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Sana AlQarni, Yazeed Al-Sheikh, Donald Campbell, Mark Drotar, Adele Hannigan, Shelagh Boyle, Pawel Herzyk, Andrew Kossenkov, Kate Armfield, Lauren Jamieson, Mariarca Bailo, Paul M Lieberman, Penelope Tsimbouri, Joanna B Wilson
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated Burkitt's lymphoma is characterised by the deregulation of c-Myc expression and a restricted viral gene expression pattern in which the EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA1) is the only viral protein to be consistently expressed. EBNA1 is required for viral genome propagation and segregation during latency. However, it has been much debated whether the protein plays a role in viral-associated tumourigenesis. We show that the lymphomas which arise in EµEBNA1 transgenic mice are unequivocally linked to EBNA1 expression and that both C-Myc and Mdm2 deregulation are central to this process...
April 25, 2018: Oncogene
Mohamed Sahloul, D Bowley, E Kirkman, H Doughty
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Bruno José Martins Da Silva, Amanda Anastácia Pinto Hage, Edilene Oliveira Silva, Ana Paula Drummond Rodrigues
Leishmaniasis, a neglected disease caused by Leishmania protozoans, primarily affects people in tropical and subtropical areas. Chemotherapy based on the use of pentavalent antimonials, amphotericin B, paromomycin, miltefosine and liposomal amphotericin B is currently the only effective treatment. However, adverse effects, long-term treatment and the emergence of parasite resistance have led to the search for alternative treatments. Natural products used in traditional medicine provide an unlimited source of molecules for the identification of new drugs, and the Amazon region has abundant biodiversity that includes several species of plants and animals, providing a rich source of new products and compounds...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Integrative Medicine
Jessica Stevenson, Allison Tong, Talia Gutman, Katrina L Campbell, Jonathan C Craig, Mark A Brown, Vincent W Lee
OBJECTIVES: Diet and fluid management can reduce mortality, serious comorbidities, and debilitating symptoms in patients on hemodialysis, but restrictions may also be a major burden, and nonadherence remains high. We aimed to describe the perspectives and experiences of patients on hemodialysis regarding their dietary management to understand both facilitators and barriers to adherence and to identify strategies to improve care. DESIGN AND METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 35 people on maintenance hemodialysis from six dialysis units in New South Wales, Australia...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Renal Nutrition
Garrett B Hardy, Joseph K Maddry, Patrick C Ng, Shelia C Savell, Allyson A Arana, Avery Kester, Vikhyat S Bebarta
INTRODUCTION: Analysis of modern military conflicts suggests that airway compromise remains the second leading cause of preventable death of combat fatalities. This study compares outcomes of combat casualties that received prehospital airway interventions, specifically bag valve mask (BVM) ventilation, cricothyrotomy, and supraglottic airway (SGA) placement. The goal is to compare the effectiveness of airway management strategies used in the military pre-hospital setting. METHODS: This retrospective chart review of 1267 US Army medical evacuation patient care records, compared outcomes of casualties that received prehospital advanced airway interventions...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Weigang Bai, Haiyan Wang, Ke He, Ruiqin Zhao
The packets carried along a pre-defined route in underwater sensor networks are very vulnerble. Node mobility or intermittent channel availability easily leads to unreachable routing. Opportunistic routing has been proven to be a promising paradigm to design routing protocols for underwater sensor networks. It takes advantage of the broadcast nature of the wireless medium to combat packet losses and selects potential paths on the fly. Finding an appropriate forwarding candidate set is a key issue in opportunistic routing...
April 23, 2018: Sensors
Yee Meng Chong, Kah Yan How, Wai Fong Yin, Kok Gan Chan
The quorum sensing (QS) system has been used by many opportunistic pathogenic bacteria to coordinate their virulence determinants in relation to cell-population density. As antibiotic-resistant bacteria are on the rise, interference with QS has been regarded as a novel way to control bacterial infections. As such, many plant-based natural products have been widely explored for their therapeutic roles. These natural products may contain anti-QS compounds that could block QS signals generation or transmission to combat QS pathogens...
