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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817642/data-sharing-as-social-dilemma-influence-of-the-researcher-s-personality
#1
Stephanie B Linek, Benedikt Fecher, Sascha Friesike, Marcel Hebing
It is widely acknowledged that data sharing has great potential for scientific progress. However, so far making data available has little impact on a researcher's reputation. Thus, data sharing can be conceptualized as a social dilemma. In the presented study we investigated the influence of the researcher's personality within the social dilemma of data sharing. The theoretical background was the appropriateness framework. We conducted a survey among 1564 researchers about data sharing, which also included standardized questions on selected personality factors, namely the so-called Big Five, Machiavellianism and social desirability...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816991/a-case-report-of-tracheal-inflammatory-myofibroblastic-tumor-in-a-34-week-pregnant-woman-misdiagnosed-with-asthma
#2
Xiaochen Li, Juan Li, Xiaoling Rao, Qilin Ao, Xiaopei Cao, Yali Huang, Shengding Zhang, Xiaoyu Fang, Xiansheng Liu, Min Xie
RATIONALE: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is an uncommon neoplastic entity with a tendency of local recurrence and a low risk of distant metastasis. Involvement of trachea is extremely rare. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 34-week pregnant woman previously diagnosed with asthma for 2 months was admitted with persistent wheezing and hemoptysis. A computed tomography scan and bronchoscopy revealed a gigantic polyp in the trachea. DIAGNOSES: Tracheal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816863/management-of-retinoblastoma-with-hiv-seropositivity
#3
Abhinav Dhami, Anita Ramesh, Vikas Khetan
PURPOSE: To report a case of retinoblastoma with concomitant association with HIV seropositivity and its management. METHODS: A retrospective case report of a 3-year-old male child presenting with right eye Group B and left eye Group E retinoblastoma with simultaneous positivity for HIV1 antibody. The parents were also tested positive for HIV and were referred for initiating antiretroviral therapy. RESULTS: The child was managed with focal laser therapy for the right eye and six cycles of systemic chemotherapy, and the left eye was planned for enucleation with ball implant...
August 14, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816676/a-novel-consistent-random-forest-framework-bernoulli-random-forests
#4
Yisen Wang, Shu-Tao Xia, Qingtao Tang, Jia Wu, Xingquan Zhu
Random forests (RFs) are recognized as one type of ensemble learning method and are effective for the most classification and regression tasks. Despite their impressive empirical performance, the theory of RFs has yet been fully proved. Several theoretically guaranteed RF variants have been presented, but their poor practical performance has been criticized. In this paper, a novel RF framework is proposed, named Bernoulli RFs (BRFs), with the aim of solving the RF dilemma between theoretical consistency and empirical performance...
August 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816617/the-norwegian-police-and-victims-of-elder-abuse-in-close-and-familial-relationships
#5
Geir Aas
Over recent decades domestic violence or family violence, violence against women and child abuse has received much attention in the media, in political discourse and in social research. However, abuse of older adults arouses limited interest. In government action against domestic violence and in police guidance manuals, the elderly receive little attention. The aim of this article is primarily to demonstrate how the police attempt to prevent elder abuse in close relationships, especially in parent-child relationships...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816493/consequences-norms-and-generalized-inaction-in-moral-dilemmas-the-cni-model-of-moral-decision-making
#6
Bertram Gawronski, Joel Armstrong, Paul Conway, Rebecca Friesdorf, Mandy Hütter
Research on moral dilemma judgments has been fundamentally shaped by the distinction between utilitarianism and deontology. According to the principle of utilitarianism, the moral status of behavioral options depends on their consequences; the principle of deontology states that the moral status of behavioral options depends on their consistency with moral norms. To identify the processes underlying utilitarian and deontological judgments, researchers have investigated responses to moral dilemmas that pit one principle against the other (e...
