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Structures of membrane protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224013/response-of-renal-podocytes-to-excessive-hydrostatic-pressure-a-pathophysiologic-cascade-in-a-malignant-hypertension-model
#1
Ramzia Abu Hamad, Sylvia Berman, Yafit Hachmo, Moshe Stark, Fadia Hasan, Keren Doenyas-Barak, Shai Efrati
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Renal injuries induced by increased intra-glomerular pressure coincide with podocyte detachment from the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). In previous studies, it was demonstrated that mesangial cells have a crucial role in the pathogenesis of malignant hypertension. However, the exact pathophysiological cascade responsible for podocyte detachment and its relationship with mesangial cells has not been fully elucidated yet and this was the aim of the current study. METHODS: Rat renal mesangial or podocytes were exposed to high hydrostatic pressure in an in-vitro model of malignant hypertension...
December 7, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223157/self-organization-of-recombinant-membrane-porin-ompf-from-yersinia-pseudotuberculosis-in-aqueous-environments
#2
E V Sidorin, V A Khomenko, N Yu Kim, P S Dmitrenok, A M Stenkova, O D Novikova, T F Solov'eva
Recombinant porin OmpF (an integral protein of bacterial outer membrane) from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was synthesized in Escherichia coli cells as inclusion bodies. By combining the methods of anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatographies, recombinant OmpF (rOmpF) was isolated as an individual protein in its denatured state, and its characteristic properties (molecular mass, N-terminal amino acid sequence, and hydrodynamic radius of the protein in 8 M urea solution) were determined. According to the data of gel filtration, dynamic light scattering, optical spectroscopy, and binding of the hydrophobic fluorescent probe 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid, the rOmpF is fully unfolded in 8 M urea and exists in random coil conformation...
November 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222765/cancer-driver-g-protein-coupled-receptor-gpcr-induced-%C3%AE-catenin-nuclear-localization-the-transcriptional-junction
#3
REVIEW
Jeetendra Kumar Nag, Tatyana Rudina, Myriam Maoz, Sorina Grisaru-Granovsky, Beatrice Uzieky, Rachel Bar-Shavit
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise the main signal-transmitting components in the cell membrane. Over the past several years, biochemical and structural analyses have immensely enhanced our knowledge of GPCR involvement in health and disease states. The present review focuses on GPCRs that are cancer drivers, involved in tumor growth and development. Our aim is to highlight the involvement of stabilized β-catenin molecular machinery with a specific array of GPCRs. We discuss recent advances in understanding the molecular path leading to β-catenin nuclear localization and transcriptional activity and their implications for future cancer therapy research...
December 8, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222644/membrane-shed-vesicles-from-the-parasite-trichomonas-vaginalis-characterization-and-their-association-with-cell-interaction
#4
Yesica R Nievas, Veronica M Coceres, Victor Midlej, Wanderley de Souza, Marlene Benchimol, Antonio Pereira-Neves, Ajay A Vashisht, James A Wohlschlegel, Patricia J Johnson, Natalia de Miguel
Trichomonas vaginalis is a common sexually transmitted parasite that colonizes the human urogenital tract, where it remains extracellular and adheres to epithelial cells. Infections range from asymptomatic to highly inflammatory, depending on the host and the parasite strain. Despite the serious consequences associated with trichomoniasis disease, little is known about parasite or host factors involved in attachment of the parasite-to-host epithelial cells. Here, we report the identification of microvesicle-like structures (MVs) released by T...
