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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647284/the-effects-of-high-intensity-interval-training-on-muscle-size-and-quality-in-overweight-and-obese-adults
#1
Malia N M Blue, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Eric T Trexler, Katie R Hirsch
OBJECTIVES: Despite growing popularity of high intensity interval training (HIIT) for improving health and fitness, limited data exist identifying the effects of HIIT on muscle characteristics. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of a 3-week HIIT intervention on muscle size and quality in overweight and obese men and women. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Forty-four overweight and obese men and women (mean±SD; age: 35...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645314/neuromuscular-function-during-knee-extension-exercise-after-cold-water-immersion
#2
Hitoshi Wakabayashi, Titis Wijayanto, Yutaka Tochihara
BACKGROUND: Human adaptability to cold environment has been focused on in the physiological anthropology and related research area. Concerning the human acclimatization process in the natural climate, it is necessary to conduct a research assessing comprehensive effect of cold environment and physical activities in cold. This study investigated the effect of cold water immersion on the exercise performance and neuromuscular function during maximal and submaximal isometric knee extension...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638346/micrornas-in-muscle-characterizing-the-powerlifter-phenotype
#3
Randall F D'Souza, Thomas Bjørnsen, Nina Zeng, Kirsten M M Aasen, Truls Raastad, David Cameron-Smith, Cameron J Mitchell
Powerlifters are the epitome of muscular adaptation and are able to generate extreme forces. The molecular mechanisms underpinning the significant capacity for force generation and hypertrophy are not fully elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRs) are short non-coding RNA sequences that control gene expression via promotion of transcript breakdown and/or translational inhibition. Differences in basal miR expression may partially account for phenotypic differences in muscle mass and function between powerlifters and untrained age-matched controls...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632896/reliability-of-a-novel-approach-for-quadriceps-motor-point-assessment
#4
Ada Weiss, Neal R Glaviano, Jacob Resch, Susan Saliba
INTRODUCTION: We studied the ability of clinicians to identify quadriceps motor points using a transcutaneous electrical stimulation unit(TENS). METHODS: Twenty-two certified athletic trainers and one expert-rater identified the seven motor points of the quadriceps at two time points separated by one week. The difference was calculated between where each participant and the expert-rater identified each motor point using an x-y coordinate system. Bland-Altman plots were used to compare differences between two testing sessions...
June 20, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632052/motor-unit-firing-frequency-of-lower-limb-muscles-during-an-incremental-slide-board-skating-test
#5
Tatiane Piucco, Rodrigo Bini, Masanori Sakaguchi, Fernando Diefenthaeler, Darren Stefanyshyn
This study investigated how the combination of workload and fatigue affected the frequency components of muscle activation and possible recruitment priority of motor units during skating to exhaustion. Ten male competitive speed skaters performed an incremental maximal test on a slide board. Activation of six muscles from the right leg was recorded throughout the test. A time-frequency analysis was performed to compute overall, high, and low frequency bands from the whole signal at 10, 40, 70, and 90% of total test time...
February 28, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631582/effect-of-green-tea-extract-supplementation-on-glycogen-replenishment-in-exercised-human-skeletal-muscle
#6
Tsen-Wei Tsai, Chia-Chen Chang, Su-Fen Liao, Yi-Hung Liao, Chien-Wen Hou, Jung-Piao Tsao, I-Shiung Cheng
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 8-week green tea extract (GTE) supplementation on promoting postexercise muscle glycogen resynthesis and systemic energy substrate utilisation in young college students. A total of eight healthy male participants (age: 22·0 (se 1·0) years, BMI: 24·2 (se 0·7) kg/m2, VO2max: 43·2 (se 2·4) ml/kg per min) participated in this study. GTE (500 mg/d for 8 weeks) was compared with placebo in participants in a double-blind/placebo-controlled and crossover study design with an 8-week washout period...
June 20, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630576/no-effect-of-a-whey-growth-factor-extract-during-resistance-training-on-strength-body-composition-or-hypertrophic-gene-expression-in-resistance-trained-young-men
#7
Michael J Dale, Alison M Coates, Peter R C Howe, Grant R Tomkinson, Matthew T Haren, Andrew Brown, Marissa Caldow, David Cameron-Smith, Jonathan D Buckley
Growth factors can be isolated from bovine milk to form a whey growth factor extract (WGFE). This study examined whether WGFE promoted activation of the AKT/mTOR pathway enabling increased lean tissue mass and strength in resistance trained men. Forty six men with >6 months of resistance training (RT) experience performed 12 weeks of RT. Participants consumed 20 g/day of whey protein and were randomised to receive either 1.6 g WGFE/day (WGFE; n = 22) or 1.6 g cellulose/day (control, CONT; n = 24). The primary outcome was leg press one-repetition maximum (LP1-RM) which was assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks...
June 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629984/the-contribution-of-the-in-vivo-fate-of-an-oil-depot-to-drug-absorption
#8
R W Kalicharan, C Oussoren, P Schot, E de Rijk, H Vromans
Sustained release of lipophilic compounds can be achieved with oil depots. These parenteral formulations are generally injected in the vastus lateralis and deltoid muscle. It is known that the absorption rate differs between these two muscles. The reason for this is not fully understood. The aim of the current study was to investigate the fate of an oil depot in different tissues to elucidate whether the disappearance rate of oil is the cause of observed differences in absorption rate. A study with healthy volunteers was conducted to determine 1...
