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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433118/the-role-of-public-health-in-combatting-synthetic-cannabinoid-use-in-adolescents
#1
Katherine E Warren, Shirli Tay, Leana S Wen
As the country struggles to address an epidemic of alcohol and drug overdose, a wide-ranging category of chemical substances known as synthetic drugs have provoked a new sense of public urgency over the past decade. Synthetic cannabinoids, a heterogeneous and evolving set of synthetic compounds that act on endogenous cannabinoid receptors, have become particularly popular among adolescents due to their relative ease of access and reputation as a "legal high." The Baltimore City Health Department has worked to combat the recent surge in synthetic drug use through a major public awareness campaign, legislative reform, and retailer engagement and compliance initiative...
May 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432145/bacterial-siderophores-hijack-neutrophil-functions
#2
Piu Saha, Beng San Yeoh, Rodrigo A Olvera, Xia Xiao, Vishal Singh, Deepika Awasthi, Bhagawat C Subramanian, Qiuyan Chen, Madhu Dikshit, Yanming Wang, Carole A Parent, Matam Vijay-Kumar
Neutrophils are the primary immune cells that respond to inflammation and combat microbial transgression. To thrive, the bacteria residing in their mammalian host have to withstand the antibactericidal responses of neutrophils. We report that enterobactin (Ent), a catecholate siderophore expressed by Escherichia coli, inhibited PMA-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in mouse and human neutrophils. Ent also impaired the degranulation of primary granules and inhibited phagocytosis and bactericidal activity of neutrophils, without affecting their migration and chemotaxis...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431544/strategies-for-monitoring-and-combating-resistance-to-combination-kinase-inhibitors-for-cancer-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Leanne G Ahronian, Ryan B Corcoran
Targeted therapies such as kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies have dramatically altered cancer care in recent decades. Although these targeted therapies have improved patient outcomes in several cancer types, resistance ultimately develops to these agents. One potential strategy proposed to overcome acquired resistance involves taking repeat tumor biopsies at the time of disease progression, to identify the specific molecular mechanism driving resistance in an individual patient and to select a new agent or combination of agents capable of surmounting that specific resistance mechanism...
April 21, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431239/resident-macrophages-near-and-dear-to-your-heart
#4
Nikhil V Munshi
In this issue of Cell, Hulsmans et al. identify a subset of macrophages residing within the cardiac conduction system, which orchestrates cardiac rhythm. Macrophages directly couple with cardiomyocytes, and their perturbation alters cardiac conduction, suggesting that pharmacological manipulation of resident macrophages might represent a new strategy to combat cardiac arrhythmias.
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431088/stationary-phase-genes-upregulated-by-polyamines-are-responsible-for-the-formation-of-escherichia-coli-persister-cells-tolerant-to-netilmicin
#5
Alexander G Tkachenko, Natalya M Kashevarova, Elena A Tyuleneva, Mikhail S Shumkov
Persisters are rare phenotypic variants of regular bacterial cells that survive lethal antibiotics or stresses owing to slowing down of their metabolism. Recently, we have shown that polyamine putrescine can upregulate persister cell formation in Escherichia coli via the stimulation of rpoS expression, encoding a master regulator of general stress response. We hypothesized that rmf and yqjD, the stationary-phase genes responsible for ribosome inactivation, might be good candidates for the similar role owing to their involvement in translational arrest and the ability to be affected by polyamines...
April 19, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430712/apolipoprotein-e-variants-and-genetic-susceptibility-to-combat-related-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-a-meta-analysis
#6
Yang Roby
BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) has recently been studied as a risk factor for association with developing combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the military population. These studies have yielded inconsistent findings. The present study carried out a meta-analysis to establish whether the APOE polymorphism confers increased susceptibility to combat-related PTSD. METHODS: PubMed, Medline, Embase, PsycInfo, and Google Scholar were searched for potential publications relating to patients with PTSD in military settings with combat exposure...
April 18, 2017: Psychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430642/immunocompetent-mouse-allograft-models-for-development-of-therapies-to-target-breast-cancer-metastasis
#7
Yuan Yang, Howard H Yang, Ying Hu, Peter H Watson, Huaitian Liu, Thomas R Geiger, Miriam R Anver, Diana C Haines, Philip Martin, Jeffrey E Green, Maxwell P Lee, Kent W Hunter, Lalage M Wakefield
Effective drug development to combat metastatic disease in breast cancer would be aided by the availability of well-characterized preclinical animal models that (a) metastasize with high efficiency, (b) metastasize in a reasonable time-frame, (c) have an intact immune system, and (d) capture some of the heterogeneity of the human disease. To address these issues, we have assembled a panel of twelve mouse mammary cancer cell lines that can metastasize efficiently on implantation into syngeneic immunocompetent hosts...
