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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095027/severe-and-extensive-traumatic-axonal-injury-following-minor-and-indirect-head-trauma
#1
Sung Ho Jang, Han Do Lee
OBJECTIVES: This study reports on a patient with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) who showed severe and extensive traumatic axonal injury (TAI) of various neural tracts following minor and indirect head trauma, which was demonstrated by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). CASE DESCRIPTION: A 26-year-old female patient suffered from indirect head trauma resulting from flexion-hyperextension injury after being hit from behind by a slowly moving car. At the time of head trauma, she felt tingling sensation on her four extremities; however, she did not experience loss of consciousness...
January 17, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088944/gastroduodenal-artery-aneurysm-a-rare-complication-of-traumatic-pancreatic-injury
#2
Annu Babu, Amulya Rattan, Maneesh Singhal, Amit Gupta, Subodh Kumar
Aneurysm of gastroduodenal artery (GDA) is rare. Most reported cases are due to pancreatitis and atherosclerosis; however, those following pancreatic trauma have not been reported. We encoun- tered GDA aneurysm in a patient of blunt abdominal trauma, who had pancreatic contusion and retroduodenal air on contrast enhanced computed tomography of abdomen. Emergency laparotomy for suspected duodenal injury revealed duodenal wall and pancreatic head contusion, mild hemo- peritoneum and no evidence of duodenal perforation...
December 1, 2016: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087725/neurodevelopmental-outcomes-of-extremely-low-birthweight-infants-randomised-to-different-pco2-targets-the-phelbi-follow-up-study
#3
Ulrich H Thome, Orsolya Genzel-Boroviczeny, Bettina Bohnhorst, Manuel Schmid, Hans Fuchs, Oliver Rohde, Stefan Avenarius, Hans-Georg Topf, Andrea Zimmermann, Dirk Faas, Katharina Timme, Barbara Kleinlein, Horst Buxmann, Wilfried Schenk, Hugo Segerer, Norbert Teig, Annett Bläser, Roland Hentschel, Matthias Heckmann, Rolf Schlösser, Jochen Peters, Rainer Rossi, Wolfgang Rascher, Ralf Böttger, Jürgen Seidenberg, Gesine Hansen, Maria Zernickel, Harald Bode, Jens Dreyhaupt, Rainer Muche, Helmut D Hummler
BACKGROUND: Tolerating higher partial pressures of carbon dioxide (PCO2) in mechanically ventilated extremely low birthweight infants to reduce ventilator-induced lung injury may have long-term neurodevelopmental side effects. This study analyses the results of neurodevelopmental follow-up of infants enrolled in a randomised multicentre trial. METHODS: Infants (n=359) between 400 and 1000 g birth weight and 23 0/7-28 6/7 weeks gestational age who required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation within 24 hours of birth were randomly assigned to high PCO2 or to a control group with mildly elevated PCO2 targets...
January 13, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077398/mild-traumatic-brain-injury-is-associated-with-reduced-cortical-thickness-in-those-at-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Jasmeet P Hayes, Mark W Logue, Naomi Sadeh, Jeffrey M Spielberg, Mieke Verfaellie, Scott M Hayes, Andrew Reagan, David H Salat, Erika J Wolf, Regina E McGlinchey, William P Milberg, Annjanette Stone, Steven A Schichman, Mark W Miller
Moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury is one of the strongest environmental risk factors for the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as late-onset Alzheimer's disease, although it is unclear whether mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion, also confers risk. This study examined mild traumatic brain injury and genetic risk as predictors of reduced cortical thickness in brain regions previously associated with early Alzheimer's disease, and their relationship with episodic memory. Participants were 160 Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans between the ages of 19 and 58, many of whom carried mild traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder diagnoses...
January 11, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075094/prognosis-following-mild-head-injury-in-children
#5
John R McConaghy, Aloiya R Earl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072842/fractal-analysis-of-brain-blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-bold-signals-from-children-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-mtbi
#6
Olga Dona, Michael D Noseworthy, Carol DeMatteo, John F Connolly
BACKGROUND: Conventional imaging techniques are unable to detect abnormalities in the brain following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Yet patients with mTBI typically show delayed response on neuropsychological evaluation. Because fractal geometry represents complexity, we explored its utility in measuring temporal fluctuations of brain resting state blood oxygen level dependent (rs-BOLD) signal. We hypothesized that there could be a detectable difference in rs-BOLD signal complexity between healthy subjects and mTBI patients based on previous studies that associated reduction in signal complexity with disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048972/astaxanthin-improves-cognitive-performance-in-mice-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Xinran Ji, Dayong Peng, Yiling Zhang, Jun Zhang, Yuning Wang, Yuan Gao, Ning Lu, Peifu Tang
[BACKGROUND]: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) produces lasting neurological deficits that plague patients and physicians. To date, there is no effective method to combat the source of this problem. Here, we utilized a mild, closed head TBI model to determine the modulatory effects of a natural dietary compound, astaxanthin (AST). AST is centrally active following oral administration and is neuroprotective in experimental brain ischemia/stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) models. We examined the effects of oral AST on the long-term neurological functional recovery and histological outcomes following moderate TBI in a mice model...
