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Retinitis pigmentosa

Kari Branham, Hiroko Matsui, Pooja Biswas, Aditya A Guru, Michael Hicks, John J Suk, He Li, David Jakubosky, Tao Long, Amalio Telenti, Naoki Narai, John R Heckenlively, Kelly A Frazar, Paul A Sieving, Radha Ayyagari
While more than 250 genes are known to cause inherited retinal degenerations (IRD), nearly 40-50% of families have the genetic basis for their disease unknown. In this study we sought to identify the underlying cause of inherited retinal degeneration (IRD) in a family by whole genome sequence (WGS) analysis. Clinical characterization including standard ophthalmic examination, fundus photography, visual field testing, electroretinography, and review of medical and family history was performed. WGS was performed on affected and unaffected family members using Illumina HiSeq X10...
October 7, 2016: Physiological Genomics
Alice C Wyse-Jackson, Sarah L Roche, Ana M Ruiz-Lopez, Jennifer N Moloney, Ashleigh M Byrne, Thomas G Cotter
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a degenerative retinal disease leading to photoreceptor cell loss. In 2011, our group identified the synthetic progesterone 'Norgestrel' as a potential treatment for RP. Subsequent research showed Norgestrel to work through progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) activation and upregulation of neuroprotective basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Using trophic factor deprivation of 661W photoreceptor-like cells, we aimed to further elucidate the mechanism leading to Norgestrel-induced neuroprotection...
October 20, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Nobuhiro Nagai, Satoru Iwata, Hirokazu Kaji, Kaori Sampei, Yuki Katsukura, Hideyuki Onami, Matsuhiko Nishizawa, Toru Nakazawa, Yukihiko Mashima, Toshiaki Abe
It has been suggested that unoprostone isopropyl (UNO) has potent neuroprotective activity in the retina. The effect of sustained transscleral UNO delivery to the posterior segment of the eye on photoreceptor degeneration was evaluated. UNO was loaded into a device made of poly(ethyleneglycol) dimethacrylate by polydimethylsiloxane mold-based UV-curing. The amount of UNO diffusing from these devices was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. The polymeric devices that released UNO at 1.8 μg/day were implanted on the sclerae of S334ter rats at postnatal 21 days, and electroretinograms (ERGs) were compared with those of topical application and placebo devices...
November 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Tapasi Rana, Pravallika Kotla, Roderick Fullard, Marina Gorbatyuk
Expression of T17M rhodopsin (T17M) in rods activates the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) and leads to the development of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). The rod death occurs in adRP retinas prior to cone photoreceptor death, so the mechanism by which cone photoreceptors die remains unclear. Therefore, the goal of the study was to verify whether UPR in rods induces TNFa-mediated signaling to the cones and to determine whether the TNFa deficit could prevent adRP cone cell death. Primary rod photoreceptors and cone-derived 661W cells transfected with siRNA against TNFa were treated with tunicamycin to mimic activation of UPR in T17M retinas expressing normal and reduced TNFa levels...
October 14, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Jiali Li, Xueshan Xiao, Shiqiang Li, Xiaoyun Jia, Xiangming Guo, Qingjiong Zhang
It has been previously reported that mutations in retinal G protein coupled receptor (RGR) are associated with retinitis pigmentosa. The present study aims to systemically analyze the potential role of variants of RGR in retinal diseases. Variants in coding regions and splice sites of RGR were selected from a whole exome sequencing dataset of 820 probands with various forms of genetic ocular diseases. Potential variants of RGR were further confirmed by Sanger sequencing and analyzed in available family members...
October 13, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Rachel M Huckfeldt, Jason Comander
Retinitis pigmentosa is a genetically heterogeneous disorder with an estimated prevalence of one in 4,000 that is classically characterized by the progressive constriction of peripheral vision and a later deterioration of visual acuity. Central vision can be compromised earlier in disease, however, in the approximately 25% of patients that have cystoid macular edema. This poorly understood problem can thus significantly impair patient quality of life, particularly as available treatments have limited efficacy...
October 17, 2016: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Ashleigh M Byrne, Ana M Ruiz-Lopez, Sarah L Roche, Jennifer N Moloney, Alice C Wyse-Jackson, Thomas G Cotter
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is one of the most common retinal degenerative conditions affecting people worldwide, and is currently incurable. It is characterized by the progressive loss of photoreceptors, in which the death of rod cells leads to the secondary death of cone cells; the cause of eventual blindness. As rod cells die, retinal-oxygen metabolism becomes perturbed, leading to increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thus oxidative stress; a key factor in the secondary death of cones. In this study, norgestrel, an FDA-approved synthetic analog of progesterone, was found to be a powerful neuroprotective antioxidant, preventing light-induced ROS in photoreceptor cells, and subsequent cell death...
