-model-of-ns5a-protein-from-hepatitis-c-virus-and-modulation-by-mutations-confering-resistance-of-virus-replication-to-cyclosporin-a
#1
Aurelie Badillo, Veronique Brechot, Stephane Sarrazin, François-Xavier Cantrelle, Frederic Delolme, Marie-Laure Fogeron, Jennifer Molle, Roland Montserret, Anja Bockmann, Ralf Bartenschlager, Volker Lohmann, Guy Lippens, Sylvie Ricard-Blum, Xavier Hanoulle, Francois Penin
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) is a RNA-binding phosphoprotein composed of a N-terminal membrane anchor (AH), a structured domain 1 (D1) and two intrinsically disordered domains (D2 and D3). The knowledge of the functional architecture of this multifunctional protein remains limited. We report here that NS5A-D1D2D3 produced in a wheat germ cell-free system is obtained under a highly phosphorylated state. Its NMR analysis revealed that these phosphorylations do not change the disordered nature of D2 and D3 domains but increase the number of conformers due to partial phosphorylations...
May 23, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535035/fabrication-of-anti-biofouling-plasma-filtration-membrane-by-electrospinning-process-using-photo-crosslinkable-zwitterionic-phospholipid-polymers
#2
Jiae Seo, Ji-Hun Seo
The goal of this study is to fabricate a stable plasma filtration membrane with anti-biofouling properties via an electrospinning process. To this end, a random-type copolymer consisting of zwitterionic phosphorylcholine (PC) groups and ultraviolet (UV)-crosslinkable phenyl azide groups was synthesized. The zwitterionic PC group provides anti-biofouling properties, and the phenyl azide group enables the stable maintenance of the fibrous nanostructure of hydrophilic zwitterion polymers in aqueous medium via a simple UV curing process...
May 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534960/cellular-na-handling-mechanisms-involved-in-airway-smooth-muscle-contraction-review
#3
Bettina Sommer, Edgar Flores-Soto, Georgina Gonzalez-Avila
A decrease in bronchial diameter is designated as bronchoconstriction (BC) and impedes the flow of air through the airway. Asthma is characterized by inflammation of the airways, reversible BC and nonspecific hyperreactivity. These last two symptoms are dependent on airway smooth muscle. Stimuli that trigger contraction can be characterized as chemical (neurotransmitters, cytokines and terpenoids) and physical (volume inspired, air pressure). Both stimuli activate signaling pathways by acting on membrane proteins and facilitating the passage of ions through the membrane, generating a voltage change and a subsequent depolarization...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534849/evaluation-and-comparison-of-the-pathogenicity-and-host-immune-responses-induced-by-a-g2b-taiwan-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-strain-pintung-52-and-its-highly-cell-culture-passaged-strain-in-conventional-5-week-old-pigs
#4
Yen-Chen Chang, Chi-Fei Kao, Chia-Yu Chang, Chian-Ren Jeng, Pei-Shiue Tsai, Victor Fei Pang, Hue-Ying Chiou, Ju-Yi Peng, Ivan-Chen Cheng, Hui-Wen Chang
A genogroup 2b (G2b) porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) Taiwan Pintung 52 (PEDVPT) strain was isolated in 2014. The pathogenicity and host antibody responses elicited by low-passage (passage 5; PEDVPT-P5) and high-passage (passage 96; PEDVPT-P96) PEDVPT strains were compared in post-weaning PEDV-seronegative pigs by oral inoculation. PEDVPT-P5-inoculation induced typical diarrhea during 1-9 days post inoculation with fecal viral shedding persisting for 26 days. Compared to PEDVPT-P5, PEDVPT-P96 inoculation induced none-to-mild diarrhea and lower, delayed fecal viral shedding...
May 19, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534650/functions-of-iqd-proteins-as-hubs-in-cellular-calcium-and-auxin-signaling-a-toolbox-for-shape-formation-and-tissue-specification-in-plants
#5
Katharina Bürstenbinder, Dipannita Mitra, Jakob Quegwer
Ca(2+) ions play pivotal roles as second messengers in intracellular signal transduction, and coordinate many biological processes. Changes in intracellular Ca(2+) levels are perceived by Ca(2+) sensors such as CaM/CML proteins, which transduce Ca(2+) signals into cellular responses by regulation of diverse target proteins. Insights into molecular functions of CaM targets are thus essential to understand the molecular and cellular basis of Ca(2+) signaling. During the last decade, IQD proteins emerged as the largest class of CaM targets in plants with mostly unknown functions...
May 23, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534479/efficient-protein-production-inspired-by-how-spiders-make-silk
#6
Nina Kronqvist, Médoune Sarr, Anton Lindqvist, Kerstin Nordling, Martins Otikovs, Luca Venturi, Barbara Pioselli, Pasi Purhonen, Michael Landreh, Henrik Biverstål, Zigmantas Toleikis, Lisa Sjöberg, Carol V Robinson, Nicola Pelizzi, Hans Jörnvall, Hans Hebert, Kristaps Jaudzems, Tore Curstedt, Anna Rising, Jan Johansson
Membrane proteins are targets of most available pharmaceuticals, but they are difficult to produce recombinantly, like many other aggregation-prone proteins. Spiders can produce silk proteins at huge concentrations by sequestering their aggregation-prone regions in micellar structures, where the very soluble N-terminal domain (NT) forms the shell. We hypothesize that fusion to NT could similarly solubilize non-spidroin proteins, and design a charge-reversed mutant (NT*) that is pH insensitive, stabilized and hypersoluble compared to wild-type NT...