December 8, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222488/different-carotenoid-conformations-have-distinct-functions-in-light-harvesting-regulation-in-plants
#5
Nicoletta Liguori, Pengqi Xu, Ivo H M van Stokkum, Bart van Oort, Yinghong Lu, Daniel Karcher, Ralph Bock, Roberta Croce
To avoid photodamage plants regulate the amount of excitation energy in the membrane at the level of the light-harvesting complexes (LHCs). It has been proposed that the energy absorbed in excess is dissipated via protein conformational changes of individual LHCs. However, the exact quenching mechanism remains unclear. Here we study the mechanism of quenching in LHCs that bind a single carotenoid species and are constitutively in a dissipative conformation. Via femtosecond spectroscopy we resolve a number of carotenoid dark states, demonstrating that the carotenoid is bound to the complex in different conformations...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222402/elmod1-stimulates-arf6-gtp-hydrolysis-to-stabilize-apical-structures-in-developing-vestibular-hair-cells
#6
Jocelyn F Krey, Rachel A Dumont, Philip A Wilmarth, Larry L David, Kenneth R Johnson, Peter G Barr-Gillespie
Sensory hair cells require control of physical properties of their apical plasma membranes for normal development and function. Members of the ARF small GTPase family regulate membrane trafficking and cytoskeletal assembly in many cells. We identified ELMOD1, a guanine nucleoside triphosphatase activating protein (GAP) for ARF6, as the most highly enriched ARF regulator in hair cells. To characterize ELMOD1 control of trafficking, we analyzed mice of both sexes from a strain lacking functional ELMOD1 (roundabout; rda)...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222390/sodium-channel-remodeling-in-subcellular-microdomains-of-murine-failing-cardiomyocytes
#7
Mathilde R Rivaud, Esperanza Agullo-Pascual, Xianming Lin, Alejandra Leo-Macias, Mingliang Zhang, Eli Rothenberg, Connie R Bezzina, Mario Delmar, Carol Ann Remme
BACKGROUND: Cardiac sodium channel (NaV1.5) dysfunction contributes to arrhythmogenesis during pathophysiological conditions. Nav1.5 localizes to distinct subcellular microdomains within the cardiomyocyte, where it associates with region-specific proteins, yielding complexes whose function is location specific. We herein investigated sodium channel remodeling within distinct cardiomyocyte microdomains during heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice were subjected to 6 weeks of transverse aortic constriction (TAC; n=32) to induce heart failure...
December 8, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222109/marcks-related-protein-regulates-cytoskeletal-organization-at-cell-cell-and-cell-substrate-contacts-in-epithelial-cells
#8
Christina M Van Itallie, Amber Jean Tietgens, Angel Aponte, Marjan Gucek, Alexander X Cartagena-Rivera, Richard S Chadwick, James M Anderson
MARCKS-related protein (MRP) is tagged by biotin ligase fused to occludin and the level of tagging increases ∼20-fold following IFN/TNF treatment. GFP-MRP is focused at the lateral cell membrane and its overexpression potentiates the physiological response of the tight junction barrier to cytokines. However, deletion of MRP does not abrogate cytokine responses, suggesting that MRP is not required in the occludin-dependent IFN/TNF response. Instead, our results reveal a key role for MRP in epithelial cells in control of multiple actin-based structures, likely by regulation of integrin signaling...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221908/how-to-maintain-active-zone-integrity-during-high-frequency-transmission
#9
REVIEW
Niklas Byczkowicz, Andreas Ritzau-Jost, Igor Delvendahl, Stefan Hallermann
In the central nervous system, the frequency at which reliable synaptic transmission can be maintained varies strongly between different types of synapses. Several pre- and postsynaptic processes must interact to enable high-frequency synaptic transmission. One of the mechanistically most challenging issues arises during repetitive neurotransmitter release, when synaptic vesicles fuse in rapid sequence with the presynaptic plasma membrane within the active zone (AZ), potentially interfering with the structural integrity of the AZ itself...
December 5, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221906/presynaptic-active-zones-of-mammalian-neuromuscular-junctions-nanoarchitecture-and-selective-impairments-in-aging
#10
REVIEW
Yomna Badawi, Hiroshi Nishimune
Neurotransmitter release occurs at active zones, which are specialized regions of the presynaptic membrane. A dense collection of proteins at the active zone provides a platform for molecular interactions that promote recruitment, docking, and priming of synaptic vesicles. At mammalian neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), muscle-derived laminin β2 interacts with presynaptic voltage-gated calcium channels to organize active zones. The molecular architecture of presynaptic active zones has been revealed using super-resolution microscopy techniques that combine nanoscale resolution and multiple molecular identification...
