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Wzx protein

Susana Merino, Victor Gonzalez, Juan M Tomás
In the Wzx/Wzy-dependent assembled pathway, the assembled O-antigen repeat units are translocated from the cytosolic to the periplasmic face of the inner membrane by a Wzx translocase and then polymerized by the integral membrane protein Wzy to form a glycan chain. We demonstrate that the activity of the Escherichia coli O-antigen polymerase (Wzy) is dependent on the first sugar of the O-antigen repeat unit to produce the O-antigen polymerization and therefore, there is a need for a concerted action with the enzyme transferring the initial HexNAc to undecaprenyl phosphate (UDP-HexNAc: polyprenol-P HexNAc-1-P transferase)...
July 2016: Future Microbiology
Jingrui Wang, Wei Tang, Yongna Zheng, Zhuqing Xing, Yanping Wang
A novel lactic acid bacteria strain Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens ZW3 exhibited the characteristics of high production of exopolysaccharide (EPS). The epsN gene, located in the eps gene cluster of this strain, is associated with EPS biosynthesis. Bioinformatics analysis of this gene was performed. The conserved domain analysis showed that the EpsN protein contained MATE-Wzx-like domains. Then the epsN gene was amplified to construct the recombinant expression vector pMG36e-epsN. The results showed that the EPS yields of the recombinants were significantly improved...
September 2016: Archives of Microbiology
Véronique L Taylor, Jesse F J Hoage, Sandra Wingaard Thrane, Steven M Huszczynski, Lars Jelsbak, Joseph S Lam
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium that produces highly varied lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structures. The O antigen (O-Ag) in the LPS is synthesized through the Wzx/Wzy-dependent pathway where lipid-linked O-Ag repeats are polymerized by Wzy. Horizontal-gene transfer has been associated with O-Ag diversity. The O-Ag present on the surface of serotypes O5 and O16, differ in the intra-molecular bonds, α and β, respectively; the latter arose from the action of three genes in a serotype converting unit acquired from bacteriophage D3, including a β-polymerase (Wzyβ)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Véronique L Taylor, Steven M Huszczynski, Joseph S Lam
Bacterial polysaccharides play an essential role in cell viability, virulence, and evasion of host defenses. Although the polysaccharides themselves are highly diverse, the pathways by which bacteria synthesize these essential polymers are conserved in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms. By utilizing a lipid linker, a series of glycosyltransferases and integral membrane proteins act in concert to synthesize capsular polysaccharide, teichoic acid, and teichuronic acid. The pathways used to produce these molecules are the Wzx/Wzy-dependent, the ABC-transporter-dependent, and the synthase-dependent pathways...
February 9, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Perrin Baker, Gregory B Whitfield, Preston J Hill, Dustin J Little, Matthew J Pestrak, Howard Robinson, Daniel J Wozniak, P Lynne Howell
A key component of colonization, biofilm formation, and protection of the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the biosynthesis of the exopolysaccharide Psl. Composed of a pentameric repeating unit of mannose, glucose, and rhamnose, the biosynthesis of Psl is proposed to occur via a Wzx/Wzy-dependent mechanism. Previous genetic studies have shown that the putative glycoside hydrolase PslG is essential for Psl biosynthesis. To understand the function of this protein, the apo-structure of the periplasmic domain of PslG (PslG(31-442)) and its complex with mannose were determined to 2...
November 20, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Michael A Liu, Thomas L Stent, Yaoqin Hong, Peter R Reeves
Bacterial Wzx flippases translocate (flip) short oligosaccharide repeat units (O units) across the inner membrane into the periplasm, which is a critical step in the assembly of many O antigens, capsules and other surface polysaccharides. There is enormous diversity in O antigens and capsules in particular, even within species. Wzx proteins are similarly diverse, but it has been widely accepted that they have significant specificity only for the first sugar of an O unit. In this study, we analysed the Wzx from the Salmonella enterica group C2 O antigen gene cluster, which is a unique and divergent member of a set of gene clusters that produce galactose-initiated O antigens...