June 17, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626321/the-effects-of-changes-in-support-and-inclined-boards-on-lower-extremity-muscle-activity
#9
Sangyong Lee, Yoon-Hee Choi, Janggon Kim
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of changes in support and inclined boards on lower-extremity muscle activity. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects were 15 healthy adult males. Aero-Step equipment was used as an unstable support, and an inclined board was used to maintain angles of 0° and 20°. Electromyography was employed to analyze lower-extremity muscle activity. [Results] The vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius, soleus, and tibialis anterior muscles showed significant differences according to changes in the support and inclined board...
June 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622081/effects-of-inspiratory-muscle-training-in-professional-women-football-players-a-randomized-sham-controlled-trial
#10
Bruno Archiza, Daniela Kuguimoto Andaku, Flávia Cristina Rossi Caruso, José Carlos Bonjorno, Cláudio Ricardo de Oliveira, Paula Angélica Ricci, André Capaldo do Amaral, Stela Márcia Mattiello, Cleiton Augusto Libardi, Shane A Phillips, Ross Arena, Audrey Borghi-Silva
This study was conducted to determine the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on respiratory and peripheral muscles oxygenation during a maximal exercise tolerance test and on repeated-sprint ability (RSA) performance in professional women football players. Eighteen athletes were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: SHAM (n = 8) or IMT (n = 10). After a maximal incremental exercise test, all participants performed (on a different day) a time-to-exhaustion (Tlim) test. Peripheral and respiratory muscles oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy, breath-by-breath ventilatory and metabolic variables, and blood lactate concentration were measured...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621488/effects-of-intradialytic-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-on-strength-and-muscle-architecture-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-failure-randomized-clinical-trial
#11
Jociane Schardong, Thiago Dipp, Camila Bassani Bozzeto, Marília Godoy da Silva, Gabriela Leivas Baldissera, Raíssa de Castro Ribeiro, Bruna Pan Valdemarca, Alexandre Severo do Pinho, Graciele Sbruzzi, Rodrigo Della Méa Plentz
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on muscle strength and architecture, functional capacity, and endothelial function in patients with chronic kidney failure (CKF) on hemodialysis (HD). Twenty-one patients with CKF on HD were randomized into a control group (CG; n = 10) and neuromuscular electrical stimulation group (NMESG; n = 11) who received NMES in the quadriceps muscle for 8 weeks, 3 times/week (20-34 min) during HD sessions. The muscle strength of the lower limbs was evaluated by dynamometry and sit-and-stand test (SST); muscle architecture through ultrasonography; functional capacity by the distance covered in a 6-min walk test and the endothelial function by flow-mediated dilatation technique of the brachial artery...
June 16, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617704/greater-oxidative-capacity-in-primary-myotubes-from-endurance-trained-women
#12
Timothy D Heden, Terence E Ryan, Patrick J Ferrara, Robert C Hickner, Patricia M Brophy, P Darrell Neufer, Joseph M McClung, Katsuhiko Funai
PURPOSE: Exercise training promotes skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and an increase in maximal oxygen consumption. Primary myotubes retain some metabolic properties observed in vivo but it is unknown whether this includes exercise-induced mitochondrial adaptations. The goal of this study was to test if primary myotubes from exercise-trained women have higher mitochondrial content and maximal oxygen consumption compared to untrained women. METHODS: Six trained and nine untrained Caucasian women participated in this study...
June 14, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607221/vastus-lateralis-and-rectus-femoris-echo-intensity-fail-to-reflect-knee-extensor-specific-tension-in-middle-school-boys
#13
Jacob Mota, Matt S Stock, Brennan Thompson
The potential dissociation between muscle strength and size has led to interest in the ability to assess muscle quality across the lifespan. We examined the association between echo intensity and specific tension in middle-school boys. Twenty-five boys participated in this study. Sixteen (mean ± SD age = 12 ± 1 years) engaged in a 16-week after-school strength and conditioning program. Nine boys (12 ± 1 years) served as controls. The program involved two, 90 minute sessions per week of lower-body speed, power, and resistance training...
June 13, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602957/mitochondrial-dynamics-signaling-is-shifted-toward-fusion-in-muscles-of-very-old-hip-fractured-patients-results-from-the-sarcopenia-in-hip-fracture-shift-exploratory-study
#14
Anna Picca, Riccardo Calvani, Maria Lorenzi, Amerigo Menghi, Marco Galli, Raffaele Vitiello, Francesco Randisi, Roberto Bernabei, Francesco Landi, Emanuele Marzetti
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial quality control (MQC) is crucial for maintaining mitochondrial fitness. We investigated MQC signaling in muscle of old hip-fractured patients. METHODS: Twenty-three patients, enrolled in the Sarcopenia in HIp FracTure (SHIFT) study, were categorized into old (OL; n=8) and very old groups (VOL; n=15) using 85years as the cut-off. The expression of a set of MQC signaling proteins was assayed in vastus lateralis muscle biopsies. RESULTS: The content of lysosome-associated membrane protein 2, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B, optic atrophy protein 1, fission protein 1 (Fis1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, and forkhead box O3 was unvaried between groups...
