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Structures of membrane protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651421/-effects-of-change-in-the-activity-of-vacuolar-adenosine-triphosphatase-of-myocardial-lysosome-on-myocardial-damage-in-rats-after-severe-burn-and-its-mechanism
#1
X P Yan, D X Zhang, T T Yan, Q Zhang, J Z Jia, Y S Huang
Objective: To explore the effects of change of activity of vacuolar adenosine triphosphatase (V-ATPase) of myocardial lysosome on myocardial damage in rats after severe burn and its mechanism. Methods: The myocardial lysosomes were extracted from the hearts of 12 SD rats with ultra-high speed gradient density centrifugation, then Western blotting and transmission electron microscope observation were conducted for identification. One hundred and twenty rats were divided into pure burn group, ATP group, normal control group, and bafilomycin group according to the random number table, with 30 rats in each group...
May 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651204/iron-tannin-framework-complex-modified-pes-ultrafiltration-membranes-with-enhanced-filtration-performance-and-fouling-resistance
#2
Xiaofeng Fang, Jiansheng Li, Xin Li, Shunlong Pan, Xiuyun Sun, Jinyou Shen, Weiqing Han, Lianjun Wang, Bart Van der Bruggen
In this work, an iron-tannin-framework (ITF) complex was introduced to a poly (ether sulfone) (PES) casting solution as a hydrophilic additive to fabricate ITF/PES ultrafiltration (UF) membranes via non-solvent-induced phase separation (NIPS). The structure and performance of the PES membranes with ITF concentrations ranging from 0 to 0.9wt.% were systematically investigated by scanning electron microscopy, water contact angle, permeability, protein rejection and fouling resistance measurements. The results indicate that the pore structure and surface properties of PES UF membranes can be regulated by incorporating the ITF complex...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650638/identification-and-structure-activity-relationships-of-novel-compounds-that-potentiate-the-activities-of-antibiotics-in-escherichia-coli
#3
Keith M Haynes, Narges Abdali, Varsha Jhawar, Helen I Zgurskaya, Jerry M Parks, Adam T Green, Jerome Yves Baudry, Valentin V Rybenkov, Jeremy C Smith, John K Walker
In Gram-negative bacteria, efflux pumps are able to prevent effective cellular concentrations from being achieved for a number of antibiotics. Small molecule adjuvants that act as efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) have the potential to reinvigorate existing antibiotics that are currently ineffective due to efflux mechanisms. Through a combination of rigorous experimental screening and in silico virtual screening we recently identified novel classes of EPIs that interact with the membrane fusion protein AcrA, a critical component of the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump in E...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650463/type-vi-secretion-tssk-baseplate-protein-exhibits-structural-similarity-with-phage-receptor-binding-proteins-and-evolved-to-bind-the-membrane-complex
#4
Van Son Nguyen, Laureen Logger, Silvia Spinelli, Pierre Legrand, Thi Thanh Huyen Pham, Thi Trang Nhung Trinh, Yassine Cherrak, Abdelrahim Zoued, Aline Desmyter, Eric Durand, Alain Roussel, Christine Kellenberger, Eric Cascales, Christian Cambillau
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a multiprotein machine widespread in Gram-negative bacteria that delivers toxins into both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. The mechanism of action of the T6SS is comparable to that of contractile myophages. The T6SS builds a tail-like structure made of an inner tube wrapped by a sheath, assembled under an extended conformation. Contraction of the sheath propels the inner tube towards the target cell. The T6SS tail is assembled on a platform-the baseplate-which is functionally similar to bacteriophage baseplates...
June 26, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650461/a-light-and-calcium-gated-transcription-factor-for-imaging-and-manipulating-activated-neurons
#5
Wenjing Wang, Craig P Wildes, Tanyaporn Pattarabanjird, Mateo I Sanchez, Gordon F Glober, Gillian A Matthews, Kay M Tye, Alice Y Ting
Activity remodels neurons, altering their molecular, structural, and electrical characteristics. To enable the selective characterization and manipulation of these neurons, we present FLARE, an engineered transcription factor that drives expression of fluorescent proteins, opsins, and other genetically encoded tools only in the subset of neurons that experienced activity during a user-defined time window. FLARE senses the coincidence of elevated cytosolic calcium and externally applied blue light, which together produce translocation of a membrane-anchored transcription factor to the nucleus to drive expression of any transgene...