December 5, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221796/synthesis-and-antibacterial-activity-of-new-peptides-from-alfalfa-rubisco-protein-hydrolysates-and-mode-of-action-via-a-membrane-damage-mechanism-against-listeria-innocua
#11
Sabrine Kobbi, Naima Nedjar, Nourdine Chihib, Rafik Balti, Mickael Chevalier, Amandine Silvain, Semia Chaabouni, Pascal Dhulster, Ali Bougatef
In this work we evaluated the mode of action of six new synthesized peptides (Met-Asp-Asn; Glu-leu-Ala-Ala-Ala-Cys; Leu-Arg-Asp-Asp-Phe; Gly-Asn-Ala-Pro-Gly-Ala-Val-Ala; Ala-Leu-Arg-Met-Ser-Gly and Arg-Asp-Arg-Phe-Leu), previously identified, from the most active peptide fractions of RuBisCO peptic hydrolysate against Listeria innocua via a membrane damage mechanism. Antibacterial effect and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of these peptides were evaluated against six strains and their hemolytic activities towards bovine erythrocytes were determined...
December 5, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220815/influence-of-fermentation-liquid-from-waste-activated-sludge-on-anoxic-oxic-membrane-bioreactor-performance-nitrogen-removal-membrane-fouling-and-microbial-community
#12
Xiaomeng Han, Zhen Zhou, Xiaojie Mei, Yan Ma, Zhenfang Xie
In order to investigate effects of waste activated sludge (WAS) fermentation liquid on anoxic/oxic- membrane bioreactor (A/O-MBR), two A/O-MBRs with and without WAS fermentation liquid addition were operated in parallel. Results show that addition of WAS fermentation liquid clearly improved denitrification efficiency without deterioration of nitrification, while severe membrane fouling occurred. WAS fermentation liquid resulted in an elevated production of proteins and humic acids in bound extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) and release of organic matter with high MW fractions in soluble microbial product (SMP) and loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS)...
December 2, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220155/superchiral-plasmonic-phase-sensitivity-for-fingerprinting-of-protein-interface-structure
#13
Ryan Tullius, Geoffrey W Platt, Larousse Khosravi Khorashad, Nikolaj Gadegaard, Adrian J Lapthorn, Vincent M Rotello, Graeme Cooke, Laurence D Barron, Alexander O Govorov, Affar Shahid Karimullah, Malcolm Kadodwala
The structure adopted by biomaterials, such as proteins, at interfaces is a crucial parameter in a range of important biological problems. It is a critical property in defining the functionality of cell / bacterial membranes, biofilms (i.e. in antibiotic resistant infections) and the exploitation of immobilised enzymes in biocatalysis. The intrinsically small quantities of materials at interfaces precludes the application of conventional spectroscopic phenomena routinely used for (bio)structural analysis due to a lack of sensitivity...
December 8, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219840/visible-light-induced-ag-bivo4-semiconductor-with-an-enhanced-photocatalytic-and-antibacterial-performances
#14
Chhabilal Regmi, Dipesh Dhakal, Soo Wohn Lee
Ag-loaded BiVO4 visible-light-driven photocatalyst was synthesized by microwave hydrothermal method followed by photodeposition. Photocatalytic performance of the synthesized samples were evaluated on the mixed dye (methylene blue and rhodamine B), as well as bisphenol A in aqueous solution. Similarly, the disinfection activities of synthesized samples towards the gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) a model cell were investigated under visible light irradiation condition (λ≥420 nm). The synthesized samples have monoclinic-scheelite structure...
