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Blunt head trauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495204/intracranial-pressure-monitoring-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injuries-a-closer-look-at-level-1-trauma-centers-in-the-united-states
#1
Piccinini Alice, Lewis Meghan, Benjamin Elizabeth, Aiolfi Alberto, Inaba Kenji, Demetriades Demetrios
INTRODUCTION: The Brain Trauma Foundation (BTF) recently updated recommendations for intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The effect of ICP monitoring on outcomes is controversial, and compliance with BTF guidelines is variable. The purpose of this study was to assess both compliance and outcomes at level I trauma centers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program database was queried for all patients admitted to level I trauma centers with isolated blunt severe TBI (AIS>3, GCS<9) who met criteria for ICP monitoring...
April 20, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489805/first-experience-of-ndasek-with-heads-up-surgery-a-case-report
#2
Yasser Helmy Mohamed, Masafumi Uematsu, Daisuke Inoue, Takashi Kitaoka
PURPOSE: To report a case of non-Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty (nDSAEK) using heads-up surgery. CASE/INTERVENTION: The case was a 72-years-old man who had history of left eye blunt trauma since childhood. One year ago, the patient was diagnosed to have left posttraumatic bullous keratopathy. The patient underwent lt nDSAEK by using the heads-up three-dimensional (3D) system last July. The surgery was performed with a Rescan 700 surgical microscope (Carl Zeiss), which is integrated with intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT) system...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485656/delayed-massive-epistaxis-from-traumatic-cavernous-carotid-false-aneurysms-a-report-of-two-unusual-cases
#3
Ncedile Mankahla, David LeFeuvre, Allan Taylor
Introduction Blunt head trauma can injure the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA). This may result in a carotid cavernous fistula (CCF). Rarely, a traumatic aneurysm may bleed medially causing massive epistaxis. Case presentation We present two cases of traumatic intracavernous carotid pseudoaneurysms with delayed massive epistaxis. The patients were managed with endovascular treatment involving coil embolization with parent vessel sparing and detachable balloon occlusion with carotid sacrifice...
January 1, 2017: Interventional Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473356/a-case-of-pulsatile-scalp-swelling-in-a-child
#4
Daisy Khera, Pushpinder Singh Khera, Arvind Sinha, Neeraj Mehta
Arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) are an entity most commonly seen in the head and neck region. An AVF is a direct connection between the arterial feeders and the draining veins without intervening capillary beds (unlike an arteriovenous malformation in which a nidus intervenes between the arteries and veins). We describe a case of traumatic AVF in a child aged 9 years, who presented with a pulsatile scalp swelling following blunt trauma to the head. It turned out to be an AVF between the superficial temporal artery and vein...
May 3, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463936/selective-vs-nonselective-embolization-vs-no-embolization-in-pelvic-trauma-a-multicenter-retrospective-cohort-study
#5
Aimee Hymel, Sabrina Asturias, Frank Zhao, Ryan Bliss, Thea Moran, Richard H Marshall, Elizabeth Benjamin, Herb A Phelan, Peter C Krause, Geoffrey S Marecek, Claudia Leonardi, Lance Stuke, John P Hunt, Jennifer L Mooney
BACKGROUND: Traumatic hemorrhage from pelvic fractures is a significant challenge and angioembolization has become standard. Optimal treatment is undefined in two clinical scenarios. The first is in the presence of a negative angiogram. Can arterial embolization treat venous bleeding by decreasing the arterial pressure head? If the angiogram is positive, is non-selective embolization (NSE) or selective embolization (SE) better? The purpose of this study is to determine if embolization following a negative angiogram aids in hemorrhage control and when the angiogram is positive, which level of embolization is superior? METHODS: A multicenter retrospective review was conducted including blunt trauma patients with pelvic fractures who underwent angiography...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458753/fibrinogen-degradation-product-levels-on-arrival-for-trauma-patients-requiring-a-transfusion-even-without-head-injury
#6
Youichi Yanagawa, Kouhei Ishikawa, Kei Jitsuiki, Toshihiko Yoshizawa, Yasumasa Oode, Kazuhiko Omori, Hiromichi Ohsaka
BACKGROUND: There have been few reports on the clinical significance of the fibrinogen degradation product (FDP) level in trauma patients with and without head injury. We retrospectively analyzed trauma patients with or without head injury to investigate the clinical significance of the FDP level. METHODS: From April 2013 to June 2015, a medical chart review was retrospectively performed for all patients with trauma. The exclusion criteria included patients who did not receive a transfusion...
