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Structures of membrane protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343125/structural-modeling-of-human-organic-cation-transporters
#1
Tikam Chand Dakal, Rajender Kumar, Dindial Ramotar
Human organic cation transporters (hOCTs) belong to solute carriers (SLC) 22 family of membrane proteins that play a central role in transportation of chemotherapeutic drugs for several clinical and pathological conditions, including cancer and diabetes. These transporters mediate drug transport; however, the precise mechanism of drug-binding and transport by them is not fully uncovered yet, partly due to unavailability of any crystal structure record. In this work, we performed a multi-phasic approach to compute the 3D structural models of seven human organic cation transporters (hOCTs) starting from primary protein sequence...
March 18, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342732/hydrogen-bond-strength-in-membrane-proteins-probed-by-time-resolved-1-h-detected-solid-state-nmr-and-md-simulations
#2
João Medeiros-Silva, Shehrazade Jekhmane, Marc Baldus, Markus Weingarth
(1)H-detected solid-state NMR in combination with (1)H/(2)D exchange steps allows for the direct identification of very strong hydrogen bonds in membrane proteins. On the example of the membrane-embedded potassium channel KcsA, we quantify the longevity of such very strong hydrogen bonds by combining time-resolved (1)H-detected solid-state NMR experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. In particular, we show that the carboxyl-side chain of the highly conserved residue Glu51 is involved in ultra-strong hydrogen bonds, which are fully-water-exposed and yet stable for weeks...
March 18, 2017: Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340510/the-diverse-family-of-mmpl-transporters-in-mycobacteria-from-regulation-to-antimicrobial-developments
#3
REVIEW
Albertus Viljoen, Violaine Dubois, Fabienne Girard-Misguich, Mickael Blaise, Jean-Louis Herrmann, Laurent Kremer
Mycobacterial genomes contain large sets of loci encoding membrane proteins that belong to a family of multidrug resistance pumps designated Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division (RND) permeases. Mycobacterial membrane protein Large (MmpL) transporters represent a subclass of RND transporters known to participate in the export of lipid components across the cell envelope. These surface-exposed lipids with unusual structures play key roles in the physiology of mycobacteria and/or can act as virulence factors and immunomodulators...
March 24, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340417/interfacial-interactions-between-skeletonema-costatum-extracellular-organic-matter-and-metal-oxides-implications-for-ceramic-membrane-filtration
#4
Noor Zaouri, Leonardo Gutierrez, Laure Dramas, Daniel Garces, Jean-Philippe Croue
In the current study, the interfacial interactions between the high molecular weight (HMW) compounds of Skeletonema costatum (SKC) extracellular organic matter (EOM) and ZrO2 or Al2O3, were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). HMW SKC-EOM was rigorously characterized and described as a hydrophilic organic compound mainly comprised of polysaccharide-like structures. Lipids and proteins were also observed, although in lower abundance. HMW SKC-EOM displayed attractive forces during approaching (i.e., leading to jump-to-contact events) and adhesion forces during retracting regime to both metal oxides at all solution conditions tested, where electrostatics and hydrogen bonding were suggested as dominant interacting mechanisms...
March 21, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339924/the-trans-golgi-network-and-the-golgi-stacks-behave-independently-during-regeneration-after-brefeldin-a-treatment-in-tobacco-by-2-cells
#5
Yoko Ito, Kiminori Toyooka, Masaru Fujimoto, Takashi Ueda, Tomohiro Uemura, Akihiko Nakano
The trans-Golgi network (TGN) plays an essential role in intracellular membrane trafficking. In plant cells, recent live-cell imaging studies have revealed the dynamic behavior of the TGN independent from the Golgi apparatus. In order to better understand the relationships between the two organelles, we examined their dynamic responses to the reagent brefeldin A (BFA) and their recovery after BFA removal. Golgi markers responded to BFA similarly over a range of concentrations, whereas the behavior of the TGN was BFA concentration dependent...
February 21, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339051/protective-effects-of-tacrolimus-on-podocytes-in-early-diabetic-nephropathy-in-rats
#6
Tao Peng, Xiangdi Chang, Jie Wang, Junhui Zhen, Xiangdong Yang, Zhao Hu
The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of tacrolimus on early podocyte damage in rats with diabetic nephropathy (DN). A total of 38 normal male Sprague‑Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: Normal control group (group N; n=8), DN group (n=10), tacrolimus (FK506) treatment group (group F; n=10), benazepril (Lotensin) treatment group (group L; n=10). The rats in groups DN, F and L were administered with streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection to establish the diabetic rat model...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338646/type-iv-secretion-and-signal-transduction-of-helicobacter-pylori-caga-through-interactions-with-host-cell-receptors
#7
REVIEW
Steffen Backert, Nicole Tegtmeyer
Helicobacter pylori is a highly successful human bacterium, which is exceptionally equipped to persistently inhabit the human stomach. Colonization by this pathogen is associated with gastric disorders ranging from chronic gastritis and peptic ulcers to cancer. Highly virulent H. pylori strains express the well-established adhesins BabA/B, SabA, AlpA/B, OipA, and HopQ, and a type IV secretion system (T4SS) encoded by the cag pathogenicity island (PAI). The adhesins ascertain intimate bacterial contact to gastric epithelial cells, while the T4SS represents an extracellular pilus-like structure for the translocation of the effector protein CagA...
