Read by QxMD icon Read


Agnieszka Maszewska, Marta Zygmunt, Iwona Grzejdziak, Antoni Różalski
AIMS: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) caused by Proteus mirabilis are very difficult to treat due to the ability of biofilm formation and drug resistance of these bacteria. The aim of this study was to assess the anti-biofilm activity of phages and develop phage cocktail to combat biofilm of P. mirabilis strains. METHODS AND RESULTS: Planktonic forms and biofilms of 50 tested uropathogenic P. mirabilis strains showed different sensitivity to 13 phages used...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Alejandro Rico-Guevara, Kristiina J Hurme
We propose a practical concept that distinguishes the particular kind of weaponry that has evolved to be used in combat between individuals of the same species and sex, which we term intrasexually selected weapons (ISWs). We present a treatise of ISWs in nature, aiming to understand their distinction and evolution from other secondary sex traits, including from 'sexually selected weapons', and from sexually dimorphic and monomorphic weaponry. We focus on the subset of secondary sex traits that are the result of same-sex combat, defined here as ISWs, provide not previously reported evolutionary patterns, and offer hypotheses to answer questions such as: why have only some species evolved weapons to fight for the opposite sex or breeding resources? We examined traits that seem to have evolved as ISWs in the entire animal phylogeny, restricting the classification of ISW to traits that are only present or enlarged in adults of one of the sexes, and are used as weapons during intrasexual fights...
June 20, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
J Peter Cegielski
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) emerged shortly after introduction of rifamycins in the 1960s; isoniazid resistance had already emerged by the mid-1950s. Without these two drugs, tuberculosis is very difficult and costly to treat, with unacceptably high rates of treatment failure, death, loss to follow-up, and no known preventive treatment. Global attention first focused on MDR TB in the early 1990s when nosocomial outbreaks with high case fatality rates were reported in many countries. Prevalence data for MDR TB on a global scale first became available in 1997...
January 2018: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
Gwen Knight, Helen Lambert, Edward Feil, Mark Holmes, Jodi Lindsay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2018: Microbiology
Rajesh Bhatia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Wei Shen, Pan He, Chunsheng Xiao, Xuesi Chen
Conventional small-molecule antibiotics are facing a significant challenge of the rapidly developed drug resistance of pathogens. In contrast, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), an important component for innate host defenses, are now under intensive investigation as a promising antimicrobial agent for combating drug resistant pathogens. Most AMPs can effectively kill a broad spectrum of pathogens via physical disruption of microbial cellular membranes, which is identified to be difficult to develop resistance...
June 19, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Vanessa M S Vetter, Nils B Tjaden, Anja Jaeschke, Constanze Buhk, Veronika Wahl, Pawel Wasowicz, Anke Jentsch
Plant ecosystem engineers are widely used to combat land degradation. However, the ability of those plants to modulate limiting abiotic and biotic resources of other species can cause damage to ecosystems in which they become invasive. Here, we use Lupinus nootkatensis as example to estimate and project the hazardous potential of nitrogen fixing herbaceous plants in a sub-polar oceanic climate. L. nootkatensis was introduced to Iceland in the 1940s to address erosion problems and foster reforestation, but subsequently became a high-latitude invader...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Caroline Andrews, Mairi H McLean, Scott K Durum
The intestine serves as both our largest single barrier to the external environment and the host of more immune cells than any other location in our bodies. Separating these potential combatants is a single layer of dynamic epithelium composed of heterogeneous epithelial subtypes, each uniquely adapted to carry out a subset of the intestine's diverse functions. In addition to its obvious role in digestion, the intestinal epithelium is responsible for a wide array of critical tasks, including maintaining barrier integrity, preventing invasion by microbial commensals and pathogens, and modulating the intestinal immune system...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Bushra Uzair, Nagina Atlas, Sidra Batool Malik, Nazia Jamil, Temitope Ojuolape Salaam, Mujaddad Ur Rehman, Barkat Ali Khan
BACKGROUND: Cancer is considered one of the most predominant causes of morbidity and mortality all over the world and colorectal cancer is the most common fatal cancers, triggering the second cancer related death. Despite progress in understanding carcinogenesis and development in chemotherapeutics, there is an essential need to search for improved treatment. More than the half a century, cytotoxic and cytostatic agents have been examined as a potential treatment of cancer, among these agents; remarkable progresses have been reported by the use of the snake venom...
June 13, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Dongliang Guan, Feifei Chen, Faridoon Faridoon, Junjie Liu, Jian Li, Lefu Lan, Wei Huang
Vancomycin, as the last resort for intractable Gram-positive bacterial infections, is losing the efficacy with the emergence of vancomycin-resistant bacteria especially vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE). To combat this threat, we rationally designed and synthesized 39 novel vancomycin derivatives, via respective or combined modifications with metal-chelating, lipophilic, and galactose-attached strategies, for extensive SAR analysis. In a proposed mechanism, the conjugation of dipicolylamine (DPA) on 7th amino acid resorcinol position or C-terminus endued the vancomycin backbone with the binding activity to pyrophosphate moiety in lipid II while keeping the intrinsic binding affinity to the dipeptide terminus of the bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan precursor...
June 19, 2018: ChemMedChem
Karoline Herget, Hajo Frerichs, Felix Pfitzner, Muhammad Nawaz Tahir, Wolfgang Tremel
Transition-metal oxide nanoparticles and molecular coordination compounds are highlighted as functional mimics of halogenating enzymes. These enzymes are involved in halometabolite biosynthesis. Their activity is based upon the formation of hypohalous acids from halides and hydrogen peroxide or oxygen, which form bioactive secondary metabolites of microbial origin with strong antibacterial and antifungal activities in follow-up reactions. Therefore, enzyme mimics and halogenating enzymes may be valuable tools to combat biofilm formation...
