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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231637/preen-oil-and-bird-fitness-a-critical-review-of-the-evidence
#1
Gregorio Moreno-Rueda
The uropygial gland is a holocrine complex exclusive to birds that produces an oleaginous secretion (preen oil) whose function is still debated. Herein, I examine critically the evidence for the many hypotheses of potential functions of this gland. The main conclusion is that our understanding of this gland is still in its infancy. Even for functions that are considered valid by most researchers, real evidence is scarce. Although it seems clear that preen oil contributes to plumage maintenance, we do not know whether this is due to a role in reducing mechanical abrasion or in reducing feather degradation by keratinophilic organisms...
February 23, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231316/a-balanced-solution-to-the-cumulative-threat-of-industrialized-wind-farm-development-on-cinereous-vultures-aegypius-monachus-in-south-eastern-europe
#2
Dimitris P Vasilakis, D Philip Whitfield, Vassiliki Kati
Wind farm development can combat climate change but may also threaten bird populations' persistence through collision with wind turbine blades if such development is improperly planned strategically and cumulatively. Such improper planning may often occur. Numerous wind farms are planned in a region hosting the only cinereous vulture population in south-eastern Europe. We combined range use modelling and a Collision Risk Model (CRM) to predict the cumulative collision mortality for cinereous vulture under all operating and proposed wind farms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230856/ginsenoside-rg5-increases-cardiomyocyte-resistance-to-ischemic-injury-through-regulation-of-mitochondrial-hexokinase-ii-and-dynamin-related-protein-1
#3
Yi-Lin Yang, Jia Li, Kang Liu, Lei Zhang, Qun Liu, Baolin Liu, Lian-Wen Qi
Hexokinase-II (HK-II) and dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) regulate mitochondrial function differently. This study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effect of ginsenoside Rg5 (Rg5) with emphasis on the regulation of mitochondrial HK-II and Drp1. Saturated acid palmitate (PA) stimulation increased lactate accumulation and induced cellular acidification by impairing the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) in cardiomyocytes, leading to HK-II dissociation from mitochondria. Rg5 improved PDH activity and prevented cellular acidification by combating fatty-acid oxidation, contributing to protecting mitochondrial HK-II...
February 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230629/point-of-injury-tourniquet-application-during-operation-protective-edge-what-de-we-learn
#4
Amir Shlaifer, Avraham Yitzhak, Erez N Baruch, Avi Shina, Alexandra Satanovsky, Amiram Shovali, Ofer Almog, Elon Glassberg
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhage is a leading cause of preventable death on the battlefield. Timely tourniquet application to massively bleeding extremity wounds is critical for casualty survival albeit with reported adverse effects to extremity integrity. The aim of this study was to describe the immediate and short term outcomes of point of injury (POI) tourniquet applications during 'Operation Protective Edge' (OPE). METHODS: A case series study regarding tourniquet application at the POI during OPE was collected...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230277/immune-checkpoint-blockade-biology-in-mouse-models-of-glioblastoma
#5
Alan T Yeo, Al Charest
Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is a highly malignant primary brain cancer that is associated with abysmal prognosis. The median survival of GBM patients is ∼15 months and there have not been any significant advance in therapies in over a decade, leaving treatment options limited. There is clearly an unmet need for GBM treatment. Immunotherapies are treatments based on usurping the power of the host's immune system to recognize and eliminate cancer cells. They have recently proven to be a successful strategy for combating a variety of cancers...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229477/-why-not-you-discourses-of-widening-access-on-uk-medical-school-websites
#6
Kirsty Alexander, Tania Fahey Palma, Sandra Nicholson, Jennifer Cleland
CONTEXT: In the UK, applications to medicine from those in lower socio-economic groups remain low despite significant investments of time, interest and resources in widening access (WA) to medicine. This suggests that medical schools' core messages about WA may be working to embed or further reinforce marginalisation, rather than to combat this. Our objective was to investigate how the value of WA is communicated by UK medical schools through their websites, and how this may create expectations regarding who is 'suitable' for medicine...