March 24, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338624/nerve-growth-factor-signaling-from-membrane-microdomains-to-the-nucleus-differential-regulation-by-caveolins
#8
Ambre Spencer, Lingli Yu, Vincent Guili, Florie Reynaud, Yindi Ding, Ji Ma, Jérôme Jullien, David Koubi, Emmanuel Gauthier, David Cluet, Julien Falk, Valérie Castellani, Chonggang Yuan, Brian B Rudkin
Membrane microdomains or "lipid rafts" have emerged as essential functional modules of the cell, critical for the regulation of growth factor receptor-mediated responses. Herein we describe the dichotomy between caveolin-1 and caveolin-2, structural and regulatory components of microdomains, in modulating proliferation and differentiation. Caveolin-2 potentiates while caveolin-1 inhibits nerve growth factor (NGF) signaling and subsequent cell differentiation. Caveolin-2 does not appear to impair NGF receptor trafficking but elicits prolonged and stronger activation of MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase), Rsk2 (ribosomal protein S6 kinase 2), and CREB (cAMP response element binding protein)...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337778/biochemical-alterations-in-duckweed-and-algae-induced-by-carrier-solvents-selection-of-an-appropriate-solvent-in-toxicity-testing
#9
Li-Xin Hu, Fei Tian, Francis L Martin, Guang-Guo Ying
Carrier solvents are often used in aquatic toxicity testing for test chemicals with hydrophobic properties. However, the knowledge of solvent effects on test organisms remains limited. This study aimed to understand biochemical effects of the four common solvents ((methanol, ethanol, acetone and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)) on two test species Lemna minor and Raphidocelis subcapitata by applying Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) coupled with multivariate analysis in order to select appropriate solvents in the toxicity testing...
March 24, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337204/phenol-soluble-modulin-%C3%AE-peptide-toxins-from-aggressive-staphylococcus-aureus-induce-rapid-formation-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-through-a-reactive-oxygen-species-independent-pathway
#10
Halla Björnsdottir, Agnes Dahlstrand Rudin, Felix P Klose, Jonas Elmwall, Amanda Welin, Marios Stylianou, Karin Christenson, Constantin F Urban, Huamei Forsman, Claes Dahlgren, Anna Karlsson, Johan Bylund
Neutrophils have the ability to capture and kill microbes extracellularly through the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). These are DNA and protein structures that neutrophils release extracellularly and are believed to function as a defense mechanism against microbes. The classic NET formation process, triggered by, e.g., bacteria, fungi, or by direct stimulation of protein kinase C through phorbol myristate acetate, is an active process that takes several hours and relies on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are further modified by myeloperoxidase (MPO)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336533/critical-residues-and-motifs-for-homodimerization-of-the-first-transmembrane-domain-of-the-plasma-membrane-glycoprotein-cd36
#11
Peng Wei, Fu-de Sun, Li-Min Zuo, Jing Qu, Peng Chen, Li-da Xu, Shi-Zhong Luo
The plasma transmembrane (TM) glycoprotein CD36 is critically involved in many essential signaling processes, especially the binding /uptake of long-chain fatty acids and oxidized low-density lipoproteins. The association of CD36 potentially activates cytosolic protein tyrosine kinases that are thought to associate with the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail of CD36. To understand the mechanisms by which CD36 mediates ligand binding and signal transduction, we have characterized the homo- oligomeric interaction of CD36 TM domains in membrane environments and with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336531/vasopressin-induced-serine-269-phosphorylation-reduces-sipa111-signal-induced-proliferation-associated-1-like-1-mediated-aquaporin-2-endocytosis
#12
Po-Jen Wang, Shu-Ting Lin, Shao-Hsuan Liu, Kuang-Ting Kuo, Chun-Hua Hsu, Mark A Knepper, Ming-Jiun Yu
The abundance of integral membrane proteins in the plasma membrane is determined by a dynamic balance between exocytosis and endocytosis, which can often be regulated by physiological stimuli. Here, we describe a mechanism that accounts for the ability of the peptide hormone vasopressin to regulate water excretion via a phosphorylation-dependent modulation of the PDZ domain-ligand interactions involving the water channel protein aquaporin-2. We discovered that the PDZ domain-containing protein Sipa1l1 (signal-induced proliferation-associated 1 like 1) binds to the cytoplasmic PDZ-ligand motif of aquaporin-2 and accelerates its endocytosis in the absence of vasopressin...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336315/cardiolipin-and-mitochondrial-cristae-organization
#13
REVIEW
Nikita Ikon, Robert O Ryan
A fundamental question in cell biology, under investigation for over six decades, is the structural organization of mitochondrial cristae. Long known to harbor electron transport chain proteins, crista membrane integrity is key to establishment of the proton gradient that drives oxidative phosphorylation. Visualization of cristae morphology by electron microscopy / tomography has provided evidence that cristae are tube-like extensions of the mitochondrial inner membrane (IM) that project into the matrix space...