September 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816200/institutional-ethics-committee-regulations-and-current-updates-in-india
#7
Amit V Mahuli, Simpy A Mahuli, Shankargouda Patil, Shilpa Bhandi
AIM: The aim of the review is to provide current updates on regulations for ethics committees and researchers in India. BACKGROUND: Ethical dilemmas in research since time immemorial have been a major concern for researchers worldwide. The question "what makes clinical research ethical" is significant and difficult to answer as multiple factors are involved. REVIEW RESULTS: The research involving human participants in clinical trials should follow the required rules, regulations, and guidelines in one's own country...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815736/the-diagnosis-and-management-of-contact-lens-related-microbial-keratitis
#8
REVIEW
Nicole Carnt, Chameen Samarawickrama, Andrew White, Fiona Stapleton
Contact lens-associated microbial keratitis poses a diagnostic dilemma for optometrists on two fronts. The distinction between sterile inflammation and microbial infection is often blurred. In addition, there is a requirement with nearly 50 per cent of the Australian and New Zealand optometric profession being therapeutically endorsed, to distinguish between cases of infection that can be managed in the community verses those that require escalation to public hospitals that have access to laboratory diagnostic tools and advanced imaging techniques, such as in vivo confocal microscopy...
August 16, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815188/painless-aortic-dissection-diagnostic-dilemma-with-fatal-outcomes-what-do-we-learn
#9
Saeeda Fatima, Konika Sharma
Aortic dissection is the most catastrophic clinical condition that involves the aorta. It has a high mortality as well as high rate of misdiagnosis due to frequent unusual presentation. Typically, it presents with acute chest, back, and tearing abdominal pain. However, it can present atypically with minimal or no pain, making diagnosis difficult. Physicians should always suspect acute aortic dissection in patients with certain clinical conditions like difficult-to-control hypertension, giant cell arteritis, bicuspid aortic valve, intracranial aneurysms, simple renal cysts, family history of aortic disease, and Marfan syndrome, especially when a patient presents with ischemic symptoms involving multiple organ without an obvious cause...
July 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814588/massive-epidermal-vulval-cyst-an-unusual-late-complication-of-female-genital-mutilation
#10
Tejinder Kaur-Desai, Argyrios Makris
Vulval epidermal cysts are rare and infrequently described in literature. They present a difficult diagnostic dilemma and surgical challenges. They most commonly occur as a late complication of female genital mutilation (FGM) and manifest as a primary condition. We present a case of a large vulval epidermal inclusion cyst, lined by vulval squamous epithelium, in a woman with a background of FGM who was referred with suspected vulval cancer. We discuss the clinical presentation, MRI findings, surgical treatment and outcome...
August 16, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813773/a-case-of-ivig-induced-aseptic-chemical-meningitis
#11
Anish Patel, Kalyan Chakravarthy Potu, Tamera Sturm
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a commonly used and generally well-tolerated medication. Common side effects include flu-like symptoms such as fevers, headaches, myalgia, fatigue, and nausea. One of the more rare side effects is aseptic meningitis, with a reported incidence rate of around 0.067 percent of all IVIG infusions. In this paper, we describe a 47-year-old female patient with a history of myasthenia gravis who presented with a headache, neck pain, and neck stiffness while undergoing IVIG infusions for a myasthenia crisis...
March 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813741/a-case-of-an-acute-myocardial-infarction-post-thrombolytic-treatment-of-ischemic-stroke-a-management-dilemma
#12
Kalyan Wagle, Jimmy Yee, Vishesh Kumar, Amornpol Anuwatworn, Tomasz Stys, Adam Stys, Christopher Stanton
Acute ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction are emergency clinical events that require prompt intervention. Concurrent occurrence of both events magnifies the complexity of the clinical management. We present a case of a patient who presented with acute ischemic stroke, complicated by acute myocardial infarction shortly after thrombolytic was administered. This case highlights the importance of individualization of management especially in complex cases where there are no clear specific guidelines to follow...
August 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813239/how-should-clinicians-counsel-a-woman-with-a-strong-family-history-of-early-onset-alzheimer-s-disease-about-her-pregnancy
#13
Marianna V Mapes, Barbara M O'Brien, Louise P King
Counseling patients regarding the benefits, harms, and dilemmas of genetic testing is one of the greatest ethical challenges facing reproductive medicine today. With or without test results, clinicians grapple with how to communicate potential genetic risks as patients weigh their reproductive options. Here, we consider a case of a woman with a strong family history of early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD). She is early in her pregnancy and unsure about learning her own genetic status. We address the ethical ramifications of each of her options, which include genetic testing, genetic counseling, and termination versus continuation of the pregnancy...
