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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088580/grand-round-anticoagulation-in-chronic-liver-disease
#1
REVIEW
Ameet Dhar, Benjamin H Mullish, Mark R Thursz
In this Grand Round, we first present a case of a man with decompensated liver disease who subsequently developed a fatal pulmonary embolism, having not been prescribed prophylactic anticoagulation to prevent venous thromboembolic disease. We go on to discuss the burden of thrombotic disease in those with chronic liver disease, before a more detailed discussion regarding the current evidence, safety data, and clinical dilemmas regarding the use of anticoagulation in patients with chronic liver disease, as well as discussing potential future directions within this field...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088534/the-social-transmission-of-metacontrol-policies-mechanisms-underlying-the-interpersonal-transfer-of-persistence-and-flexibility
#2
REVIEW
Bernhard Hommel, Lorenza S Colzato
Humans often face binary cognitive-control dilemmas, with the choice between persistence and flexibility being a crucial one. Tackling these dilemmas requires metacontrol, i.e., the control of the current cognitive-control policy. As predicted from functional, psychometric, neuroscientific, and modeling approaches, interindividual variability in metacontrol biases towards persistence or flexibility could be demonstrated in metacontrol-sensitive tasks. These biases covary systematically with genetic predispositions regarding mesofrontal and nigrostriatal dopaminergic functioning and the individualistic or collectivistic nature of the cultural background...
January 11, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088159/symmetry-and-magnetism-in-ni9te6-clusters-ligated-by-co-or-phosphine-ligands
#3
Arthur C Reber, Vikas Chauhan, Shiv N Khanna
The removal of a single ligand from the magnetic Ni9Te6(L)8 (L = P(CH3)3, CO) clusters is found to quench the magnetic moment. The reduction in magnetic moment is caused by a geometric deformation of the Ni9Te6 core that breaks the octahedral symmetry of the cluster. This effect is observed in both the CO and phosphine based ligands. The octahedral symmetry bare cluster is also found to have a large magnetic moment. These results highlight the dilemma faced by magnetic ligand protected clusters whose symmetry has been broken: whether to break the spin symmetry as in Hund's rules or to break the spatial symmetry as in the Jahn-Teller effect...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086935/does-the-transfer-of-a-poor-quality-embryo-together-with-a-good-quality-embryo-affect-the-in-vitro-fertilization-ivf-outcome
#4
Eliana Muskin Wintner, Anat Hershko-Klement, Keren Tzadikevitch, Yehudith Ghetler, Ofer Gonen, Oren Wintner, Adrian Shulman, Amir Wiser
BACKGROUND: IVF cycles which result in only one good quality embryo, and a second poor quality embryo present a dilemma when the decision involves transferring two embryos. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a poor quality embryo has a negative effect on a good quality embryo when transferred along with a good quality embryo. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles involving single embryo transfers (SET) and double embryo transfers (DET)...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080208/a-research-program-for-the-socioeconomic-impacts-of-gene-editing-regulation
#5
Agustina I Whelan, Martin A Lema
Gene editing technologies are a group of recent innovations in plant breeding using molecular biology, which have in common the capability of introducing a site-directed mutation or deletion in the genome. The first cases of crops improved with these technologies are approaching the market; this has raised an international debate regarding if they should be regulated as genetically modified crops or just as another form of mutagenesis under conventional breeding. This dilemma for policymakers not only entails issues pertaining safety information and legal/regulatory definitions...
January 12, 2017: GM Crops & Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079700/the-chimera-flap-a-quarter-century-odyssey
#6
Geoffrey G Hallock
Incredibly complicated multidimensional defects have always strained the ingenuity of the reconstructive surgeon. Secondary perhaps to vascularized composite allotransplantation as a solution to this dilemma, the compound flap has been developed to be a more useful and available alternative. Their greatest versatility has been proven by its subtype, the chimera flap. The chimera flap itself consists of multiple flaps, the latter possibly composed of bone, skin, muscle, and so on, where each part has an independent vascular supply, and each part is independent of any physical interconnection whatsoever with the other components, except where joined ultimately only to a common vascular pedicle...