March 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336066/construction-of-protein-based-biosensors-using-ligand-directed-chemistry-for-detecting-analyte-binding
#14
Kei Yamaura, Shigeki Kiyonaka, Itaru Hamachi
Protein-based fluorescent biosensors are powerful tools for quantitative detection of biomolecules or drugs with high sensitivity under physiological conditions. However, conventional methods for construction of biosensors require structural data with high resolution or amino acid sequence information in most cases, which hampers applicability of this method to structurally complicated receptor proteins. To sidestep such limitations, we recently developed a new method that employs ligand-directed chemistry coupled with a bimolecular fluorescence quenching and recovery system, which enabled the conversion of various kinds of membrane-bound receptors to "turn-on" type fluorescent sensors...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334543/-functional-impact-of-herg-from-physiological-role-to-target-of-anticancer-therapy
#15
Júlia Šatková, Markéta Bébarová
The human ether-à-go-go related gene (hERG; officially designated as KCNH2) encodes the structure of protein forming α-subunit of voltage-gated ion channel which conducts the rapid component of delayed rectifier K+ current (IKr). This current plays an important role namely in the cardiac repolarization. Mutations in hERG result in inherited arrhythmogenic syndromes characterized by a lenghtening or shortening of QT interval on the electrocardiogram and by an increased occurrence of life-threatening arrhythmias...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333572/new-insights-on-complement-inhibitor-cd59-in-mouse-laser-induced-choroidal-neovascularization-mislocalization-after-injury-and-targeted-delivery-for-protein-replacement
#16
Gloriane Schnabolk, Mee Keong Beon, Stephen Tomlinson, Bärbel Rohrer
PURPOSE: The membrane attack complex (MAC) in choriocapillaris (CC) and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) increase with age and disease (age-related macular degeneration). MAC assembly can be inhibited by CD59, a membrane-bound regulator. Here we further investigated the role of CD59 in murine choroidal neovascularization (CNV), a model involving both CC and RPE, and tested whether CR2-CD59, a soluble targeted form of CD59, provides protection. METHODS: Laser-induced CNV was generated in wild type and CD59a-deficient mice (CD59(-/-))...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333446/quantification-of-membrane-protein-self-association-with-a-high-throughput-compatible-fluorescence-assay
#17
Junbei Li, Xiaoyan Jade Qiu
For many membrane proteins, self-association serves both structural and functional roles. Studies of such association can be simplified by switching to micelles as the membrane-mimicking environment. But native interaction is not preserved in all detergents. The selection of suitable conditions for biochemical experiments would be greatly facilitated by a quantitative high-throughput assay. Here we showed that the fluorescence polarization (FP) reduction, resulted from homo-FRET and measured in a high-throughput compatible format, can be used to determine both association states and constants for membrane proteins in micelles...
March 23, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333438/nuclear-membrane-targeted-gold-nanoparticles-inhibit-cancer-cell-migration-and-invasion
#18
Moustafa R K Ali, Yue Wu, Deepraj Ghosh, Brian H Do, Kuangcai Chen, Michelle R Dawson, Ning Fang, Todd A Sulchek, Mostafa A El-Sayed
Most cancer patients die from metastasis. Recent studies have shown that gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) can slow down the migration/invasion speed of cancer cells and suppress metastasis. Since nuclear stiffness of the cell largely decreases cell migration, our hypothesis is that targeting AuNPs to the cell nucleus region could enhance nuclear stiffness, and therefore inhibit cell migration and invasion. Our results showed that upon nuclear targeting of AuNPs, the ovarian cancer cell motilities decrease significantly, compared with nontargeted AuNPs...
March 27, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333212/structural-history-of-human-srgap2-proteins
#19
Michael Sporny, Julia Guez-Haddad, Annett Kreusch, Sivan Shakartzi, Avi Neznansky, Alice Cross, Michail N Isupov, Britta Qualmann, Michael M Kessels, Yarden Opatowsky
In the development of the human brain, human-specific genes are considered to play key roles, conferring its unique advantages and vulnerabilities. At the time of Homo lineage divergence from Australopithecus, SRGAP2C gradually emerged through a process of serial duplications and mutagenesis from ancestral SRGAP2A (3.4-2.4 Ma). Remarkably, ectopic expression of SRGAP2C endows cultured mouse brain cells, with human-like characteristics, specifically, increased dendritic spine length and density. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this change in neuronal morphology, we determined the structure of SRGAP2A and studied the interplay between SRGAP2A and SRGAP2C...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333108/the-biology-of-pichia-membranifaciens-killer-toxins
#20
REVIEW
Ignacio Belda, Javier Ruiz, Alejandro Alonso, Domingo Marquina, Antonio Santos
The killer phenomenon is defined as the ability of some yeast to secrete toxins that are lethal to other sensitive yeasts and filamentous fungi. Since the discovery of strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of secreting killer toxins, much information has been gained regarding killer toxins and this fact has substantially contributed knowledge on fundamental aspects of cell biology and yeast genetics. The killer phenomenon has been studied in Pichia membranifaciens for several years, during which two toxins have been described...
March 23, 2017: Toxins
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