February 22, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229170/molecular-insight-of-arsenic-induced-carcinogenesis-and-its-prevention
#7
REVIEW
Paramita Mandal
Population of India and Bangladesh and many other parts of the world are badly exposed to arsenic through drinking water. Due to non-availability of safe drinking water, they are dependent on arsenic-contaminated water. Generally, poverty level is high in those areas with lack of proper nutrition. Arsenic is considered to be an environmental contaminant and widely distributed in the environment due to its natural existence and anthropogenic applications. Contamination of arsenic in both human and animal could occur through air, soil, and other sources...
February 22, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229030/retroperitoneal-necrotizing-fasciitis-masquerading-as-perianal-abscess-rare-and-perilous
#8
Anandhi Amaranathan, Ashok Kumar Sahoo, Deepak Barathi, Gomathi Shankar, Sarath Chandra Sistla
Necrotizing fasciitis is one of the uncommon presentations of a rapidly spreading subcutaneous tissue infection. Although the actual cause is unclear in many cases, most of them are due to the rapid proliferation of microorganisms. Retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis is extremely rare. It is a potentially lethal infection that requires immediate and aggressive surgical care. Early diagnosis is the key to a better prognosis. The possibility of retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis should be suspected in patients with symptoms of sepsis that are disproportionate to clinical findings...
January 17, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228751/prospects-of-phage-application-in-the-treatment-of-acne-caused-by-propionibacterium-acnes
#9
REVIEW
Ewa Jończyk-Matysiak, Beata Weber-Dąbrowska, Maciej Żaczek, Ryszard Międzybrodzki, Sławomir Letkiewicz, Marzanna Łusiak-Szelchowska, Andrzej Górski
Propionibacterium acnes is associated with purulent skin infections, and it poses a global problem for both patients and doctors. Acne vulgaris (acne) remains a problem due to its chronic character and difficulty of treatment, as well as its large impact on patients' quality of life. Due to the chronic course of the disease, treatment is long lasting, and often ineffective. Currently there are data regarding isolation of P. acnes phages, and there have been numerous studies on phage killing of P. acnes, but no data are available on phage application specifically in acne treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228336/evaluation-of-hydrophobic-chitosan-based-particulate-formulations-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-vaccine-candidate-t-cell-antigens
#10
Helen Mokhtar, Lucia Biffar, Satyanarayana Somavarapu, Jean-Pierre Frossard, Sarah McGowan, Miriam Pedrera, Rebecca Strong, Jane C Edwards, Margarita Garcia-Durán, Maria Jose Rodriguez, Graham R Stewart, Falko Steinbach, Simon P Graham
PRRS control is hampered by the inadequacies of existing vaccines to combat the extreme diversity of circulating viruses. Since immune clearance of PRRSV infection may not be dependent on the development of neutralising antibodies and the identification of broadly-neutralising antibody epitopes have proven elusive, we hypothesised that conserved T cell antigens represent potential candidates for development of a novel PRRS vaccine. Previously we had identified the M and NSP5 proteins as well-conserved targets of polyfunctional CD8 and CD4 T cells...
February 3, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228097/alkaloid-extracts-from-combretum-zeyheri-inhibit-the-growth-of-mycobacterium-smegmatis
#11
Tafadzwa Nyambuya, Ruvimbo Mautsa, Stanley Mukanganyama
BACKGROUND: Current tuberculosis regimens have failed to combat the issue of drug resistance and ethno medicines may represent a possible source of antimycobacterial agents. Combretum species are well known in African traditional medicines and used for various ailments including pneumonia, venereal diseases like syphilis, mental problems, relief of sore throats and colds, fever, and chest coughs associated with tuberculosis. Alkaloids function as either hydrogen-acceptor or hydrogen-donor in hydrogen bonding critical for the interaction between targets thus, potentiating effects of curative agents on diseases...