June 26, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650173/polymer-pen-lithography-with-lipids-for-large-area-gradient-patterns
#6
Ravi Kumar, Ainhoa Urtizberea, Souvik Ghosh, Uwe Bog, Quinn Rainer, Steven Lenhert, Harald Fuchs, Michael Hirtz
For many applications in the biomedical sector (especially for cell screening assays, guidance and migration experiments), gradient patterns comprising bioactive compounds over comparably (in regard to a cell size) large areas are key. Polymer pen lithography (PPL), as an inherent highly parallel and large area technique has a great potential to serve in the fabrication of such patterns. We present strategies for the printing of functional phospholipid patterns via PPL that provide tunable feature size and feature density gradients over surface areas of several square millimeters...
June 26, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650154/interrogating-detergent-desolvation-of-nanopore-forming-proteins-by-fluorescence-polarization-spectroscopy
#7
Aaron J Wolfe, Yi-Ching Hsueh, Adam R Blanden, Mohammad M Mohammad, Bach Pham, Avinash Kumar Thakur, Stewart N Loh, Min Chen, Liviu Movileanu
Understanding how membrane proteins interact with detergents is of fundamental and practical significance in structural and chemical biology as well as in nanobiotechnology. Current methods for inspecting protein-detergent complex (PDC) interfaces require high concentrations of protein and are of low throughput. Here, we describe a scalable, spectroscopic approach that uses nanomolar protein concentrations in native solutions. This approach, which is based on steady-state fluorescence polarization (FP) spectroscopy, kinetically resolves the dissociation of detergents from membrane proteins and protein unfolding...
June 26, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650050/bilayered-nanofibrous-3d-hierarchy-as-skin-rudiment-by-emulsion-electrospinning-for-burn-wound-management
#8
Pallabi Pal, Prabhash Dadhich, Pavan Kumar Srivas, Bodhisatwa Das, Dhrubajyoti Maulik, Santanu Dhara
Mimicking skin extracellular matrix hierarchy, the present work aims to develop a bilayer skin graft comprising a porous cotton-wool-like 3D layer with membranous structure of PCL-chitosan nanofibers. Emulsion electrospinning with differential stirring periods of PCL-chitosan emulsion results in development of a bilayer 3D structure with varied morphology. The electrospun membrane has fiber diameter ∼274 nm and pore size ∼1.16 μm while fluffy 3D layer has fiber diameter ∼1.62 μm and pore size ∼62 μm...
June 26, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649713/mechanistic-modeling-of-the-loss-of-protein-sieving-due-to-internal-and-external-fouling-of-microfilters
#9
Glen R Bolton, Alex J Apostolidis
Fed-batch and perfusion cell culture processes used to produce therapeutic proteins can utilize microfilters for product harvest. In this study, new explicit mathematical models of sieving loss due to internal membrane fouling, external membrane fouling, or a combination of the two were generated. The models accounted for membrane and cake structures and hindered solute transport. Internal membrane fouling was assumed to occur due to the accumulation of foulant on either membrane pore walls (pore-retention model) or membrane fibers (fiber-retention model)...
June 26, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649658/niche-localized-tumor-cells-are-protected-from-her2-targeted-therapy-via-upregulation-of-an-anti-apoptotic-program-in-vivo
#10
Jason J Zoeller, Roderick T Bronson, Laura M Selfors, Gordon B Mills, Joan S Brugge
Several lines of evidence suggest that components of the tumor microenvironment, specifically basement membrane and extracellular matrix proteins, influence drug sensitivities. We previously reported differential drug sensitivity of tumor cells localized adjacent to laminin-rich extracellular matrix in three-dimensional tumor spheroid cultures. To evaluate whether differential intra-tumor responses to targeted therapy occur in vivo, we examined the sensitivity of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive tumors to lapatinib using a previously described ductal carcinoma in situ-like model characterized by tumor cell confinement within ductal structures surrounded by an organized basement membrane...
