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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228234/tgfbr2-inactivation-facilitates-cellular-plasticity-and-development-of-pten-null-prostate-cancer
#1
Wei Zhao, Peng Tan, Qingyuan Zhu, Adebusola Ajibade, Teng Long, Wenyong Long, Qingtian Li, Pinghua Liu, Bo Ning, Helen Y Wang, Rong-Fu Wang
Mutations in tumors can create a state of increased cellular plasticity that promotes resistance to treatment. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop novel strategies for identifying key factors that regulate cellular plasticity in order to combat resistance to chemotherapy and radiation treatment. Here we report that prostate epithelial cell reprogramming could be exploited to identify key factors required for promoting prostate cancer tumorigenesis and cellular plasticity. Deletion of phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) and transforming growth factor-beta receptor type 2 (Tgfbr2) may increase prostate epithelial cell reprogramming efficiency in vitro and cause rapid tumor development and early mortality in vivo...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228063/what-matters-in-chronic-burkholderia-cenocepacia-infection-in-cystic-fibrosis-insights-from-comparative-genomics
#2
Jaroslav Nunvar, Vaclav Capek, Karel Fiser, Libor Fila, Pavel Drevinek
Burkholderia cenocepacia causes severe pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Since the bacterium is virtually untreatable by antibiotics, chronic infections persist for years and might develop into fatal septic pneumonia (cepacia syndrome, CS). To devise new strategies to combat chronic B. cenocepacia infections, it is essential to obtain comprehensive knowledge about their pathogenesis. We conducted a comparative genomic analysis of 32 Czech isolates of epidemic clone B. cenocepacia ST32 isolated from various stages of chronic infection in 8 CF patients...
December 11, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228052/tools-for-fairness-increased-structure-in-the-selection-process-reduces-discrimination
#3
Sima Wolgast, Martin Bäckström, Fredrik Björklund
Employment discrimination causes problems at the labor market, and is hard to combat. Can increasing the degree of structure when selecting applicants increase fairness? Students were asked to perform a computerized selection task and were either provided with tools for systematizing information about the applicants (structured selection) or no such tools (unstructured selection). We hypothesized and found that a structured process, where employing recruitment tools rather than the recruiter's impressionistic judgment is key, improves the ability to identify job-relevant criteria and hence selecting more qualified applicants, even when in-group favoritism is tempting (e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227931/synthesis-and-antibacterial-evaluation-of-novel-cationic-chalcone-derivatives-possessing-broad-spectrum-antibacterial-activity
#4
Wen-Chao Chu, Peng-Yan Bai, Zhao-Qing Yang, De-Yun Cui, Yong-Gang Hua, Yi Yang, Qian-Qian Yang, En Zhang, Shangshang Qin
There is an urgent need to identify new antibiotics with novel mechanisms that combat antibiotic resistant bacteria. Herein, a series of chalcone derivatives that mimic the essential properties of cationic antimicrobial peptides were designed and synthesized. Antibacterial activities against drug-sensitive bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica, as well as clinical multiple drug resistant isolates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), KPC-2-producing and NDM-1-producing Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were evaluated...
December 5, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227425/editor-s-commentary-vaccines-as-a-tool-to-combat-antibiotic-resistance
#5
Steven Black
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227423/evaluating-the-potential-health-and-revenue-outcomes-of-a-100-healthy-vending-machine-nutrition-policy-at-a-large-agency-in-los-angeles-county-2013-2015
#6
Ranjana N Wickramasekaran, Brenda Robles, George Dewey, Tony Kuo
CONTEXT: Healthy vending machine policies are viewed as a promising strategy for combating the growing obesity epidemic in the United States. Few studies have evaluated the short- and intermediate-term outcomes of healthy vending policies, especially for interventions that require 100% healthy products to be stocked. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential impact of a 100% healthy vending machine nutrition policy. DESIGN: The vendor's quarterly revenue, product sales records, and nutritional information data from 359 unique vending machines were used to conduct a baseline and follow-up policy analysis...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227418/development-and-validation-of-surveillance-based-algorithms-to-estimate-hepatitis-c-treatment-and-cure-in-new-york-city
#7
Miranda S Moore, Angelica Bocour, Lizeyka Jordan, Emily McGibbon, Jay K Varma, Ann Winters, Fabienne Laraque
CONTEXT: Treatment options for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) have improved in recent years. The burden of HCV in New York City (NYC) is high. Measuring treatment and cure among NYC residents with HCV infection will allow the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) to appropriately plan interventions, allocate resources, and identify disparities to combat the hepatitis C epidemic in NYC. OBJECTIVE: To validate algorithms designed to estimate treatment and cure of HCV using RNA test results reported through routine surveillance...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227011/synthesis-of-novel-benzimidazole-acrylonitriles-for-inhibition-of-plasmodium-falciparum-growth-by-dual-target-inhibition
#8
Kalicharan Sharma, Apeksha Shrivastava, Ram N Mehra, Girdhar S Deora, Mohammad M Alam, Mohammad S Zaman, Mymoona Akhter
Antimalarial drug resistance has emerged as a threat for treating malaria, generating a need to design and develop newer, more efficient antimalarial agents. This research aimed to identify novel leads as antimalarials. Dual receptor mechanism could be a good strategy to combat developing drug resistance. A series of benzimidazole acrylonitriles containing 18 compounds were designed, synthesized and evaluated for cytotoxicity, heme binding, ferriprotoporphyrin IX biomineralisation inhibition, and falcipain-2 enzyme assay...