June 19, 2018: Advanced Materials
Hafiz Mamoon Rehman, James William Cooper, Hon Ming Lam, Seung Hwan Yang
Legumes are the world's primary source of dietary protein and are particularly important for those in developing economies. However, the biofortification potential of legumes remains underexploited. Legumes offer a diversity of micronutrients and amino acids, exceeding or complementing the profiles of cereals. As such, the enhancement of legume nutritional composition presents an appealing target for addressing the "hidden hunger" of global micronutrient malnutrition. Affecting ~2 billion people, micronutrient malnutrition causes severe health effects ranging from stunted growth to reduced life span...
June 19, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Julian Rothen, Carl Murie, Jason Carnes, Atashi Anupama, Salim Abdulla, Mwajuma Chemba, Maxmillian Mpina, Marcel Tanner, B Kim Lee Sim, Stephen L Hoffman, Raphael Gottardo, Claudia Daubenberger, Ken Stuart
Malaria continues to be one of mankind's most devastating diseases despite the many and varied efforts to combat it. Indispensable for malaria elimination and eventual eradication is the development of effective vaccines. Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) is an invaluable tool for vaccine efficacy assessment and investigation of early immunological and molecular responses against Plasmodium falciparum infection. Here, we investigated gene expression changes following CHMI using RNA-Seq. Peripheral blood samples were collected in Bagamoyo, Tanzania, from ten adults who were injected intradermally (ID) with 2...
2018: PloS One
Valerie Fisher Shiu, Richard Keller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 16, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Jan Fritsche
Food Safety is of fundamental importance for the food processing industry, food retailers and distributors, as well as for the competent authorities because of its potentially direct impact on consumers' health. Next to the prevention of microbiological, chemical, and physical hazards increasing efforts are currently made to combat risks associated with food fraud or food authenticity. Food Safety Management Systems nowadays comprise food safety, food defense, and food fraud prevention measures trying to cope with the increasing complexity and globalization of the food supply chains...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Bidhu K Mohanti
Since 201 4, there is a shift in terror targets, with a 1 72% increase in the deaths of common citizens. India ranks fourth in the global terrorism index. Intelligence, security and counter-terrorism conjointly form the contours of priority for governance and public engagement but the attendant aspects of health system remain neglected. Recurring acts of global terrorism have given rise to unique medical requirements that can be termed as 'terror medicine', geared towards managing health impacts of terrorism and not just a single patient...
September 2017: National Medical Journal of India
Jeremy Pollack, Colin Holbrook, Daniel M T Fessler, Adam Maxwell Sparks, James G Zerbe
The perceived support of supernatural agents has been historically, ethnographically, and theoretically linked with confidence in engaging in violent intergroup conflict. However, scant experimental investigations of such links have been reported to date, and the extant evidence derives largely from indirect laboratory methods of limited ecological validity. Here, we experimentally tested the hypothesis that perceived supernatural aid would heighten inclinations toward coalitional aggression using a realistic simulated coalitional combat paradigm: competitive team paintball...
June 18, 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
Li Guo, Ruobing Xu, Lu Gou, Zhichao Liu, Yiming Zhao, Dingxin Liu, Lei Zhang, Hailan Chen, Michael G Kong
Viruses are serious pathogenic contamination that severely affect the environment and human health. Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma efficiently inactivates pathogenic bacteria, however, the mechanism of virus inactivation by plasma is not fully understood. In this study, surface plasma in argon mixed with 1% air and plasma-activated water were used to treat water containing bacteriophages. Both agents efficiently inactivated bacteriophages T4, Φ174, and MS2 in a time-dependent manner. Prolonged storage had marginal effects on the anti-viral activity of plasma-activated water...
June 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Xu Peng, Qiongyi Zhang, Cheng Liao, Weiping Han, Feng Xu
Obesity and its associated metabolic disorders are spreading at a fast pace throughout the world; thus, effective therapeutic approaches are necessary to combat this epidemic. Obesity develops when there is a greater caloric intake than energy expenditure. Promoting energy expenditure has recently attracted much attention as a promising approach for the management of body weight. Thermogenic adipocytes are capable of burning fat to dissipate chemical energy into heat, thereby enhancing energy expenditure. After the recent re-discovery of thermogenic adipocytes in adult humans, much effort has focused on understanding the molecular mechanisms, especially the epigenetic mechanisms, which regulate thermogenic adipocyte development and function...
June 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Isidro Palos, Julieta Luna-Herrera, Edgar E Lara-Ramírez, Alejandra Loera-Piedra, Emanuel Fernández-Ramírez, Ma Guadalupe Aguilera-Arreola, Alma D Paz-González, Antonio Monge, Baojie Wan, Scott Franzblau, Gildardo Rivera
Tuberculosis continues to be a public health problem in the world, and drug resistance has been a major obstacle in its treatment. Quinoxaline 1,4-di- N -oxide has been proposed as a scaffold to design new drugs to combat this disease. To examine the efficacy of this compound, this study evaluates methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, and n-propyl esters of quinoxaline 1,4-di- N -oxide derivatives in vitro against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (pansusceptible and monoresistant strains). Additionally, the inhibitory effect of esters of quinoxaline 1,4-di- N -oxide on M...
June 15, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"