2017: NPJ Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649260/tomato-udp-glucose-sterol-glycosyltransferases-a-family-of-developmental-and-stress-regulated-genes-that-encode-cytosolic-and-membrane-associated-forms-of-the-enzyme
#11
Karla Ramirez-Estrada, Nídia Castillo, Juan A Lara, Monserrat Arró, Albert Boronat, Albert Ferrer, Teresa Altabella
Sterol glycosyltransferases (SGTs) catalyze the glycosylation of the free hydroxyl group at C-3 position of sterols to produce sterol glycosides. Glycosylated sterols and free sterols are primarily located in cell membranes where in combination with other membrane-bound lipids play a key role in modulating their properties and functioning. In contrast to most plant species, those of the genus Solanum contain very high levels of glycosylated sterols, which in the case of tomato may account for more than 85% of the total sterol content...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649228/ras-activity-tunes-the-period-and-modulates-the-entrainment-of-the-suprachiasmatic-clock
#12
REVIEW
Tsvetan Serchov, Rolf Heumann
The small GTPase Ras is a universal eukaryotic cytoplasmic membrane-anchored protein, which regulates diverse downstream signal transduction pathways that play an important role in the proper functioning of neurons. Ras activity is a central regulator of structural and functional synaptic plasticity in the adult nervous system, where it channels neuronal responses to various extracellular cues allowing the organism to adapt to complex environmental stimuli. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the principle pacemaker of the circadian clock, and the circadian and photic regulation of Ras activity in the SCN is an important modulator of the clockwork...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648824/sheath-cell-invasion-and-trans-differentiation-repair-mechanical-damage-caused-by-loss-of-caveolae-in-the-zebrafish-notochord
#13
Jamie Garcia, Jennifer Bagwell, Brian Njaine, James Norman, Daniel S Levic, Susan Wopat, Sara E Miller, Xiaojing Liu, Jason W Locasale, Didier Y R Stainier, Michel Bagnat
The notochord, a conserved axial structure required for embryonic axis elongation and spine development, consists of giant vacuolated cells surrounded by an epithelial sheath [1-3]. During morphogenesis, vacuolated cells maintain their structural integrity despite being under constant mechanical stress [4]. We hypothesized that the high density of caveolae present in vacuolated cells [5, 6] could buffer mechanical tension. Caveolae are 50- to 80-nm membrane invaginations lined by cage-like polygonal structures [7, 8] formed by caveolin 1 (Cav1) or Cav3 and one of the cavin proteins [6, 9-11]...
June 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648821/caveolae-protect-notochord-cells-against-catastrophic-mechanical-failure-during-development
#14
Ye-Wheen Lim, Harriet P Lo, Charles Ferguson, Nick Martel, Jean Giacomotto, Guillermo A Gomez, Alpha S Yap, Thomas E Hall, Robert G Parton
The embryonic notochord is a flexible structure present during development that serves as scaffold for formation of the vertebrate spine. This rod-like organ is thought to have evolved in non-vertebrate chordates to facilitate locomotion by providing a rigid but flexible midline structure against which the axial muscles can contract. This hydrostatic "skeleton" is exposed to a variety of mechanical forces during oscillation of the body. There is evidence that caveolae, submicroscopic cup-shaped plasma membrane pits, can buffer tension in cells that undergo high levels of mechanical stress...