February 23, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228085/emergence-of-ad-mediated-combination-therapy-against-cancer-what-to-expect
#12
JinWoo Hong, Chae-Ok Yun
Novel treatment modalities are rapidly advancing toward clinical use as many malignant cancers still remain incurable. Adenovirus (Ad) in particular has been extensively researched as a promising alternative to conventional cancer therapy in the past decades. Although Ad has demonstrated promising therapeutic outcome and cancer-specificity in preclinical models, its therapeutic efficacy in clinical trials is still insufficient due to several drawbacks such as rapid clearance of viral particles by host immune response, induction of acute inflammatory response, and hepatotoxicity...
February 22, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228075/challenges-in-dermal-delivery-of-therapeutic-antimicrobial-protein-and-peptides
#13
Rohan Aminbhai Lalani, Ambikanandan Misra, Jitendra Amrutiya, Hinal Patel, Priyanka Bhatt, Vivek Patel
BACKGROUND: Protein and peptides in biological system form an important part of innate immune system and are being explored for potential use in various diseases as therapeutics. Importance of proteins and peptides as a new class of antimicrobial agents have boosted research in the field of biotechnology as potential alternative to antibiotic agents. OBJECTIVE: Protein and peptides antimicrobial as a therapeutics class are structurally diverse and exhibit potent activity against microbes by various mechanisms...
February 22, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227817/polyimide-based-magnetic-microactuators-for-biofouling-removal
#14
Qi Yang, Tran Nguyen, Chunan Liu, Jacob Miller, Jeffrey F Rhoads, Jacqueline Linnes, Hyowon Lee, Qi Yang, Tran Nguyen, Chunan Liu, Jacob Miller, Jeffrey F Rhoads, Jacqueline Linnes, Hyowon Lee, Jacqueline Linnes, Chunan Liu, Tran Nguyen, Jacob Miller, Jeffrey F Rhoads, Hyowon Lee, Qi Yang
Here we report on the development of novel polyimide-based flexible magnetic actuators for improving hydrocephalus shunts. The static and dynamic mechanical responses of the thin-film magnetic microdevices were quantitatively measured. The bacteria-removing capabilities of the microfabricated devices were also evaluated. Although additional evaluations are necessary, the preliminary results show promising potential for combatting bacteria-induced biofouling. Lastly, the thin-film microdevices are integrated into a single-pore silicone catheter to demonstrate a proof-of-concept, MEMS-enabled self-clearing, smart catheter...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227721/doorstep-a-doorbell-security-system-for-the-prevention-of-doorstep-crime
#15
Andrew Ennis, Ian Cleland, Timothy Patterson, Chris D Nugent, Federico Cruciani, Cristiano Paggetti, Gareth Morrison, Richard Taylor, Andrew Ennis, Ian Cleland, Timothy Patterson, Chris D Nugent, Federico Cruciani, Cristiano Paggetti, Gareth Morrison, Richard Taylor, Gareth Morrison, Richard Taylor, Ian Cleland, Federico Cruciani, Timothy Patterson, Chris D Nugent, Cristiano Paggetti, Andrew Ennis
Safety and security rank highly in the priorities of older people on both an individual and policy level. Older people are commonly targeted as victims of doorstep crime, as they can be perceived as being vulnerable. As a result, this can have a major effect on the victim's health and wellbeing. There have been numerous prevention strategies implemented in an attempt to combat and reduce the number of doorstep crimes. There is, however, little information available detailing the effectiveness of these strategies and how they impact on the fear of crime, particularly with repeat victims...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227321/fall-detection-algorithms-for-real-world-falls-harvested-from-lumbar-sensors-in-the-elderly-population-a-machine-learning-approach
#16
Alan K Bourke, Jochen Klenk, Lars Schwickert, Kamiar Aminian, Espen A F Ihlen, Sabato Mellone, Jorunn L Helbostad, Lorenzo Chiari, Clemens Becker, Alan K Bourke, Jochen Klenk, Lars Schwickert, Kamiar Aminian, Espen A F Ihlen, Sabato Mellone, Jorunn L Helbostad, Lorenzo Chiari, Clemens Becker, Lorenzo Chiari, Lars Schwickert, Kamiar Aminian, Clemens Becker, Jorunn L Helbostad, Jochen Klenk, Alan K Bourke, Sabato Mellone, Espen A F Ihlen