April 21, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Asma Ansari, Sidra Pervez, Urooj Javed, Muhammad Ishaque Abro, Muhammad Asif Nawaz, Shah Ali Ul Qader, Afsheen Aman
Metallic nanoparticles have a substantial scientific interest because of their distinctive physicochemical and antimicrobial properties and the emergence of multidrug resistant pathogens could unlock the potential of nanoparticles to combat infectious diseases. The aim of the current study is to enhance the antibacterial potential of purified bacteriocin by combining bacteriocin and antibacterial silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Hence, the interaction of natural antimicrobial compounds and antibacterial nanoparticles can be used as a potential tool for combating infectious diseases...
April 21, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Rebecca Vaudreuil, Luis Avila, Joke Bradt, Paul Pasquina
PURPOSE: Music therapy has a long history of treating the physiological, psychological, and neurological injuries of war. Recently, there has been an increase in the use of music therapy and other creative arts therapies in the care of combat injured service members returning to the United States from Iraq and Afghanistan, especially those with complex blast-related injuries. This case report describes the role of music therapy in the interdisciplinary rehabilitation of a severely injured service member...
April 24, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Julian D Ford, Damion J Grasso, Carolyn A Greene, Michelle Slivinsky, Jason C DeViva
A randomized controlled trial pilot study (; NCT01228539) with N = 31 U.S. male military recent combat veterans with PTSD and severe anger problems was conducted comparing 10-session individual therapy versions of Trauma Affect Regulation: Guide for Education and Therapy (TARGET) versus prolonged exposure (PE). TARGET had fewer drop-outs than PE (i.e., 29% vs. 64%). At post-test, improvements were found for both interventions in increased emotion regulation and hope, and reduced PTSD symptoms, hostility, experiential avoidance, and mental health problems...
April 23, 2018: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Tessa K Kritikos, Jonathan S Comer, Meiqi He, Laura C Curren, Martha C Tompson
In this meta-analysis, we review findings on the relationships between parental combat exposure and PTSD/PTSS in military-serving families and (1) parenting problems, (2) family maladjustment, and (3) offspring problems. We systematically searched for studies in PsycInfo, PsychArticles, Psychology and Behavior Sciences Collection, Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress (PILOTS), and PubMed/Medline as well as conducted manual searches. Search procedures identified 22 eligible studies, including 20 studies examining relationships between parental PTSD/PTSS and parenting, family, and/or offspring outcomes and 8 studies examining relationships between parental combat exposure and parenting, family, and/or offspring outcomes...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Margaret Good, Douwe Bakker, Anthony Duignan, Daniel M Collins
Tuberculosis (TB) is more than 3 million years old thriving in multiple species. Ancestral Mycobacterium tuberculosis gave rise to multiple strains including Mycobacterium bovis now distributed worldwide with zoonotic transmission happening in both directions between animals and humans. M. bovis in milk caused problems with a significant number of deaths in children under 5 years of age due largely to extrapulmonary TB. This risk was effectively mitigated with widespread milk pasteurization during the twentieth century, and fewer young children were lost to TB...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Mushabab A Al-Ghamdi, Aref A Bin Abdulhak
Background : Population-based studies are the gold standard to understand the burden of different diseases, plan health care policy and resource allocation, and provide an accurate estimate of disease several disease indices including mortality. However, population-based studies are difficult to undertake in a resource-limited situation where no robust data bases and disease registries are available. Therefore, hospital-based cohorts may be used to inform about the community health. Objectives: We sought to study the pattern of disease causing admission, hospital stay, and outcomes of medical admissions to King Abdullah Hospital in Bisha in order to inform clinicians, public health professionals, and policymakers about the current status of diseases within the community in Bisha...
2018: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
Jose M Rodriguez-Llanes, Debarati Guha-Sapir, Benjamin-Samuel Schlüter, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei Hicks
Evidence of use of toxic gas chemical weapons in the Syrian war has been reported by governmental and non-governmental international organizations since the war started in March 2011. To date, the profiles of victims of the largest chemical attacks in Syria remain unknown. In this study, we used descriptive epidemiological analysis to describe demographic characteristics of victims of the largest chemical weapons attacks in the Syrian war. We analysed conflict-related, direct deaths from chemical weapons recorded in non-government-controlled areas by the Violation Documentation Center, occurring from March 18, 2011 to April 10, 2017, with complete information on the victim's date and place of death, cause and demographic group...