February 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079008/walking-a-tightrope-a-perspective-of-resveratrol-effects-on-breast-cancer
#7
Caterina Bartolacci, Cristina Andreani, Augusto Amici, Cristina Marchini
It is an acknowledged fact that health benefits are derived from fruit- and vegetables-enriched diets. In particular, polyphenols, compounds bearing one or more hydroxyl groups attached to an aromatic ring, are ascribed for most of such beneficial effects. Among them, resveratrol, a phytoalexin found in numerous plant species, and more notably in grapes, has widely piqued the interest of the scientific community by virtue of its anti-aging, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Moreover, evidence claiming resveratrol ability to hinder processes underlying all the three steps of carcinogenesis (tumor initiation, progression and metastasization) has propelled an incredibly massive number of studies aimed at enquiring its eventual clinical potential in the fight against cancer...
January 11, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078619/pancreatic-struma-with-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-a-diagnostic-dilemma
#8
Jerry Liu, Michael J Marcaccio, J E M Young, Tariq Aziz, Josephine Wat, Sylvia L Asa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078322/diagnostic-dilemma-in-discordant-thyroid-function-tests-due-to-thyroid-hormone-autoantibodies
#9
Panudda Srichomkwun, Neal H Scherberg, Jasminka Jakšić, Samuel Refetoff
OBJECTIVE: Assay interference could be the cause of abnormal thyroid function tests. Early recognition prevents inappropriate patient management. The objective of this report is to present a case with discordant thyroid function tests in different thyroid assay platforms due to thyroid autoantibodies. METHODS: We present a case her family, laboratory data and methods that investigate immunoassay interference. RESULTS: A 21-year-old woman with autoimmune thyroid disease was treated for hypothyroidism with levothyroxine and noted to have elevated total and free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine but normal thyroid-stimulating hormone...
2017: AACE Clin Case Rep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077109/cause-of-neonatal-deaths-in-northern-ethiopia-a-prospective-cohort-study
#10
Hayelom Gebrekirstos Mengesha, Berhe W Sahle
BACKGROUND: Despite the significant reduction in childhood mortality, neonatal mortality has shown little or no concomitant decline worldwide. The dilemma arises in that the lack of documentation of cause of death in developing countries, where registration of vital events is virtually nonexistent. Understanding of the causes of death in neonates is important to guide public health interventions. The present study identifies the common causes of neonatal death in Ethiopia. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted among neonates born between April 2014 and July 2014 in seven hospitals, in Tigray region, Ethiopia...
January 11, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076640/frontal-lobe-alterations-in-schizophrenia-a-review
#11
Ateeq Mubarik, Hassaan Tohid
Objective: To highlight the changes in the frontal lobe of the human brain in people with schizophrenia. Methods: This was a qualitative review of the literature. Results: Many schizophrenic patients exhibit functional, structural, and metabolic abnormalities in the frontal lobe. Some patients have few or no alterations, while some have more functional and structural changes than others. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows structural and functional changes in volume, gray matter, white matter, and functional activity in the frontal lobe, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not yet fully understood...
October 2016: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076206/processing-older-persons-as-clients-in-elderly-care-a-study-of-the-micro-processes-of-care-management-practice
#12
Anna Olaison
Elder care has undergone a marketization in recent years in which various models for care management have been introduced with the aim of making assessments efficient. This article investigates the effects the care management model has on resource allocation for home care when handling the requests of older persons in the needs assessment process. Sixteen tape-recorded assessment conversations with associated case-file texts were analyzed through discourse analysis. The results show that a managerialist thinking has had a partial impact on the assessment process where the documentation requirements have entailed bureaucratization in terms of the transfer that occurs from talk to text...
January 11, 2017: Social Work in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074576/decisions-and-authority
#13
Gregory E Kaebnick
This issue of the Hastings Center Report (January-February 2017) features three articles exploring aspects of decision-making for others. In the first two, the focus is on the limits of surrogate decision-makers' authority when the surrogates' judgments about a patient's treatment conflict with the physicians'. If a physician decides that a patient will not benefit from CPR, for example, but the patient's surrogate insists on it, is the physician obliged to proceed with the procedure? Or can the physician, pointing to a duty to provide good care to the patient and not to cause the patient to suffer, get a do-not-resuscitate order for the patient-even in the face of the surrogate's objections? These are the questions that animate the first article, in which a group of authors report on a policy implemented at Massachusetts General Hospital to help doctors who face this dilemma...