June 14, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648645/functional-interaction-of-the-two-pore-domain-potassium-channel-task-1-and-caveolin-3
#15
Chen Kang, Victor Hernandez, Keli Hu
The two-pore domain potassium channel TASK-1 is strongly expressed in the heart and has been shown to modulate the resting membrane potential and action potential. However, little is known about the regulation of TASK-1 channels. The present study was designed to determine whether TASK-1 is modulated by caveolin-3, a primary structural protein of cardiac caveolae. Functional studies with the whole-cell voltage clamp technique showed that the expression of caveolin-3 decreased recombinant TASK-1 currents significantly in HEK293T cells, and this effect was prevented by co-expressing the dominant negative mutant caveolin-3 P104L...
June 22, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648629/single-molecule-fret-studies-of-ion-channels
#16
REVIEW
Boris Martinac
Different types of fluorescence spectroscopy approaches have over the last two decades become important techniques in studies of ion channel structure and dynamics. Many fluorescence methods have been used to examine a huge variety of ion channels. Any fluorescence study of ion channels requires the presence of fluorophores, which may be intrinsic to the channel protein, attached either extrinsically to the protein, or be simply located nearby the channel to monitor local conditions such as for many of the ion-sensitive dyes...
June 22, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648612/a-spring-loaded-mechanism-governs-the-clamp-like-dynamics-of-the-skp-chaperone
#17
Daniel A Holdbrook, Björn M Burmann, Roland G Huber, Maxim V Petoukhov, Dmitri I Svergun, Sebastian Hiller, Peter J Bond
The trimeric periplasmic holdase chaperone Skp binds and stabilizes unfolded outer membrane proteins (OMPs) as part of bacterial OMP biogenesis. Skp binds client proteins in its central cavity, thereby reducing its backbone dynamics, but the molecular mechanisms that govern Skp dynamics and adaptation to differently sized clients remains unknown. Here, we employ a combination of microsecond timescale molecular dynamics simulation, small-angle X-ray scattering, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to reveal that Skp is remarkably flexible, and features a molecular spring-loaded mechanism in its "tentacle" arms that enables switching between two distinct conformations on sub-millisecond timescales...
June 10, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648608/structures-of-pgam5-provide-insight-into-active-site-plasticity-and-multimeric-assembly
#18
Apirat Chaikuad, Panagis Filippakopoulos, Sean R Marcsisin, Sarah Picaud, Martin Schröder, Shiori Sekine, Hidenori Ichijo, John R Engen, Kohsuke Takeda, Stefan Knapp
PGAM5 is a mitochondrial membrane protein that functions as an atypical Ser/Thr phosphatase and is a regulator of oxidative stress response, necroptosis, and autophagy. Here we present several crystal structures of PGAM5 including the activating N-terminal regulatory sequences, providing a model for structural plasticity, dimerization of the catalytic domain, and the assembly into an enzymatically active dodecameric form. Oligomeric states observed in structures were supported by hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry, size-exclusion chromatography, and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments in solution...
June 10, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648524/molecular-modelling-of-biomolecules-by-paramagnetic-nmr-and-computational-hybrid-methods
#19
REVIEW
Kala Bharath Pilla, Kari Gaalswyk, Justin L MacCallum
The 3D atomic structures of biomolecules and their complexes are key to our understanding of biomolecular function, recognition, and mechanism. However, it is often difficult to obtain structures, particularly for systems that are complex, dynamic, disordered, or exist in environments like cell membranes. In such cases sparse data from a variety of paramagnetic NMR experiments offers one possible source of structural information. These restraints can be incorporated in computer modelling algorithms that can accurately translate the sparse experimental data into full 3D atomic structures...
June 22, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646653/cryo-em-beyond-the-microscope
#20
REVIEW
Lesley A Earl, Veronica Falconieri, Jacqueline Ls Milne, Sriram Subramaniam
The pace at which cryo-EM is being adopted as a mainstream tool in structural biology has continued unabated over the past year. Initial successes in obtaining near-atomic resolution structures with cryo-EM were enabled to a large extent by advances in microscope and detector technology. Here, we review some of the complementary technical improvements that are helping sustain the cryo-EM revolution. We highlight advances in image processing that permit high resolution structure determination even in the presence of structural and conformational heterogeneity...
June 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
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