May 2015: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Salim T Islam, Joseph S Lam
The surfaces of bacteria mediate a multitude of functions in the environment and in an infected host, including adhesion to both biotic and abiotic substrata, motility, immune system interaction and (or) activation, biofilm formation, and cell-cell communication, with many of these features directly influenced by cell-surface glycans. In both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, the majority of cell-surface polysaccharides are produced via the Wzx/Wzy-dependent assembly pathway; these glycans include heteropolymeric O-antigen, enterobacterial common antigen, exopolysaccharide, spore coat, and capsule in diverse bacteria...
November 2014: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Małgorzata Marczak, Paulina Matysiak, Jolanta Kutkowska, Anna Skorupska
Production of extracellular polysaccharides is a complex process engaging proteins localized in different subcellular compartments, yet communicating with each other or even directly interacting in multicomponent complexes. Proteins involved in polymerization and transport of exopolysaccharide (EPS) in Rhizobium leguminosarum are encoded within the chromosomal Pss-I cluster. However, genes implicated in polysaccharide synthesis are common in rhizobia, with several homologues of pss genes identified in other regions of the R...
2014: PloS One
Xiujuan Zhou, Bin Liu, Chunlei Shi, Xianming Shi
Several molecular detection marker genes specific for a number of individual Salmonella serogroups have been recently identified in our lab by comparative genomics for the genotyping of diverse serogroups. To further understand the correlation between serotype and genotype, the function of a Salmonella serogroup-C1-specific gene (SC_2092) was analyzed in this study. It was indicated from the topological prediction using the deduced amino acid sequence of SC_2092 that this putative protein was highly similar to the confirmed Wzx flippases...
2014: PloS One
K O Mironov, A E Platonov, E A Dunaeva, V I Kuseva, G A Shipulin
AIM: Development and application of real-time PCR (RT-PCR) procedure for determination of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: S. pneumoniae cps-locus wzx, wzy, wzz, wcwV and galU genes were chosen as PCR targets to select serotype-specific oligonucleotide primers and fluorescent labeled probes. 89 samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained in 2007 - 2010 from patients with pneumococcal meningitis diagnosis undergoing therapy in the Infectious Clinical Hospital No...
January 2014: Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii, i Immunobiologii
Yaoqin Hong, Peter R Reeves
The most common system for synthesis of cell surface polysaccharides is the Wzx/Wzy-dependent pathway, which involves synthesis, on the cytoplasmic face of the cell membrane, of repeat units, which are then translocated to the periplasmic face by a Wzx translocase and then polymerized by Wzy to generate the polysaccharide. One such polysaccharide is O antigen, which is incorporated into lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The O antigen is extremely variable, with over 186 forms in Escherichia coli. Wzx proteins are also very diverse, but they have been thought to be specific only for the first sugar of the repeat units...
May 2014: Journal of Bacteriology
Salim T Islam, Steven M Huszczynski, Timothy Nugent, Alexander C Gold, Joseph S Lam
O antigen (O-Ag) in many bacteria is synthesized via the Wzx/Wzy-dependent pathway in which Wzy polymerizes lipid-linked O-Ag subunits to modal lengths regulated by Wzz. Characterization of 83 site-directed mutants of Wzy from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 (WzyPa) in topologically-mapped periplasmic (PL) and cytoplasmic loops (CL) verified the functional importance of PL3 and PL5, with the former shown to require overall cationic properties. Essential Arg residues in the RX10G motifs of PL3 and PL5 were found to be conserved in putative homologues of WzyPa, as was the overall sequence homology between these two periplasmic loops in each protein...
2013: Scientific Reports
Zac D Paddock, David G Renter, Charley A Cull, Xiarong Shi, Jianfa Bai, Tiruvoor G Nagaraja
Escherichia coli O26 is second only to O157 in causing foodborne, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) infections. Our objectives were to determine fecal prevalence and characteristics of E. coli O26 in commercial feedlot cattle (17,148) that were enrolled in a study to evaluate an E. coli O157:H7 siderophore receptor and porin (SRP(®)) vaccine (VAC) and a direct-fed microbial (DFM; 10(6) colony-forming units [CFU]/animal/day of Lactobacillus acidophilus and 10(9) CFU/animal/day of Propionibacterium freudenreichii)...