December 31, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032118/biomarkers-of-traumatic-brain-injury-temporal-changes-in-body-fluids
#8
REVIEW
Harel Adrian, Kvist Mårten, Nuutinen Salla, Välimaa Lasse
Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are caused by a hit to the head or a sudden acceleration/deceleration movement of the head. Mild TBIs (mTBIs) and concussions are difficult to diagnose. Imaging techniques often fail to find alterations in the brain, and computed tomography exposes the patient to radiation. Brain-specific biomolecules that are released upon cellular damage serve as another means of diagnosing TBI and assessing the severity of injury. These biomarkers can be detected from samples of body fluids using laboratory tests...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031000/modeling-the-kinetics-of-serum-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-ubiquitin-carboxyl-terminal-hydrolase-l1-and-s100b-concentrations-in-patients-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Robert D Welch, Morgan Ellis, Lawrence M Lewis, Syed Imran Ayaz, Valerie H Mika, Scott R Millis, Linda Papa
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Ubiquitin Carboxyl-Terminal Hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1), and S100B have been shown to be predictive of patients with brain injury. Kinetics of these biomarkers in injured humans have not been extensively examined. This prospective multi-center study included patients with mild to moderate traumatic brain injury. Blood samples obtained at enrollment and every 6 hours up to 24 hours post-injury were assayed for GFAP, UCH-L1, and S100B. Random effects models examined changes in the biomarkers' level over time...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028451/diagnostic-and-clinical-management-of-skull-fractures-in-children
#10
Christoph Arneitz, Maria Sinzig, Günter Fasching
OBJECTIVE: The indications of routine skull X-rays after mild head trauma are still in discussion, and the clinical management of a child with a skull fracture remains controversial. The aim of our retrospective study was to evaluate our diagnostic and clinical management of children with skull fractures following minor head trauma. METHODS: We worked up the medical history of all consecutive patients with a skull fracture treated in our hospital from January 2009 to October 2014 and investigated all skull X-rays in our hospital during this period...
2016: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957604/a-review-of-the-clinical-utility-of-serum-s100b-protein-levels-in-the-assessment-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
REVIEW
Eric Peter Thelin, David W Nelson, Bo-Michael Bellander
BACKGROUND: In order to improve injury assessment of brain injuries, protein markers of pathophysiological processes and tissue fate have been introduced in the clinic. The most studied protein "biomarker" of cerebral damage in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the protein S100B. The aim of this narrative review is to thoroughly analyze the properties and capabilities of this biomarker with focus on clinical utility in the assessment of patients suffering from TBI. RESULTS: S100B has successfully been implemented in the clinic regionally (1) to screen mild TBI patients evaluating the need to perform a head computerized tomography, (2) to predict outcome in moderate-to-severe TBI patients, (3) to detect secondary injury development in brain-injured patients and (4) to evaluate treatment efficacy...
February 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942722/a-period-of-controlled-elevation-of-iop-cei-produces-the-specific-gene-expression-responses-and-focal-injury-pattern-of-experimental-rat-glaucoma
#12
John C Morrison, William O Cepurna, Shandiz Tehrani, Tiffany E Choe, Hari Jayaram, Diana C Lozano, Brad Fortune, Elaine C Johnson
Purpose: We determine if several hours of controlled elevation of IOP (CEI) will produce the optic nerve head (ONH) gene expression changes and optic nerve (ON) damage pattern associated with early experimental glaucoma in rats. Methods: The anterior chambers of anesthetized rats were cannulated and connected to a reservoir to elevate IOP. Physiologic parameters were monitored. Following CEI at various recovery times, ON cross-sections were graded for axonal injury...
December 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939436/mr-imaging-findings-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-with-persistent-neurological-impairment
#13
Gabriela Trifan, Ramtilak Gattu, Ewart Mark Haacke, Zhifeng Kou, Randall R Benson
: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a widespread cause of neurologic disability, with >70% of cases being mild in severity. Magnetic resonance imaging provides objective biomarkers in the diagnosis of brain injury by detecting brain lesions resulting from trauma. This paper reports on the detection rates of presumed trauma-related pathology using fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) in TBI patients with chronic, persistent symptoms. METHODS: 180 subjects with persistent neurobehavioral symptoms following head trauma referred by personal injury attorneys and 94 asymptomatic, age-matched volunteers were included in the study...