2018: Conflict and Health
Jerome Prusa, Drake Jensen, Gustavo Santiago-Collazo, Steven S Pope, Ashley L Garner, Justin J Miller, Ana Ruiz Manzano, Eric A Galburt, Christina L Stallings
RNA polymerase (RNAP) binding protein RbpA contributes to the formation of stable RNAP-promoter open complexes (RPo ) and is essential for viability in mycobacteria. Four domains have been identified in the RbpA protein: an N-terminal tail (NTT) domain that interacts with RNAP β' and σ subunits, a core domain (CD) that contacts the RNAP β' subunit, a basic linker (BL) that binds DNA, and a σ-interaction domain (SID) that binds group I and group II σ-factors. However, limited in vivo studies have been performed in mycobacteria and how individual structural domains of RbpA contribute to RbpA function and mycobacterial gene expression remains mostly unknown...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Filimon Mitiku, Carol A Hartley, Fiona M Sansom, Joanne E Coombe, Peter D Mansell, David S Beggs, Glenn F Browning
Mycoplasma bovis has been increasingly recognised worldwide as an economically important pathogen of cattle, causing a range of diseases, including pneumonia, mastitis, polyarthritis and otitis media. It is believed that M. bovis utilises a range of cell surface proteins, including nucleases, to evade the host immune response and survive. However, despite the importance of neutrophils in controlling pathogenic bacteria, the interaction between these cells and M. bovis is not well-characterised. In addition to phagocytosis, neutrophils combat pathogens through the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are composed of their nuclear and granular components, including DNA...
May 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Alok K Mishra, Shivraj M Yabaji, Rikesh K Dubey
Isoprinosine (Inos) or immunovir is a synthetic purine derivative with immune-modulatory and antiviral properties. The drug shows apparent in vivo enhancement of host immune responses by inducing pro-inflammatory cytokines and rapid proliferation of T-cell subsets. Strikingly, the cytokines induced by Inos also play crucial roles in providing immune resistance against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Inos has been licensed for several antiviral diseases; however, its efficacy against Mtb has not been tested yet...
June 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Younghwa Shin, Gennadiy Moiseyev, Konstantin Petrukhin, Christopher L Cioffi, Parthasarathy Muthuraman, Yusuke Takahashi, Jian-Xing Ma
The retinoid visual cycle is an ocular retinoid metabolism specifically dedicated to support vertebrate vision. The visual cycle serves not only to generate light-sensitive visual chromophore 11-cis-retinal, but also to clear toxic byproducts of normal visual cycle (i.e. all-trans-retinal and its condensation products) from the retina, ensuring both the visual function and the retinal health. Unfortunately, various conditions including genetic predisposition, environment and aging may attribute to a functional decline of the all-trans-retinal clearance...
April 20, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Le Tao, Jianxin Qiu, Spencer Slavin, Zhenyu Ou, Zhihong Liu, Jifu Ge, Elizabeth A Guancial, Edward M Messing, Chawnshang Chang, Shuyuan Yeh
Clinical data indicates that T cells can be recruited to bladder cancer (BCa) tumors, yet the impact of T cells on BCa progression remains unclear. In the present study, we found that T cells were recruited more to BCa tissues than to the surrounding normal bladder tissues. Results from an in vitro co-culture system also found that BCa recruited more CD4+ T cells than did normal bladder cells. The recruiting of T cells to BCa tissues may increase the proliferation and invasion of BCa cells. Mechanistic studies revealed that infiltrating T cells stimulate BCa estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) signaling and consequently increase the expression of MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase (c-MET), through either direct binding to its promoter or via modulation of IL-1 expression...
April 20, 2018: Cancer Letters
Sean M Gibbons, Claire Duvallet, Eric J Alm
High-throughput data generation platforms, like mass-spectrometry, microarrays, and second-generation sequencing are susceptible to batch effects due to run-to-run variation in reagents, equipment, protocols, or personnel. Currently, batch correction methods are not commonly applied to microbiome sequencing datasets. In this paper, we compare different batch-correction methods applied to microbiome case-control studies. We introduce a model-free normalization procedure where features (i.e. bacterial taxa) in case samples are converted to percentiles of the equivalent features in control samples within a study prior to pooling data across studies...
April 23, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
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