March 2014: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Salim T Islam, Paul D W Eckford, Michelle L Jones, Timothy Nugent, Christine E Bear, Christian Vogel, Joseph S Lam
Wzx flippases are crucial for bacterial cell surface polysaccharide assembly as they transport undecaprenyl pyrophosphate-linked sugar repeat units from the cytoplasmic to the periplasmic leaflets of the inner membrane (IM) for final assembly. Our recently reported three-dimensional (3D) model structure of Wzx from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 (WzxPa) displayed a cationic internal vestibule and functionally essential acidic amino acids within transmembrane segment bundles. Herein, we examined the intrinsic transport function of WzxPa following its purification and reconstitution in phospholipid liposomes...
September 10, 2013: MBio
Mikio Shoji, Hideharu Yukitake, Keiko Sato, Yasuko Shibata, Mariko Naito, Joseph Aduse-Opoku, Yoshimitsu Abiko, Michael A Curtis, Koji Nakayama
The periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis has two different lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) designated O-LPS and A-LPS, which are a conventional O-antigen polysaccharide and an anionic polysaccharide that are both linked to lipid A-cores, respectively. However, the precise mechanisms of LPS biosynthesis remain to be determined. In this study, we isolated a pigment-less mutant by transposon mutagenesis and identified that the transposon was inserted into the coding sequence PGN_2005, which encodes a hypothetical protein of P...
June 2013: MicrobiologyOpen
Małgorzata Marczak, Monika Dźwierzyńska, Anna Skorupska
Rhizobium leguminosarum produces large amounts of exopolysaccharide (EPS) that has been shown to be an important determinant of successful nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with legume plants. EPS is assembled in a Wzx/Wzy-dependent manner, and proteins involved in the process are proposed to form a complex that enables coupling the synthesis of EPS subunits with their polymerization and transport. Pss proteins, which are encoded within the chromosomal polysaccharide synthesis cluster of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv...
April 2013: Biological Chemistry
Salim T Islam, Joseph S Lam
Bacterial cell surface polysaccharides confer resistance to external stress and promote survival in biotic and abiotic environments. Glycan assembly often occurs at the periplasmic leaflet of the inner membrane (IM) from undecaprenyl pyrophosphate (UndPP)-linked polysaccharide units via the Wzx/Wzy-dependent pathway. Wzx is an integral IM protein found in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria that mediates IM translocation of UndPP-linked sugar repeats from the cytoplasmic to the periplasmic leaflet; interaction of Wzx with other assembly proteins is indirectly supported by genetic evidence...
April 2013: Environmental Microbiology
Lina Kaminski, Ziqiang Guan, Mehtap Abu-Qarn, Zvia Konrad, Jerry Eichler
BACKGROUND: Recent studies of Haloferax volcanii have begun to elucidate the steps of N-glycosylation in Archaea, where this universal post-translational modification remains poorly described. In Hfx. volcanii, a series of Agl proteins catalyzes the assembly and attachment of a N-linked pentasaccharide to the S-layer glycoprotein. Although roles have been assigned to the majority of Agl proteins, others await description. In the following, the contribution of AglR to N-glycosylation was addressed...
October 2012: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Salim T Islam, Robert J Fieldhouse, Erin M Anderson, Véronique L Taylor, Robert A B Keates, Robert C Ford, Joseph S Lam
Heteropolymeric B-band O-antigen (O-Ag) biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 follows the Wzy-dependent pathway, beginning with translocation of undecaprenyl pyrophosphate-linked anionic O-Ag subunits (O units) from the inner to the outer leaflets of the inner membrane (IM). This translocation is mediated by the integral IM flippase Wzx. Through experimentally based and unbiased topological mapping, our group previously observed that Wzx possesses many charged and aromatic amino acid residues within its 12 transmembrane segments (TMS)...
June 2012: Molecular Microbiology
Yaoqin Hong, Monica M Cunneen, Peter R Reeves
Most Gram-negative bacteria have an O antigen, a polysaccharide with many repeats of a short oligosaccharide that is a part of the lipopolysaccharide, the major lipid in the outer leaflet of the outer membrane. Lipopolysaccharide is variable with 46 forms in Salmonella enterica that underpin the serotyping scheme. Repeat units are assembled on a lipid carrier that is embedded in the cell membrane, and are then translocated by the Wzx translocase from the cytoplasmic face to the outer face of the cell membrane, followed by polymerization...
May 2012: Molecular Microbiology
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