Automatic fall detection will promote independent living and reduce the consequences of falls in the elderly by ensuring people can confidently live safely at home for linger. In laboratory studies inertial sensor technology has been shown capable of distinguishing falls from normal activities. However less than 7% of fall-detection algorithm studies have used fall data recorded from elderly people in real life. The FARSEEING project has compiled a database of real life falls from elderly people, to gain new knowledge about fall events and to develop fall detection algorithms to combat the problems associated with falls...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226445/difficulty-understanding-speech-in-noise-by-the-hearing-impaired-underlying-causes-and-technological-solutions
#17
Eric W Healy, Sarah E Yoho, Eric W Healy, Sarah E Yoho, Sarah E Yoho, Eric W Healy
A primary complaint of hearing-impaired individuals involves poor speech understanding when background noise is present. Hearing aids and cochlear implants often allow good speech understanding in quiet backgrounds. But hearing-impaired individuals are highly noise intolerant, and existing devices are not very effective at combating background noise. As a result, speech understanding in noise is often quite poor. In accord with the significance of the problem, considerable effort has been expended toward understanding and remedying this issue...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226244/molecularly-organic-inorganic-hybrid-hollow-mesoporous-organosilica-nanocapsules-with-tumor-specific-biodegradability-and-enhanced-chemotherapeutic-functionality
#18
Ping Huang, Yu Chen, Han Lin, Luodan Yu, Linlin Zhang, Liying Wang, Yufang Zhu, Jianlin Shi
Based on the intrinsic features of high stability and unique multifunctionality, inorganic nanoparticles have shown remarkable potentials in combating cancer, but their biodegradability and biocompatibility are still under debate. As a paradigm, this work successfully demonstrates that framework organic-inorganic hybridization can endow the inorganic mesoporous silica nanocarriers with unique tumor-sensitive biodegradability and high biocompatibility. Based on a "chemical homology" mechanism, molecularly organic-inorganic hybridized hollow mesoporous organosilica nanocapsules (HMONs) with high dispersity and sub-50 nm particle dimension were constructed in mass production...
February 15, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225907/characterisation-of-iunh-gene-knockout-strain-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#19
Anne Drumond Villela, Valnês da Silva Rodrigues, Antônio Frederico Michel Pinto, Priscila Lamb Wink, Zilpa Adriana Sánchez-Quitian, Guilherme Oliveira Petersen, Maria Martha Campos, Luiz Augusto Basso, Diógenes Santiago Santos
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused mainly by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The better understanding of important metabolic pathways from M. tuberculosis can contribute to the development of novel therapeutic and prophylactic strategies to combat TB. Nucleoside hydrolase (MtIAGU-NH), encoded by iunH gene (Rv3393), is an enzyme from purine salvage pathway in M. tuberculosis. MtIAGU-NH accepts inosine, adenosine, guanosine, and uridine as substrates, which may point to a pivotal metabolic role...
March 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225742/review-of-military-and-civilian-trauma-registries-does-consensus-matter
#20
Thijs T C F van Dongen, Johan de Graaf, Eelco P Huizinga, Howard R Champion, Rigo Hoencamp, Luke P H Leenen
BACKGROUND: Structural collection of data from combat injuries is important to improve provided care and the outcome of (combat) casualties. Trauma registries are used in civilian and military health care systems for systematic administration of injury data. However, these registries often use different methods of data management, compromising international comparison of trauma systems. The aim of this review is to aid in reaching international (coalition-wide) consensus for compatible data collection methods with uniform definitions, which is needed for transnational research and subsequent improvement of medical support organizations...
March 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
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