October 4, 2016: Redox Biology
Miao Yu, Yu Liu, Jing Li, Brianna N Natale, Shuqin Cao, Dongliang Wang, Jeffrey D Amack, Huaiyu Hu
Mutations in the extracellular matrix protein eyes shut homolog (EYS) cause photoreceptor degeneration in patients with retinitis pigmentosa 25. Functions of EYS remain poorly understood, due in part to the lack of an EYS gene in mouse. We investigated the localization of vertebrate EYS proteins and engineered loss-of-function alleles in zebrafish. Immunostaining indicated that EYS localized near the connecting cilium/transition zone in photoreceptors. EYS also strongly localized to the cone outer segments and weakly to the rod outer segments and cone terminals in primate retinas...
October 13, 2016: Biology Open
Kinga M Bujakowska, Rosario Fernandez-Godino, Emily Place, Mark Consugar, Daniel Navarro-Gomez, Joseph White, Emma C Bedoukian, Xiaosong Zhu, Hongbo M Xie, Xiaowu Gai, Bart P Leroy, Eric A Pierce
PURPOSE: Despite substantial progress in sequencing, current strategies can genetically solve only approximately 55-60% of inherited retinal degeneration (IRD) cases. This can be partially attributed to elusive mutations in the known IRD genes, which are not easily identified by the targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) or Sanger sequencing approaches. We hypothesized that copy-number variations (CNVs) are a major contributor to the elusive genetic causality of IRDs. METHODS: Twenty-eight cases previously unsolved with a targeted NGS were investigated with whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) arrays...
October 13, 2016: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
M Corton, A Avila-Fernández, L Campello, M Sánchez, B Benavides, M I López-Molina, L Fernández-Sánchez, R Sánchez-Alcudia, L R J da Silva, N Reyes, E Martín-Garrido, O Zurita, P Fernández-San José, R Pérez-Carro, F García-García, J Dopazo, B García-Sandoval, N Cuenca, C Ayuso
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP), the most frequent form of inherited retinal dystrophy is characterized by progressive photoreceptor degeneration. Many genes have been implicated in RP development, but several others remain to be identified. Using a combination of homozygosity mapping, whole-exome and targeted next-generation sequencing, we found a novel homozygous nonsense mutation in SAMD11 in five individuals diagnosed with adult-onset RP from two unrelated consanguineous Spanish families. SAMD11 is ortholog to the mouse major retinal SAM domain (mr-s) protein that is implicated in CRX-mediated transcriptional regulation in the retina...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Shohei Iwase, Shoichiro Ono
Cyclase-associated protein (CAP) is a conserved actin-regulatory protein that functions together with actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin to enhance actin filament dynamics. CAP has multiple functional domains, and the function to regulate actin monomers is carried out by its C-terminal half containing a Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein homology 2 (WH2) domain, a CAP and X-linked retinitis pigmentosa 2 (CARP) domain, and a dimerization motif. WH2 and CARP are implicated in binding to actin monomers and important for enhancing filament turnover...
October 11, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Ling Zong, Kaitian Chen, Xuan Wu, Min Liu, Hongyan Jiang
OBJECTIVE: Identification of rare deafness genes for inherited congenital sensorineural hearing impairment remains difficult, because a large variety of genes are implicated. In this study we applied targeted capture and next-generation sequencing to uncover the underlying gene in a three-generation Han family segregating recessive inherited hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa. METHODS: After excluding mutations in common deafness genes GJB2, SLC26A4 and the mitochondrial gene, genomic DNA of the proband of a Han family was subjected to targeted next-generation sequencing...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Swargam Venu, S V Ramana Murthy, Navya Manasa V
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Stacey A Strong, Avinash Gurbaxani, Michel Michaelides
BACKGROUND: We present an interesting case of bilateral retinitis pigmentosa (RP)-associated cystoid macular oedema that responded on two separate occasions to intravitreal injections of aflibercept, despite previously demonstrating only minimal response to intravitreal ranibizumab. This unique case would support a trial of intravitreal aflibercept for the treatment of RP-associated cystoid macular oedema. CASE PRESENTATION: A 38-year-old man from Dubai, United Arab Emirates, presented to the UK with a 3-year history of bilateral RP-associated cystoid macular oedema...