May 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534368/study-on-the-molecular-mechanism-of-rac3-on-regulating-autophagy-in-human-lung-cancer-cells
#7
Xuyang Xiao, Gebang Wang, Hongxu Liu
PURPOSE: Rac3 plays an important role in regulating tumorigenesis. Autophagy plays a vital role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. The relationship between the two remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to determine the specific molecular mechanism of intracellular Rac3 in regulating autophagy and reveal the relationship between tumor cell autophagy and apoptosis. METHODS: A laser confocal microscope was used to photograph the accumulated EGFP-MAP1LC3 spots for investigating the relationship between Rac3 and autophagy at the cellular level...
March 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533415/mechanistic-insight-into-the-nucleus-vacuole-junction-based-on-the-vac8p-nvj1p-crystal-structure
#8
Hanbin Jeong, Jumi Park, Hye-In Kim, Miriam Lee, Young-Joon Ko, Sanghwa Lee, Youngsoo Jun, Changwook Lee
Formation of the nucleus-vacuole junction (NVJ) is mediated by direct interaction between the vacuolar protein Vac8p and the outer nuclear endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein Nvj1p. Herein we report the crystal structure of Vac8p bound to Nvj1p at 2.4-Å resolution. Vac8p comprises a flexibly connected N-terminal H1 helix followed by 12 armadillo repeats (ARMs) that form a right-handed superhelical structure. The extended 80-Å-long loop of Nvj1p specifically binds the highly conserved inner groove formed from ARM1-12 of Vac8p...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533092/thiol-reactive-drug-substrates-of-human-p-glycoprotein-label-the-same-sites-to-activate-atpase-activity-in-membranes-or-dodecyl-maltoside-detergent-micelles
#9
Tip W Loo, David M Clarke
P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) is an ABC drug pump that is clinically important because it is involved in multidrug resistance. Many studies have used purified P-gp in detergent (n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside; DM) micelles to map the locations of the drug-binding sites. A potential problem is that DM could be a substrate and affect binding of drugs to P-gp. To test whether DM was a substrate of P-gp, we used an assay involving drug-rescue of the immature 150 kDa misprocessed P-gp mutant (L1260A) to show that DM is not substrate...
May 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532212/soft-matter-in-lipid-protein-interactions
#10
Michael F Brown
Membrane lipids and cellular water (soft matter) are becoming increasingly recognized as key determinants of protein structure and function. Their influences can be ascribed to modulation of the bilayer properties or to specific binding and allosteric regulation of protein activity. In this review, we first consider hydrophobic matching of the intramembranous proteolipid boundary to explain the conformational changes and oligomeric states of proteins within the bilayer. Alternatively, membranes can be viewed as complex fluids, whose properties are linked to key biological functions...
May 22, 2017: Annual Review of Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532102/islet-encapsulated-implantable-composite-hollow-fiber-membrane-based-device-a-bioartificial-pancreas
#11
Rohit S Teotia, Sachin Kadam, Atul Kumar Singh, Surendra Kumar Verma, Ashutosh Bahulekar, Sujata Kanetkar, Jayesh Bellare
Islets from xeno-sources and islet like clusters derived from autologus stem cells have emerged as alternatives to cadaveric pancreas used for treatment of type 1 diabetes. However, the immuno-isolation of these islets from the host immune system suffers from the issue of biocompatibility and hypoxia. To overcome the issues of immunobarrier biocompatibility, we developed a Polysulfone (Psf)/TPGS composite hollow fiber membrane (HFM) using a hollow fiber spinning pilot plant specially developed for this purpose...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532078/enhancement-of-fibroblast-growing-on-the-mannosylated-surface-of-cellulose-membranes
#12
Simone Birkheur, Paula Cristina de Sousa Faria-Tischer, Cesar A Tischer, Elisângela Flávia Pimentel, Marcio Fronza, Denise Coutinho Endringer, Anna Paola Butera, Renato Márcio Ribeiro-Viana
Bacterial cellulose membrane is a biomaterial with high value in the biomedical field. Many groups have been making efforts to promote chemical modifications of its structure and, consequently, add new characteristics. Recently, our group has developed a methodology to insert monoester succinic acid in bacterial cellulose membrane without disrupting the microfibril network and bind a protein on it. Considering the role of carbohydrates in the molecular recognition process in biological events, we continued these studies by inserting covalently multiples copies of aryl monosaccharide to bacterial cellulose succinylated and to study the in vitro tissue compatibility using fibroblasts...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532052/poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-modification-via-surface-initiated-atom-transfer-radical-polymerization-with-bio-inspired-phosphorylcholine
#13
Liu He, Lei Huang, Songbai Zhang, Yuanwei Chen, Xianglin Luo
Bio-inspired phosphorylcholine modification on material surface has shown great promise in constructing biocompatible materials. In this study, poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC) was grown on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) surface in order to suppress protein adsorption and cells adhesion and to improve blood compatibility. The initiator for surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) was covalently tethered on PCL surface and then PMPC brushes with diverse graft amounts were grafted to PCL film...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529725/the-catalytic-function-of-cytochrome-p450-is-entwined-with-its-membrane-bound-nature