2017: World Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452887/multicenter-retrospective-study-of-non-compressible-torso-hemorrhage-anatomic-locations-of-bleeding-and-comparison-of-endovascular-versus-open-approach
#7
Ronald Chang, Erin E Fox, Thomas J Greene, Brian J Eastridge, Ramyar Gilani, Kevin K Chung, Stacia M DeSantis, Joseph J DuBose, Jeffrey S Tomasek, Gerald R Fortuna, Valerie G Sams, S Rob Todd, Jeanette M Podbielski, Charles E Wade, John B Holcomb
OBJECTIVE: Rational development of technology for rapid control of non-compressible torso hemorrhage (NCTH) requires detailed understanding of what is bleeding. Our objectives were to describe the anatomic location of truncal bleeding in patients presenting with NCTH and compare endovascular (ENDO) versus open (OPEN) management. METHODS: Retrospective study of adult trauma patients with NCTH admitted to 4 urban level 1 trauma centers in the Houston and San Antonio metropolitan areas in 2008-2012...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446982/management-of-chest-trauma
#8
REVIEW
Corinna Ludwig, Aris Koryllos
Trauma is the leading cause of death worldwide. Approximately 2/3 of the patients have a chest trauma with varying severity from a simple rib fracture to penetrating injury of the heart or tracheobronchial disruption. Blunt chest trauma is most common with 90% incidence, of which less than 10% require surgical intervention of any kind. Mortality is second highest after head injury, which underlines the importance of initial management. Many of these deaths can be prevented by prompt diagnosis and treatment...
April 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439613/the-role-of-delayed-head-ct-in-evaluation-of-elderly-blunt-head-trauma-victims-taking-antithrombotic-therapy
#9
D Scantling, C Fischer, R Gruner, A Teichman, B McCracken, J Eakins
INTRODUCTION: Increasing active longevity has created an increasing surge of elderly trauma patients. The majority of these patients suffer blunt trauma and many are taking antithrombotic agents. The literature is mixed regarding the utility of routine repeat head CT in patients taking antithrombotic medications with a GCS of 15 and initial negative head CT. We hypothesized that scheduled delayed CT head 12 h after admission (D-CTH) in elderly blunt trauma victims would not identify clinically significant new hemorrhages or change management...
April 24, 2017: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438096/venous-air-embolism-an-under-recognised-entity-in-blunt-force-trauma-and-the-importance-of-radiology
#10
Marna du Plessis, Lorraine du Toit-Prinsloo
Air embolism (AE) is considered a rare event and can be either iatrogenic or traumatic. Various post-mortem methods to detect AE exist, of which radiology is preferred. The presence of air in the heart can be demonstrated using special dissection techniques where the heart is opened under water or by needle puncture from a water-filled syringe. Three cases of blunt-force head injury are presented herein, with AE being diagnosed by conventional radiography using a Lodox Statscan® full-body digital X-ray machine in all cases...
April 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427480/lessons-from-a-large-trauma-center-impact-of-blunt-chest-trauma-in-polytrauma-patients-still-a-relevant-problem
#11
REVIEW
Konstantina Chrysou, Gabriel Halat, Beatrix Hoksch, Ralph A Schmid, Gregor J Kocher
BACKGROUND: Thoracic trauma is the third most common cause of death after abdominal injury and head trauma in polytrauma patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate epidemiological data, treatment and outcome of polytrauma patients with blunt chest trauma in order to help improve management, prevent complications and decrease polytrauma patients' mortality. METHODS: In this retrospective study we included all polytrauma patients with blunt chest trauma admitted to our tertiary care center emergency department for a 2-year period, from June 2012 until May 2014...
April 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400667/epidemiology-of-lower-limb-musculoskeletal-trauma-with-associated-vascular-injuries-in-a-tertiary-care-institute-in-india
#12
Nirmal Raj Gopinathan, Siva Swaminathan Santhanam, Balaji Saibaba, Mandeep Singh Dhillon
BACKGROUND: Vascular trauma associated with bony injuries is an orthopaedic emergency. Lack of timely intervention can lead to loss of limb or even life. Inspite of the rising incidence of high speed road traffic accidents in India, there is paucity of literature regarding the demographic pattern, clinical morbidity, management strategies and outcome of arterial injuries associated with lower limb trauma. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiology and outcome of lower extremity musculoskeletal trauma with associated vascular injuries in a tertiary care institute in India...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399527/blunt-traumatic-extracranial-cerebrovascular-injury-and-ischemic-stroke
#13
Paul M Foreman, Mark R Harrigan
BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke occurs in a significant subset of patients with blunt traumatic cerebrovascular injury (TCVI). The patients are victims of motor vehicle crashes, assaults or other high-energy collisions, and suffer ischemic stroke due to injury to the extracranial carotid or vertebral arteries. SUMMARY: An increasing number of patients with TCVI are being identified, largely because of the expanding use of computed tomography angiography for screening patients with blunt trauma...