December 8, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219316/from-the-promiscuous-asenapine-to-potent-fluorescent-ligands-acting-at-a-series-of-aminergic-g-protein-coupled-receptors
#15
Candide Hounsou, Corinne Baehr, Vincent Gasparik, Doria Alili, Abderazak Belhocine, Thiéric Rodriguez, Elodie Dupuis, Thomas Roux, André Mann, Denis Heissler, Jean-Philippe Pin, Thierry Durroux, Dominique Bonnet, Marcel Hibert
Monoamine neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, histamine and noradrenaline have important and varied physiological functions and similar chemical structures. Representing important pharmaceutical drug targets, the corresponding G protein coupled receptors (termed aminergic GPCRs) belong to the class of cell membrane receptors and share many levels of similarity as well. Given their pharmacological and structural closeness, one could hypothesize the possibility to derivatize a ubiquitous ligand to afford rapidly fluorescent probes for a large set of GPCRs to be used for instance in FRET-based binding assays...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219228/structure-and-function-of-yeast-and-fungal-na-h-antiporters
#16
REVIEW
Debajyoti Dutta, Larry Fliegel
Sodium proton antiporters (or sodium proton exchangers [NHEs]) are a critical family of membrane proteins that exchange sodium for protons across cell membranes. In yeast and plants, their primary function is to keep the sodium concentration low inside the cytoplasm. One class of NHE constitutively expressed in yeast is the plasma membrane Na+ /H+ antiporter, and another class is expressed on the endosomal/vacuolar membrane. At present, four bacterial plasma membrane antiporter structures are known and nuclear magnetic resonance structures are available for the membrane spanning transmembrane helices of mammalian and yeast NHEs...
December 8, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218561/applications-of-sans-to-study-membrane-protein-systems
#17
Frank Gabel
Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) is a powerful tool to obtain structural information on solubilized membrane proteins on the nanometer length-scale in complement to other structural biology techniques such as cryo-EM, NMR and SAXS. In combination with deuteration of components and/or contrast variation (H2O:D2O exchange in the buffer) SANS allows to separate structural information from the protein and the detergent/lipid parts in solution. After a short historical overview on results obtained by SANS on membrane protein systems, this book chapter introduces the basic theoretical principles of the technique as well as requirements on samples...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218515/screening-and-scale-up-of-glut-transporter-constructs-suitable-for-biochemical-and-structural-studies
#18
Grégory Verdon, Hae Joo Kang, David Drew
Identifying membrane proteins that can be produced and isolated in homogenous form in detergent is a lengthy trial-and-error process that can be facilitated by fluorescence-based screening approaches. We describe (1) the strategy and protocol of cloning by homologous recombination, (2) whole-cell and in-gel fluorescence measurements to estimate GLUT-GFP fusion protein yields, (3) use of size-exclusion chromatography monitored by fluorescence (FSEC) for assessing the homogeneity of the GLUT-GFP fusion proteins, and (4) the protocol for large-scale production and purification of the Bos taurus GLUT5 construct that enabled its crystal structure determination...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218514/crystallization-and-structural-determination-of-the-human-glucose-transporters-glut1-and-glut3
#19
Dong Deng, Nieng Yan
Overexpression, purification, and crystallization of eukaryotic membrane proteins represent a major challenge for structural biology. In recent years, we have solved the crystal structures of the human glucose transporters GLUT1 in the inward-open conformation at 3.17 Å resolution and GLUT3 in the outward-open and occluded conformations at 2.4 and 1.5 Å resolutions, respectively. Structural elucidation of these transporters in three distinct functional states reveal the molecular basis for the alternating access transport cycle of this prototypal solute carrier family...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218513/expression-and-purification-of-rat-glucose-transporter-1-in-pichia-pastoris
#20
Raminta Venskutonytė, Karin Elbing, Karin Lindkvist-Petersson
Large amounts of pure and homogenous protein are a prerequisite for several biochemical and biophysical analyses, and in particular if aiming at resolving the three-dimensional protein structure. Here we describe the production of the rat glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), a membrane protein facilitating the transport of glucose in cells. The protein is recombinantly expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. It is easily maintained and large-scale protein production in shaker flasks, as commonly performed in academic research laboratories, results in relatively high yields of membrane protein...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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