July 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813238/strategies-for-building-trust-with-the-caregiver-of-a-patient-with-end-stage-dementia
#14
Helen Stanton Chapple
This case describes a patient with advanced dementia and an unrealistic spouse, presenting an apparent dilemma about nutrition for physicians. By eliciting the perspective of the caregiver, the physicians can gain insight and rebuild trust that protects the interests of both the patient and the spouse. Their goal needs to shift from resolving the professional ethical dilemma to affirming the immeasurable contribution of the caregiver, acknowledging her journey, asking for her advice, and enabling the work of making meaning in the time available...
July 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813236/ethics-and-intimate-sexual-activity-in-long-term-care
#15
Eran Metzger
A case is presented in which the staff of a long-term care facility discovers that the husband of a resident with dementia is engaged in sexual activity with her. The case illustrates a dilemma for long-term care facilities that create a home-like environment with a goal of maximizing residents' autonomy while ensuring their safety. An approach to assessing capacity to consent to intimate sexual activity is described, followed by guidelines that nursing homes can implement to support residents who wish to engage in sexual activity...
July 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812717/palaeontology-darwin-s-dilemma-dissolved
#16
Reinhardt Møbjerg Kristensen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811917/drug-information-update-lithium-and-chronic-kidney-disease-debates-and-dilemmas
#17
Sumeet Gupta, Udayan Khastgir
Lithium is an established treatment for bipolar disorder and an augmenting agent for treatment-resistant depression. Despite awareness of renal adverse effects, including chronic kidney disease, for the past five decades, there has been a lack of research evidence. This has led to debates around the existence and magnitude of the risk. This article discusses the current evidence base regarding the link between lithium and chronic kidney disease, monitoring of renal functions and its clinical implications.
August 2017: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810781/projected-coupled-cluster-theory
#18
Yiheng Qiu, Thomas M Henderson, Jinmo Zhao, Gustavo E Scuseria
Coupled cluster theory is the method of choice for weakly correlated systems. But in the strongly correlated regime, it faces a symmetry dilemma, where it either completely fails to describe the system or has to artificially break certain symmetries. On the other hand, projected Hartree-Fock theory captures the essential physics of many kinds of strong correlations via symmetry breaking and restoration. In this work, we combine and try to retain the merits of these two methods by applying symmetry projection to broken symmetry coupled cluster wave functions...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808520/gallstone-ileus-dilemma-in-the-management
#19
Girish D Bakhshi, Rajesh G Chincholkar, Jasmine R Agarwal, Madhukar R Gupta, Prachiti S Gokhe, Amogh R Nadkarni
Gallstone ileus is a mechanical intestinal obstruction caused due to impaction of a large gallstone within the bowel. The ideal treatment of gallstone ileus remains controversial, with the main dilemma being between a one-stage and a two-stage surgical procedure. A 69-year old male patient presented with gallstone ileus. A one-stage procedure with enterolithotomy and primary closure of duodenal fistula was done. His immediate postoperative recovery was uneventful, but after 3 weeks of surgery, he developed respiratory complications and expired of multi-organ failure...
June 7, 2017: Clinics and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808275/screening-drug-target-interactions-with-positive-unlabeled-learning
#20
Lihong Peng, Wen Zhu, Bo Liao, Yu Duan, Min Chen, Yi Chen, Jialiang Yang
Identifying drug-target interaction (DTI) candidates is crucial for drug repositioning. However, usually only positive DTIs are deposited in known databases, which challenges computational methods to predict novel DTIs due to the lack of negative samples. To overcome this dilemma, researchers usually randomly select negative samples from unlabeled drug-target pairs, which introduces a lot of false-positives. In this study, a negative sample extraction method named NDTISE is first developed to screen strong negative DTI examples based on positive-unlabeled learning...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
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