January 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073966/extended-stability-of-antimicrobial-agents-in-administration-devices
#14
Abi Jenkins, Tim Hills, Mark Santillo, Mark Gilchrist
BACKGROUND: Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) is an established approach to patient care. A lack of data on antimicrobial stability within administration devices is a barrier to service expansion, and poses an antimicrobial stewardship dilemma. Often broad-spectrum, long half-life agents are used instead of narrow-spectrum agents, which need more frequent administration, but could possibly be used if stability data were available. OBJECTIVES: To complete a comprehensive literature review of published antimicrobial stability data, and assess these against a nationally recognized minimum dataset for medicines compounded into administration devices...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072833/accurate-breakpoint-mapping-in-apparently-balanced-translocation-families-with-discordant-phenotypes-using-whole-genome-mate-pair-sequencing
#15
Constantia Aristidou, Costas Koufaris, Athina Theodosiou, Mads Bak, Mana M Mehrjouy, Farkhondeh Behjati, George Tanteles, Violetta Christophidou-Anastasiadou, Niels Tommerup, Carolina Sismani
Familial apparently balanced translocations (ABTs) segregating with discordant phenotypes are extremely challenging for interpretation and counseling due to the scarcity of publications and lack of routine techniques for quick investigation. Recently, next generation sequencing has emerged as an efficacious methodology for precise detection of translocation breakpoints. However, studies so far have mainly focused on de novo translocations. The present study focuses specifically on familial cases in order to shed some light to this diagnostic dilemma...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071646/reinforcement-learning-accounts-for-moody-conditional-cooperation-behavior-experimental-results
#16
Yutaka Horita, Masanori Takezawa, Keigo Inukai, Toshimasa Kita, Naoki Masuda
In social dilemma games, human participants often show conditional cooperation (CC) behavior or its variant called moody conditional cooperation (MCC), with which they basically tend to cooperate when many other peers have previously cooperated. Recent computational studies showed that CC and MCC behavioral patterns could be explained by reinforcement learning. In the present study, we use a repeated multiplayer prisoner's dilemma game and the repeated public goods game played by human participants to examine whether MCC is observed across different types of game and the possibility that reinforcement learning explains observed behavior...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069448/interaction-times-change-evolutionary-outcomes-two-player-matrix-games
#17
Vlastimil Křivan, Ross Cressman
Two most influential models of evolutionary game theory are the Hawk-Dove and Prisoner's dilemma models. The Hawk-Dove model explains evolution of aggressiveness, predicting individuals should be aggressive when the cost of fighting is lower than its benefit. As the cost of aggressiveness increases and outweighs benefits, aggressiveness in the population should decrease. Similarly, the Prisoner's dilemma models evolution of cooperation. It predicts that individuals should never cooperate despite cooperation leading to a higher collective fitness than defection...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068280/landolphia-owariensis-attenuates-alcohol-induced-cerebellar-neurodegeneration-significance-of-neurofilament-protein-alteration-in-the-purkinje-cells
#18
Charles A Oyinbo, Patrick S Igbigbi, Godwin O Avwioro
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-induced cerebellar neurodegeneration is a neuroadaptation that is associated with chronic alcohol abuse. Conventional drugs have been largely unsatisfactory in preventing neurodegeneration. Yet, multimodal neuro-protective therapeutic agents have been hypothesised to have high therapeutic potential for the treatment of CNS conditions; there is yet a dilemma of how this would be achieved. Contrarily, medicinal botanicals are naturally multimodal in their mechanism of action...
December 1, 2016: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068125/our-moral-choices-are-foreign-to-us
#19
Joanna D Corey, Sayuri Hayakawa, Alice Foucart, Melina Aparici, Juan Botella, Albert Costa, Boaz Keysar
Though moral intuitions and choices seem fundamental to our core being, there is surprising new evidence that people resolve moral dilemmas differently when they consider them in a foreign language (Cipolletti et al., 2016; Costa et al., 2014a; Geipel et al., 2015): People are more willing to sacrifice 1 person to save 5 when they use a foreign language compared with when they use their native tongue. Our findings show that the phenomenon is robust across various contexts and that multiple factors affect it, such as the severity of the negative consequences associated with saving the larger group...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066642/treatment-dilemma-in-the-care-of-older-adults-with-advanced-lung-cancer
#20
COMMENT
Ajeet Gajra, Ankit Anand, Kah Poh Loh, Supriya Mohile
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
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