December 7, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927015/isolated-oculomotor-nerve-palsy-in-patients-with-mild-head-injury
#14
Tamara Tajsic, Angelos G Kolias, Tilak Das, Daniel Scoffings, Brinda Muthusamy, Matthew R Garnett, Peter J A Hutchinson
Isolated oculomotor nerve palsy following head injury is uncommon. It can only be diagnosed with confidence if it is known to have developed immediately following trauma and if adequate investigations exclude secondary causes. The recovery is only partial and this has repercussion on patients' quality of life.
December 7, 2016: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923230/skull-subsidence-due-to-periosteum-defect-following-craniotomy-in-a-child
#15
Hidetaka Arishima, Ayumi Akazawa, Ken-Ichiro Kikuta
We report a case of a 7-year-old child with a cranial deformity secondary to a craniotomy for an intracranial hematoma. He suffered from an acute epidural hematoma with a lineal fracture of the right temporal bone following a severe head injury. A large question mark-shaped skin flap with the periosteum and temporal muscle was created for a decompressive craniectomy; however, neither the acute epidural hematoma nor brain swelling was severe, and we performed a small craniotomy compared with the skin flap without a decompressive craniectomy...
December 7, 2016: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902676/dural-sinus-cerebral-venous-thrombosis-in-a-pediatric-trauma-patient-a-rare-complication-after-closed-head-injury
#16
Jonathan Wilcher, Michelle Pannell
OBJECTIVE: Closed head injury rarely predisposes patients, particularly children, to the development of dural sinus thrombosis. In addition, most cases of sinus thrombosis are subacute in nature. The following is a case report of a precipitous course of dural sinus thrombosis after closed head injury in a pediatric trauma patient. DESCRIPTION: A 14-year-old African American girl presented to the emergency department as a trauma activation. She was an unrestrained rear-seat passenger involved in a motor vehicle collision during which she was ejected...
December 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899434/development-of-cgrp-dependent-pain-and-headache-related-behaviours-in-a-rat-model-of-concussion-implications-for-mechanisms-of-post-traumatic-headache
#17
Dara Bree, Dan Levy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic headache (PTH) is one of the most common, debilitating and difficult symptoms to manage after a mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion. However, the mechanisms underlying PTH remain elusive, in part due to the lack of a clinically relevant animal model. Here, we characterized for the first time, headache and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of concussion evoked by a mild closed head injury (mCHI) - the major type of military and civilian related trauma associated with PTH - and tested responses to current and novel headache therapies...
November 29, 2016: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894562/todd-s-paresis-in-acute-mild-head-trauma
#18
Alan Cowley, David Wright, Thomas Breen, Richard Lyon
We present the case of an adult male who sustained Todd's paresis after a traumatically induced seizure in a patient with an isolated facial injury. The precipitating event was head trauma from a golf club. The patient had no previous history of seizures and went on to make a complete neurologic recovery with no cerebral pathology noted. A literature review suggests that Todd's paresis after trauma is very rare as opposed to occurring in the medical or long-term brain injury settings. Although the authors acknowledge that it may occur in trauma, the awareness within the prehospital setting is sufficiently rare for this case report to be of interest to prehospital clinicians; it is important prehospital clinicians are aware of this condition...
November 2016: Air Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889010/neuropsychiatric-aspects-of-concussion
#19
REVIEW
Rajiv Radhakrishnan, Amir Garakani, Lawrence S Gross, Marcia K Goin, Janet Pine, Andrew E Slaby, Calvin R Sumner, David A Baron
Over the past decade, concussion has become the most widely discussed injury in contact sports. However, concussions also occur in several other settings, such as non-contact sports, elderly individuals, young children, military personnel, and victims of domestic violence. Concussion is frequently undiagnosed as a cause of psychiatric morbidity, especially when the patient has no history of loss of consciousness or direct head trauma. Almost all of the extant literature focuses on traumatic brain injury and assumes that concussion is merely a mild form of traumatic brain injury, which has resulted in a lack of understanding about what concussion is, and how to diagnose, monitor, and treat its varied neuropsychiatric symptoms...
December 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884214/neuronal-and-glial-changes-in-the-brain-resulting-from-explosive-blast-in-an-experimental-model
#20
James A Goodrich, Jung H Kim, Robert Situ, Wesley Taylor, Ted Westmoreland, Fu Du, Steven Parks, Geoffrey Ling, Jung Y Hwang, Amedeo Rapuano, Faris A Bandak, Nihal C de Lanerolle
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is the signature injury in warfighters exposed to explosive blasts. The pathology underlying mTBI is poorly understood, as this condition is rarely fatal and thus postmortem brains are difficult to obtain for neuropathological studies. Here we report on studies of an experimental model with a gyrencephalic brain that is exposed to single and multiple explosive blast pressure waves. To determine injuries to the brain resulting from the primary blast, experimental conditions were controlled to eliminate any secondary or tertiary injury from blasts...
November 24, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
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