December 11, 2017: Archiv der Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226821/patterns-of-civilian-and-child-deaths-due-to-war-related-violence-in-syria-a-comparative-analysis-from-the-violation-documentation-center-dataset-2011-16
#9
Debarati Guha-Sapir, Benjamin Schlüter, Jose Manuel Rodriguez-Llanes, Louis Lillywhite, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei Hicks
BACKGROUND: Since March, 2011, the Syrian civil war has lowered life expectancy by as much as 20 years. We describe demographic, spatial, and temporal patterns of direct deaths of civilians and opposition combatants from conflict-related violence in 6 years of war. METHODS: We analysed conflict-related violent deaths with complete information on date, place, and cause of death and demographic group occurring from March 18, 2011, to Dec 31, 2016, recorded by the Violation Documentation Center (VDC)...
November 29, 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226792/posttraumatic-world-assumptions-among-treatment-seeking-refugees
#10
F Jackie June Ter Heide, Marieke Sleijpen, Niels van der Aa
The clinical relevance of negative changes in cognitions about oneself, others, and the world is reflected in the diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the DSM-5 and complex posttraumatic stress disorder in the ICD-11. Although such changes in cognition have been posited to be especially relevant for traumatised refugees, few studies have examined this in refugee populations. The present study used a cross-sectional design to compare negative cognitions among 213 adult treatment-seeking refugees with those in previously published samples from the general population, veterans with combat-related PTSD, and whiplash victims...
October 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226386/theranostic-2d-tantalum-carbide-mxene
#11
Han Lin, Youwei Wang, Shanshan Gao, Yu Chen, Jianlin Shi
The large-dimensional and rigid ceramic bulks fabricated by high-temperature solid-phase reaction and sintering have never been considered for possibly entering and circulating within the blood vessels for biomedical applications, especially on combating cancer. Here, it is reported for the first time that MAX ceramic biomaterials exhibit unique functionalities for dual-mode photoacoustic/computed tomography imaging and are highly effective for in vivo photothermal ablation of tumors upon being exfoliated into ultrathin nanosheets within atomic thickness (MXene)...
December 11, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225562/varying-age-gender-associations-between-body-mass-index-and-urban-greenspace
#12
Heather A Sander, Debarchana Ghosh, Cody B Hodson
Urban greenspace benefits urbanites in numerous ways ranging from regulating flooding, air quality, and local climate to providing opportunities for exercise and relaxation. These benefits may influence human health. Greenspace, for example, may facilitate exercise, thereby helping to reduce body mass index (BMI) and combat obesity, a current epidemic of great public health concern. Little evidence exists to support this assertion, however, and we lack a full understanding of the mechanisms whereby this relationship operates, the populations for whom greenspace is linked to weight status, and the aspects of urban greenspace that are linked to weight status...
August 2017: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225379/tailoring-trehalose-for-biomedical-and-biotechnological-applications
#13
Mara K O'Neill, Brent F Piligian, Claire D Olson, Peter J Woodruff, Benjamin M Swarts
Trehalose is a non-reducing sugar whose ability to stabilize biomolecules has brought about its widespread use in biological preservation applications. Trehalose is also an essential metabolite in a number of pathogens, most significantly the global pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, though it is absent in humans and other mammals. Recently, there has been a surge of interest in modifying the structure of trehalose to generate analogues that have applications in biomedical research and biotechnology. Non-degradable trehalose analogues could have a number of advantages as bioprotectants and food additives...