February 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429983/children-as-agents-of-change-in-combatting-antibiotic-resistance
#8
Andreea Molnar
Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide problem and changes are needed in the way antibiotics are used. The value of engaging children as key contributors in health care campaigns to increase the appropriate use of antibiotics has not been fully recognized. Little is known about how to design educational materials for children in order to enable them to be agents of change in their communities. Science education needs to improve the way it engages children so as to give them the tools needed to make responsible decisions on antibiotic use...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Health Services Research & Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429916/opportunities-and-barriers-to-public-health-nutrition-education-in-vietnamese-universities
#9
Quynh Th Pham, Anthony Worsley, Mark Lawrence, Bernie Marshall
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A core challenge for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in combating the negative effects of the nutrition transition is to implement appropriate prevention strategies to halt the increasing prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases (NCDs), against a background of prevailing under nutrition. There have been several proposals for the enhancement of university nutrition education for future health and related professionals who are expected to communicate knowledge of health risks to the broad community...
May 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429544/an-innovative-cooling-jacket-to-combat-heat-intolerance-in-children-with-anhidrosis
#10
Arun C Inamadar, Aparna Palit, Neha Khurana
Hyperthermia and heat intolerance are distressing symptoms in patients with anhidrosis. Body cooling devices are an integral part of management of these patients. A cooling jacket made from easily available materials has been invented for a girl with congenital insensitivity to pain and anhidrosis with severe heat intolerance. This innovative cooling jacket may be helpful for anhidrotic children in resource-poor situations.
April 21, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428767/social-cognitive-training-improves-emotional-processing-and-reduces-aggressive-attitudes-in-ex-combatants
#11
Sandra Trujillo, Natalia Trujillo, Jose D Lopez, Diana Gomez, Stella Valencia, Jorge Rendon, David A Pineda, Mario A Parra
Emotional processing (EP) is a complex cognitive function necessary to successfully adjust to social environments where we need to interpret and respond to cues that convey threat or reward signals. Ex-combatants have consistently shown atypical EP as well as poor social interactions. Available reintegration programs aim to facilitate the re-adaptation of ex-combatants to their communities. However, they do not incorporate actions to improve EP and to enhance cognitive-emotional regulation. The present study was aimed at evaluating the usefulness of an intervention focused on Social Cognitive Training (SCT), which was designed to equip ex-combatants enrolled in the Social Reintegration Route with EP and social cognition skills...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428691/relationship-between-xanthine-oxidase-ischemia-modified-albumin-nitric-oxide-with-antioxidants-in-non-pregnants-pre-and-post-delivery-of-normal-pregnants-and-preeclampsia
#12
Vanishree Bambrana, C D Dayanand, Pushpa Kotur
Preeclampsia is a multisystem disorder involves altered homeostasis of oxidants-antioxidants, inflammatory process and endothelial dysfunction. The present study aim was to determine the levels of oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, ischemia modified albumin and xanthine oxidase), nutrient antioxidants (vitamin C and vitamin E), enzyme antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase glutathione reductase), total antioxidant status (TAS) and its association with nitric oxide...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428050/socioeconomic-disparity-in-global-burden-of-cataract-an-analysis-for-2013-with-time-trends-since-1990
#13
Lixia Lou, Jingyi Wang, Peifang Xu, Xin Ye, Juan Ye
PURPOSE: To assess socioeconomic disparity in global burden of cataract, by using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). DESIGN: International, comparative burden-of-disease study. METHODS: Published data on national age-standardized DALY rates caused by cataract and human development index (HDI) between 1990 and 2013 were obtained. The association between age-standardized DALY rates and HDI in 2013 was analyzed. The health-related Gini coefficients and the concentration indexes were calculated to explore the trends in between-country inequality in cataract burden from 1990 to 2013...
April 17, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427925/effect-of-home-and-community-based-physical-activity-interventions-on-physical-function-among-cancer-survivors-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Maria C Swartz, Zakkoyya H Lewis, Elizabeth J Lyons, Kristofer Jennings, Addie Middleton, Rachel R Deer, Demi Arnold, Kaitlin Dresser, Kenneth J Ottenbacher, James S Goodwin
OBJECTIVE: We reviewed randomized trials to examine the effect of home and community-based physical activity interventions on physical functioning among cancer survivors based on the most prevalent physical function measures. DATA SOURCES: Five electronic databases-Medline Ovid, Pubmed, CINAHL, Web of Science, and PsychINFO-were searched from inception to March 2016 for relevant articles. STUDY SELECTION: Search terms included: community-based interventions, physical functioning, and cancer survivors...