April 11, 2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397260/influence-of-euthanasia-method-on-blood-and-gill-variables-in-normoxic-and-hypoxic-gulf-killifish-fundulus-grandis
#14
K F Larter, B B Rees
In many experiments, euthanasia, or humane killing, of animals is necessary. Some methods of euthanasia cause death through cessation of respiratory or cardiovascular systems, causing oxygen levels of blood and tissues to drop. For experiments where the goal is to measure the effects of environmental low oxygen (hypoxia), the choice of euthanasia technique, therefore, may confound the results. This study examined the effects of four euthanasia methods commonly used in fish biology (overdose of MS-222, overdose of clove oil, rapid cooling and blunt trauma to the head) on variables known to be altered during hypoxia (haematocrit, plasma cortisol, blood lactate and blood glucose) or reflecting gill damage (trypan blue exclusion) and energetic status (ATP, ADP and ATP:ADP) in Gulf killifish Fundulus grandis after 24 h exposure to well-aerated conditions (normoxia, 7·93 mg O2  l(-1) , c...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394205/a-three-dimensional-computational-human-head-model-that-captures-live-human-brain-dynamics
#15
Shailesh Ganpule, Nitin P Daphalapurkar, Kaliat T Ramesh, Andrew K Knutsen, Dzung L Pham, Philip V Bayly, Jerry L Prince
Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a debilitating consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) attributed to abnormal stretching of axons caused by blunt head trauma or acceleration of the head. We developed an anatomically accurate, subject-specific, three-dimensional (3D) computational model of the human brain, and used it to study the dynamic deformations in the substructures of the brain when the head is subjected to rotational accelerations. The computational head models use anatomy and morphology of the white matter fibers obtained using MRI...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383154/the-forensic-implications-of-amphetamine-intoxication-in-cases-of-inflicted-blunt-craniocerebral-trauma
#16
Roger W Byard, James Donkin, Robert Vink
The effects of D-amphetamine on outcome after blunt craniocerebral trauma are characterized and the potential legal implications discussed. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) was induced under general anesthesia in adult, male Sprague Dawley rats using the impact acceleration model. At 10 min prior to injury, D-amphetamine (5 mg/kg) or saline vehicle was administered subcutaneously; animals were subsequently assessed over a 7-day period post-trauma for motor outcome using a rotarod device. D-amphetamine treated animals performed significantly better (p < 0...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382256/prognostication-of-traumatic-brain-injury-outcomes-in-older-trauma-patients-a-novel-risk-assessment-tool-based-on-initial-cranial-ct-findings
#17
Stanislaw P Stawicki, Thomas R Wojda, John D Nuschke, Ronnie N Mubang, James Cipolla, William S Hoff, Brian A Hoey, Peter G Thomas, Joan Sweeney, Daniel Ackerman, Jonathan Hosey, Steven Falowski
INTRODUCTION: Advanced age has been traditionally associated with worse traumatic brain injury (TBI) outcomes. Although prompt neurosurgical intervention (NSI, craniotomy or craniectomy) may be life-saving in the older trauma patient, it does not guarantee survival and/or return to preinjury functional status. The aim of this study was to determine whether a simple score, based entirely on the initial cranial computed tomography (CCT) is predictive of the need for NSI and key outcome measures (e...
January 2017: International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356162/blood-transfusion-and-coagulopathy-in-geriatric-trauma-patients
#18
Brett Mador, Bartolomeu Nascimento, Simon Hollands, Sandro Rizoli
BACKGROUND: Trauma resuscitation has undergone a paradigm shift with new emphasis on the early use of blood products and increased proportions of plasma and platelets. However, it is unclear how this strategy is applied or how effective it is in the elderly population. The study aim is to identify differences in transfusion practices and the coagulopathy of trauma in the elderly. METHODS: Data was prospectively collected on all consecutive patients that met trauma activation criteria at a Level I trauma centre...
March 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341799/use-of-traumatic-brain-injury-prediction-rules-with-clinical-decision-support
#19
Peter S Dayan, Dustin W Ballard, Eric Tham, Jeff M Hoffman, Marguerite Swietlik, Sara J Deakyne, Evaline A Alessandrini, Leah Tzimenatos, Lalit Bajaj, David R Vinson, Dustin G Mark, Steve R Offerman, Uli K Chettipally, Marilyn D Paterno, Molly H Schaeffer, Jun Wang, T Charles Casper, Howard S Goldberg, Robert W Grundmeier, Nathan Kuppermann
OBJECTIVES: We determined whether implementing the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) traumatic brain injury (TBI) prediction rules and providing risks of clinically important TBIs (ciTBIs) with computerized clinical decision support (CDS) reduces computed tomography (CT) use for children with minor head trauma. METHODS: Nonrandomized trial with concurrent controls at 5 pediatric emergency departments (PEDs) and 8 general EDs (GEDs) between November 2011 and June 2014...
March 24, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336014/clinical-significance-of-fibrinogen-degradation-product-among-traumatized-patients
#20
Kouhei Ishikawa, Kazuhiko Omori, Kei Jitsuiki, Hiromichi Ohsaka, Hiroshi Ito, Katsuhito Shimoyama, Toru Fukunaga, Norikazu Urabe, Souichirou Kitamura, Youichi Yanagawa
OBJECTIVE: We retrospectively analyzed trauma patients who were transported by a physician-staffed helicopter (doctor helicopter) to investigate the clinical significance of the fibrinogen degradation product (FDP) level on arrival. METHODS: From February 2011 to July 2016, a medical chart review was retrospectively performed for all patients with trauma who were transported by the doctor helicopter. The subjects were divided into 2 groups: a survival group and a fatal group...
March 2017: Air Medical Journal
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