May 2016: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
Guangyan Miao, Yan G Zhao, Hongyu Zhao, Cuicui Ji, Huayu Sun, Yingyu Chen, Hong Zhang
Autophagy helps to maintain cellular homeostasis by removing misfolded proteins and damaged organelles, and generally acts as a cytoprotective mechanism for neuronal survival. Here we showed that mice deficient in the Vici syndrome gene Epg5, which is required for autophagosome maturation, show accumulation of ubiquitin-positive inclusions and SQSTM1 aggregates in various retinal cell types. In epg5(-/-) retinas, photoreceptor function is greatly impaired, and degenerative features including progressively reduced numbers of photoreceptor cells and increased numbers of apoptotic cells in the outer nuclear layer are observed, while the morphology of other parts of the retina is not severely affected...
October 7, 2016: Autophagy
Ahmed Chebil, Salma Touati, Rym Maamouri, Fedra Kort, Leila El Matri
Background Maculopathy is a common complication of retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and compromise the visual acuity of RP patients even in the less advanced stages. Aim To report the morphological macular findings detected by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and to determine their prevalence in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Methods  SD-OCT scans from 100 patients (196 eyes) affected by RP were reviewed. Results We noted a normal macula appearance in 48.5%, macular edema in 14.5% and macular atrophy in 37%...
April 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
Shunji Nakatake, Yusuke Murakami, Yasuhiro Ikeda, Noriko Morioka, Takashi Tachibana, Kohta Fujiwara, Noriko Yoshida, Shoji Notomi, Toshio Hisatomi, Shigeo Yoshida, Tatsuro Ishibashi, Yusaku Nakabeppu, Koh-Hei Sonoda
Oxidative stress is implicated in various neurodegenerative disorders, including retinitis pigmentosa (RP), an inherited disease that causes blindness. The biological and cellular mechanisms by which oxidative stress mediates neuronal cell death are largely unknown. In a mouse model of RP (rd10 mice), we show that oxidative DNA damage activates microglia through MutY homolog-mediated (MUYTH-mediated) base excision repair (BER), thereby exacerbating retinal inflammation and degeneration. In the early stage of retinal degeneration, oxidative DNA damage accumulated in the microglia and caused single-strand breaks (SSBs) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation...
September 22, 2016: JCI Insight
Birgit Ploier, Lydia N Caro, Takefumi Morizumi, Kalpana Pandey, Jillian N Pearring, Michael A Goren, Silvia C Finnemann, Johannes Graumann, Vadim Y Arshavsky, Jeremy S Dittman, Oliver P Ernst, Anant K Menon
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a blinding disease often associated with mutations in rhodopsin, a light-sensing G protein-coupled receptor and phospholipid scramblase. Most RP-associated mutations affect rhodopsin's activity or transport to disc membranes. Intriguingly, some mutations produce apparently normal rhodopsins that nevertheless cause disease. Here we show that three such enigmatic mutations-F45L, V209M and F220C-yield fully functional visual pigments that bind the 11-cis retinal chromophore, activate the G protein transducin, traffic to the light-sensitive photoreceptor compartment and scramble phospholipids...
October 3, 2016: Nature Communications
Gokhan Gulkilik, Sevil Karaman Erdur, Mustafa Eliacik, Mahmut Odabasi, Mustafa Ozsutcu, Goktug Demirci, Mehmet Selim Kocabora
PURPOSE: To report a case of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a patient with cone dystrophy (CD). METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 20-year-old woman presented with diminished vision in her right eye. Fundus examination showed perifoveal retinal pigment epithelial changes and retinal hemorrhage consistent with subretinal CNV in the right eye, and mild retinal pigment epithelial changes with a dull foveal reflex in the left eye. Optical coherence tomography analysis and fundus fluorescein angiography also confirmed the subfoveal CNV in the right eye...
September 28, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Sami Al-Nawaiseh, Fabian Thieltges, Zengping Liu, Claudine Strack, Ralf Brinken, Norbert Braun, Marc Wolschendorf, Arvydas Maminishkis, Nicole Eter, Boris V Stanzel
Age related macular degeneration (AMD), retinitis pigmentosa, and other RPE related diseases are the most common causes for irreversible loss of vision in adults in industrially developed countries. RPE transplantation appears to be a promising therapy, as it may replace dysfunctional RPE, restore its function, and thereby vision. Here we describe a method for transplanting a cultured RPE monolayer on a scaffold into the subretinal space (SRS) of rabbits. After vitrectomy xenotransplants were delivered into the SRS using a custom made shooter consisting of a 20-gauge metallic nozzle with a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coated plunger...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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