#14
REVIEW
Carlo Barnaba, Katherine Gentry, Nirupama Sumangala, Ayyalusamy Ramamoorthy
Cytochrome P450, a family of monooxygenase enzymes, is organized as a catalytic metabolon, which requires enzymatic partners as well as environmental factors that tune its complex dynamic. P450 and its reducing counterparts-cytochrome P450-reductase and cytochrome b 5 -are membrane-bound proteins located in the cytosolic side of the endoplasmic reticulum. They are believed to dynamically associate to form functional complexes. Increasing experimental evidence signifies the role(s) played by both protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions in P450 catalytic function and efficiency...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529698/seven-perspectives-on-gpcr-h-d-exchange-proteomics-methods
#15
Xi Zhang
Recent research shows surging interest to visualize human G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) dynamic structures using the bottom-up H/D-exchange (HDX) proteomics technology. This opinion article clarifies critical technical nuances and logical thinking behind the GPCR HDX proteomics method, to help scientists overcome cross-discipline pitfalls, and understand and reproduce the protocol at high quality. The 2010 89% HDX structural coverage of GPCR was achieved with both structural and analytical rigor. This article emphasizes systematically considering membrane protein structure stability and compatibility with chromatography and mass spectrometry (MS) throughout the pipeline, including the effects of metal ions, zero-detergent shock, and freeze-thaws on HDX result rigor...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529197/applications-of-nmr-to-membrane-proteins
#16
Stanley J Opella, Francesca M Marassi
Membrane proteins present a challenge for structural biology. In this article, we review some of the recent developments that advance the application of NMR to membrane proteins, with emphasis on structural studies in detergent-free, lipid bilayer samples that resemble the native environment. NMR spectroscopy is not only ideally suited for structure determination of membrane proteins in hydrated lipid bilayer membranes, but also highly complementary to the other principal techniques based on X-ray and electron diffraction...
May 18, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528968/amylin-and-its-g-protein-coupled-receptor-a-probable-pathological-process-and-drug-target-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
Wei Qiao Qiu
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are shown to be involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. However, because GPCRs include a large family of membrane receptors, it is unclear which specific GPCR or pathway with rational ligands can become effective therapeutic targets for AD. Amylin receptor (AmR) is a GPCR that mediates several activities, such as improving glucose metabolism, relaxing cerebrovascular structure, modulating inflammatory reactions and potentially enhancing neural regeneration. Recent studies show that peripheral treatments with amylin or its clinical analog, pramlintide, reduced several components of AD pathology, including amyloid plaques, tauopathy, neuroinflammation and other components in the brain, corresponding with improved learning and memory in AD mouse models...
May 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528863/cross-linking-of-a-biopolymer-peptide-co-assembling-system
#18
Karla E Inostroza-Brito, Estelle C Collin, Anna Poliniewicz, Sherif Elsharkawy, Alistair Rice, Armando E Del Río Hernández, Xin Xiao, José Rodríguez-Cabello, Alvaro Mata
The ability to guide molecular self-assembly at the nanoscale into complex macroscopic structures could enable the development of functional synthetic materials that exhibit properties of natural tissues such as hierarchy, adaptability, and self-healing. However, the stability and structural integrity of these kinds of materials remains a challenge for many practical applications. We have recently developed a dynamic biopolymer-peptide co-assembly system with the capacity to grow and undergo morphogenesis into complex shapes...
May 18, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528444/assembly-and-egress-of-an-alphaherpesvirus-clockwork
#19
Gregory A Smith
All viruses produce infectious particles that possess some degree of stability in the extracellular environment yet disassemble upon cell contact and entry. For the alphaherpesviruses, which include many neuroinvasive viruses of mammals, these metastable virions consist of an icosahedral capsid surrounded by a protein matrix (referred to as the tegument) and a lipid envelope studded with glycoproteins. Whereas the capsid of these viruses is a rigid structure encasing the DNA genome, the tegument and envelope are dynamic assemblies that orchestrate a sequential series of events that ends with the delivery of the genome into the nucleus...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528442/herpesvirus-capsid-assembly-and-dna-packaging
#20
Jason D Heming, James F Conway, Fred L Homa
Herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) is the causative agent of several pathologies ranging in severity from the common cold sore to life-threatening encephalitic infection. During productive lytic infection, over 80 viral proteins are expressed in a highly regulated manner, resulting in the replication of viral genomes and assembly of progeny virions. The virion of all herpesviruses consists of an external membrane envelope, a proteinaceous layer called the tegument, and an icosahedral capsid containing the double-stranded linear DNA genome...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
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