April 17, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427561/molecular-targets-of-ascochlorin-and-its-derivatives-for-cancer-therapy
#15
Jason Chua Min-Wen, Benjamin Chua Yan-Jiang, Srishti Mishra, Xiaoyun Dai, Junji Magae, Ng Shyh-Chang, Alan Prem Kumar, Gautam Sethi
Cancer is an extremely complex disease comprising of a multitude of characteristic hallmarks that continue to evolve with time. At the genomic level, random mutations leading to deregulation of diverse oncogenic signal transduction cascades and polymorphisms coupled with environmental as well as life style-related factors are major causative agent contributing to chemoresistance and the failure of conventional therapies as well as molecular targeted agents. Hence, there is an urgent need to identify novel alternative therapies based on alternative medicines to combat this dreaded disease...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427355/identifying-and-characterizing-hepatitis-c-virus-hotspots-in-massachusetts-a-spatial-epidemiological-approach
#16
Thomas J Stopka, Michael A Goulart, David J Meyers, Marga Hutcheson, Kerri Barton, Shauna Onofrey, Daniel Church, Ashley Donahue, Kenneth K H Chui
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections have increased during the past decade but little is known about geographic clustering patterns. METHODS: We used a unique analytical approach, combining geographic information systems (GIS), spatial epidemiology, and statistical modeling to identify and characterize HCV hotspots, statistically significant clusters of census tracts with elevated HCV counts and rates. We compiled sociodemographic and HCV surveillance data (n = 99,780 cases) for Massachusetts census tracts (n = 1464) from 2002 to 2013...
April 20, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427337/treatment-seeking-behaviour-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-estimated-using-a-bayesian-model
#17
Victor A Alegana, Jim Wright, Carla Pezzulo, Andrew J Tatem, Peter M Atkinson
BACKGROUND: Seeking treatment in formal healthcare for uncomplicated infections is vital to combating disease in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Healthcare treatment-seeking behaviour varies within and between communities and is modified by socio-economic, demographic, and physical factors. As a result, it remains a challenge to quantify healthcare treatment-seeking behaviour using a metric that is comparable across communities. Here, we present an application for transforming individual categorical responses (actions related to fever) to a continuous probabilistic estimate of fever treatment for one country in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)...
April 20, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427288/cigarette-smokers-develop-altered-erythrocyte-membrane-composition-an-investigation-unmasking-the-role-of-membrane-bound-integral-protein-glut-1
#18
Jyotirmoy Sikdar, Paromita Seal, Amartya Roy, Rajen Haldar
Erythrocytes in cigarette smokers are prone to oxidative damage. Here we sought to elucidate the facts behind modifications and possible defense system developed in erythrocyte of cigarette smokers. We observed significant increase in stomatocytes and spherocytes, and osmotic fragility of erythrocyte, along with reduced level of protein thiol and increased fluorescence anisotropy in isolated membrane. Denaturing gel electrophoresis indicated alterations in band 3, band 4.2 and band 4.5. Among those, Glut 1 (i...
April 20, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427045/mir-142-3p-overexpression-increases-chemo-sensitivity-of-nsclc-by-inhibiting-hmgb1-mediated-autophagy
#19
Yuqing Chen, Xin Zhou, Jianou Qiao, Aihua Bao
BACKGROUND: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a deadly cancer with high mortality rate. Drug resistance represents a main obstacle in NSCLC treatment. High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein promotes drug resistance in NSCLC cells by activating protective autophagy. METHODS: In the current study, we investigated the regulatory role of microRNA-142-3p (miR-142-3p) in HMGB1-mediated autophagy of NSCLC cells and its impact on drug resistance of NSCLC in vitro and in vivo...
March 16, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426786/t140-blocks-the-sdf-1-cxcr4-signaling-pathway-and-prevents-cartilage-degeneration-in-an-osteoarthritis-disease-model
#20
Kun Wang, Yanlin Li, Rui Han, Guofeng Cai, Chuan He, Guoliang Wang, Di Jia
Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common diseases affecting older people; however, there remains no effective targeted drug to combat OA. The aims of this study were (1) to explore the effect of T140 in regulating degeneration of articular cartilage in vivo by targeted blocking of the SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling pathway, and (2) to provide experimental evidence for the development of a novel OA-targeted pharmacotherapy. Thirty-six healthy Hartley guinea pigs were randomly divided into three groups: a T140-treated group (n = 12), a phosphate buffer saline control group (n = 12) and an untreated control group (n = 12)...
2017: PloS One
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