June 7, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596974/magnetic-resonance-imaging-appearance-of-the-hip-musculature-after-arthroscopic-labral-level-iliopsoas-tenotomies
#15
Brian E Walczak, Donna G Blankenbaker, Michael R Tuite, James S Keene
BACKGROUND: Iliopsoas (IP) muscle atrophy is a known consequence of open IP tenotomy, but the severity of IP muscle atrophy that occurs after arthroscopic labral-level IP tenotomies has not been documented. PURPOSE: To document the severity of muscle atrophy that occurs in the iliacus, psoas, and adjacent hip musculature after arthroscopic labral-level IP tenotomy. STUDY DESIGN: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients who had magnetic resonance arthrograms (MRAs) obtained prior to and 3 months to 5 years after arthroscopic labral-level IP tenotomies are the basis of this report...
May 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595237/a-comparison-of-muscle-activation-between-back-squats-and-belt-squats
#16
Thomas W Evans, Cherilyn N McLester, Jonathan H Howard, John R McLester, Jimmy P Calloway
A machine belt squat is a piece of equipment designed to allow the performance of squats while loading weight on the lifter's hips using a belt. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if belt squats differ from back squats in activation of the primary movers, and to determine the predictive capabilities of back squat load, training status, and anthropometric data on belt squat load. Thirty-one participants (16 males and 15 females) completed anthropometric measurements, a demographic questionnaire, a familiarization visit, and two testing visits, completing a 5 repetition maximum test for back squat and belt squat...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592858/inefficient-skeletal-muscle-oxidative-function-flanks-impaired-motor-neuron-recruitment-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-during-exercise
#17
F Lanfranconi, A Ferri, G Corna, R Bonazzi, C Lunetta, V Silani, N Riva, A Rigamonti, A Maggiani, C Ferrarese, L Tremolizzo
This study aimed to evaluate muscle oxidative function during exercise in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients (pALS) with non-invasive methods in order to assess if determinants of reduced exercise tolerance might match ALS clinical heterogeneity. 17 pALS, who were followed for 4 months, were compared with 13 healthy controls (CTRL). Exercise tolerance was assessed by an incremental exercise test on cycle ergometer measuring peak O2 uptake ([Formula: see text]O2peak), vastus lateralis oxidative function by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and breathing pattern ([Formula: see text]E peak)...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581678/ttn-genotype-is-associated-with-fascicle-length-and-marathon-running-performance
#18
Georgina K Stebbings, Alun G Williams, Adam J Herbert, Sarah J Lockey, Shane M Heffernan, Robert M Erskine, Christopher I Morse, Stephen H Day
Titin provides a molecular blueprint for muscle sarcomere assembly and sarcomere length can vary according to titin isoform expression. If variations in sarcomere length influence muscle fascicle length, this may provide an advantage for running performance. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate if the titin (TTN) rs10497520 polymorphism was associated with muscle fascicle length in recreationally active men (RA; n = 137) and marathon personal best time in male marathon runners (MR; n = 141). Fascicle length of the vastus lateralis was assessed in vivo using B-mode ultrasonography at 50% of muscle length in RA...
June 5, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579089/muscle-strength-and-force-development-in-high-and-low-functioning-elderly-men-influence-of-muscular-and-neural-factors
#19
Charlotte H Pion, Sébastien Barbat-Artigas, Félix St-Jean-Pelletier, Stéphanie Chevalier, Pierrette Gaudreau, Gilles Gouspillou, José A Morais, Marc Bélanger, Mylène Aubertin-Leheudre
BACKGROUND: Aging leads to a loss of muscle strength and functional capacity likely resulting from a combination of neural and muscle alterations. The aim of this study was to identify possible disparities in muscle strength and force development profiles in high- and low-functioning elderly men and to investigate muscular and neurophysiological factors that could explain the differences. METHODS: Sixty community-dwelling men in good general health were divided in two groups based on a functional capacity (FC) z-score derived from 6 tests of the Short Physical Performance Battery and Senior Fitness Test (Normal and fast 4m-walk tests, normal and fast Timed-up and go, chair and stair tests)...
June 1, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578881/increased-myogenic-and-protein-turnover-signaling-in-skeletal-muscle-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patients-with-sarcopenia
#20
Anita E M Kneppers, Ramon C J Langen, Harry R Gosker, Lex B Verdijk, Nanca Cebron Lipovec, Pieter A Leermakers, Marco C J M Kelders, Chiel C de Theije, Daniel Omersa, Mitja Lainscak, Annemie M W J Schols
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia was recently recognized as an independent condition by an International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification code, and is a frequently observed comorbidity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Muscle mass is primarily dictated by the balance between protein degradation and synthesis, but their relative contribution to sarcopenia is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess potential differential molecular regulation of protein degradation and synthesis, as well as myogenesis, in the skeletal muscle of COPD patients with and without sarcopenia...
May 31, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
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