September 2017: Pure and Applied Chemistry. Chimie Pure et Appliquée
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224099/the-role-of-skeletal-muscle-estrogen-receptors-in-metabolic-homeostasis-and-insulin-sensitivity
#14
Andrea L Hevener, Zhenqi Zhou, Brian G Drew, Vicent Ribas
Women in the modern era are challenged with facing menopausal symptoms as well as heightened disease risk associated with increasing adiposity and metabolic dysfunction for up to three decades of life. Treatment strategies to combat metabolic dysfunction and associated pathologies have been hampered by our lack of understanding regarding the biological causes of these clinical conditions and our incomplete understanding regarding the effects of estrogens and the tissue-specific functions and molecular actions of its receptors...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223953/potential-role-for-acupuncture-in-the-treatment-of-food-addiction-and-obesity
#15
Jason Aaron Chen, Justin Albert Chen, Sanghoon Lee, Gerard Mullin
Addressing the global obesity epidemic requires innovative approaches that are also acceptable to affected individuals. There is growing evidence suggesting that food addiction, one contributor to obesity, bears many similarities to drug and alcohol addiction, presenting a potential role for addiction-focused acupuncture as a novel treatment modality. In this perspective article, we begin by briefly reviewing the evidence linking food and drug/alcohol addiction. We then describe the development of an acupuncture-based protocol for treating opioid addiction in Hong Kong in the 1970s and discuss the evidence base for acupuncture's efficacy in treating a range of substance use disorders...
December 9, 2017: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223039/n-acetyl-l-cysteine-ameliorates-the-pm2-5-induced-oxidative-stress-by-regulating-sirt-1-in-rats
#16
Lu Yang, Zheng Duan, Xin Liu, Yadong Yuan
Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), a class III histone deacetylase, plays a major role in combating cellular oxidative stress injury. However, the role of SIRT1 in oxidative stress induced by particulate matter remains unclear. A total of 32 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into PM2.5, PM2.5+NAC, filtered air (control), and filtered air+NAC (NAC control) groups. The expressions of MnSOD, SIRT1, and FOXO3a were examined at both transcriptional and protein levels. The expression levels of MnSOD, SIRT1, and FOXO3a reduced significantly (P<0...
November 20, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223004/towards-utilization-of-the-human-genome-and-microbiome-for-personalized-nutrition
#17
REVIEW
Stavros Bashiardes, Anastasia Godneva, Eran Elinav, Eran Segal
Generalized dietary and lifestyle guidelines have been formulated and published for decades now from a variety of relevant agencies in an attempt to guide people towards healthy choices. As the pandemic rise in metabolic diseases continues to increase, it has become clear that the one-fit-for-all diet approach does not work and that there is a significant variation in inter-individual responses to diet and lifestyle interventions. Recent technological advances have given an unprecedented insight into the sources of this variation, pointing towards our genome and microbiome as potentially and previously under-explored culprits contributing to individually unique dietary responses...
December 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221669/regulation-of-pro-and-anti-atherogenic-cytokines
#18
Mitali Ray, Michael V Autieri
Despite advances in prevention and treatment, vascular diseases continue to account for significant morbidity and mortality in the developed world. Incidence is expected to worsen as the number of patients with common co-morbidities linked with atherosclerotic vascular disease, such as obesity and diabetes, continues to increase, reaching epidemic proportions. Atherosclerosis is a lipid-driven vascular inflammatory disease involving multiple cell types in various stages of inflammation, activation, apoptosis, and necrosis...
December 5, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219305/brucellosis-improved-diagnostics-and-vaccine-insights-from-synthetic-glycans
#19
David R Bundle, John McGiven
Brucellosis is a serious zoonotic bacterial disease that is ranked by the World Health Organization among the top seven "neglected zoonoses" that threaten human health and cause poverty. It is a costly, highly contagious disease that affects ruminants, cattle, sheep, goats, and other productive animals such as pigs. Symptoms include abortions, infertility, decreased milk production, weight loss, and lameness. Brucellosis is also the most common bacterial disease that is transmitted from animals to humans, with approximately 500 000 new human cases each year...
December 8, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218845/probiotic-consortia-are-not-uniformly-effective-against-different-amphibian-chytrid-pathogen-isolates
#20
Rachael E Antwis, Xavier A Harrison
Symbiotic bacterial communities can protect their hosts from infection by pathogens. Treatment of wild individuals with protective bacteria (probiotics) isolated from hosts can combat the spread of emerging infectious diseases. However, it is unclear whether candidate probiotic bacteria can offer consistent protection across multiple isolates of globally-distributed pathogens. Here we use the lethal amphibian fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis to investigate whether probiotic richness (number of bacteria) or genetic distance among consortia members influences broad-scale in vitro inhibitory capabilities of probiotics across multiple isolates of the pathogen...
December 8, 2017: Molecular Ecology
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