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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164685/vastus-intermedius-versus-vastus-lateralis-fascicle-behaviors-during-maximal-concentric-and-eccentric-contractions
#1
Ryosuke Ando, Kazunori Nosaka, Aya Tomita, Kohei Watanabe, Anthony J Blazevich, Hiroshi Akima
Vastus intermedius (VI) plays a major role in knee extension, but its fascicle behaviors during dynamic contractions are not well understood. The present study aimed to compare VI and vastus lateralis (VL) fascicle behaviors during singular maximal concentric and eccentric contractions. Thirteen men (27.1 ± 3.4 y) performed maximal isokinetic concentric contractions through knee joint angles of 105° to 35° (0° = full extension) and eccentric contractions from 35° to 105° at an angular velocity of 30°/s...
November 22, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163193/changes-in-muscle-and-cerebral-deoxygenation-and-perfusion-during-repeated-sprints-in-hypoxia-to-exhaustion
#2
Sarah J Willis, Laurent Alvarez, Grégoire P Millet, Fabio Borrani
During supramaximal exercise, exacerbated at exhaustion and in hypoxia, the circulatory system is challenged to facilitate oxygen delivery to working tissues through cerebral autoregulation which influences fatigue development and muscle performance. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of different levels of normobaric hypoxia on the changes in peripheral and cerebral oxygenation and performance during repeated sprints to exhaustion. Eleven recreationally active participants (six men and five women; 26...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155999/high-incomplete-skeletal-muscle-fatty-acid-oxidation-explains-low-muscle-insulin-sensitivity-in-poorly-controlled-t2d
#3
Timothy P Gavin, Jacob M Ernst, Hyo-Bum Kwak, Sarah E Caudill, Melissa A Reed, Ron T Garner, Yaohui Nie, Jessica A Weiss, Walter J Pories, Moahad Dar, Chien-Te Lin, Monica J Hubal, P Darrell Neufer, Shihuan Kuang, G Lynis Dohm
Aim: We investigated if skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity was different between well (WCD) and poorly (PCD) controlled T2D and if the difference was associated with differences due to mitochondrial respiratory function. Methods: Vastus lateralis muscle mitochondrial respiration, mitochondrial content, mitochondrial enzyme activity, and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) were measured. Insulin sensitivity (SI) and the acute response to glucose (AIRg) were calculated by MINMOD analysis from glucose and insulin obtained during a modified, frequently sampled, intravenous glucose tolerance test...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153707/the-influence-of-muscle-activation-on-impact-dynamics-during-lateral-falls-on-the-hip
#4
Daniel R Martel, Iris C Levine, Steven P Pretty, Andrew C Laing
Muscle activation has been demonstrated to influence impact dynamics during scenarios including running, automotive impacts, and head impacts. This study investigated the effects of targeted muscle activation magnitude on impact dynamics during low energy falls on the hip with human volunteers. Fifteen university-aged participants (eight females, seven males) underwent 12 lateral pelvis release trials. Half of the trials were muscle-'relaxed'; in the remaining 'contracted' trials participants isometrically contracted their gluteus medius to 20-30% of maximal voluntary contraction before the drop was initiated onto a force plate...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151592/diet-resistant-obesity-is-characterized-by-a-distinct-plasma-proteomic-signature-and-impaired-muscle-fiber-metabolism
#5
A B Thrush, G Antoun, M Nikpay, D A Patten, C DeVlugt, J-F Mauger, B L Beauchamp, P Lau, R Reshke, É Doucet, P Imbeault, R Boushel, D Gibbings, J Hager, A Valsesia, R Slack, O Y Al-Dirbashi, R Dent, R McPherson, M-E Harper
BACKGROUND/OBJECT: Inter-individual variability in weight loss during obesity treatment is complex and poorly understood. Here we use whole body and tissue approaches to investigate fuel oxidation characteristics in skeletal muscle fibers, cells, and distinct circulating protein biomarkers before and after a high fat meal (HFM) challenge in those who lost the most (obese diet-sensitive; ODS), vs the least (obese diet-resistant; ODR) amount of weight in a highly controlled weight management program...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146686/specific-force-of-the-vastus-lateralis-in-adults-with-achondroplasia
#6
David Thomas Sims, Gladys L Onambele-Pearson, Adrian Burden, Carl Payton, Christopher I Morse
Achondroplasia is a clinical condition defined by shorter stature and disproportionate limb length. Force production in able-bodied individuals (controls) is proportional to muscle size, but given the disproportionate nature of Achondroplasia, normalising to anatomical cross sectional area (ACSA) is inappropriate. The aim of this study was to assess specific force of the vastus lateralis (VL) in 10 adults with Achondroplasia (22 ±3 yrs) and 18 gender matched controls (22 ±2 yrs). Isometric torque (iMVCτ) of the dominant knee extensors (KE) and in vivo measures of VL muscle architecture, volume, activation and patella tendon moment arm were used to calculate VL physiological CSA (PCSA), fascicle force and specific force in both groups...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144602/neuroplasticity-following-short-term-strength-training-occurs-at-supraspinal-level-and-is-specific-for-the-trained-task
#7
Louis-Solal Giboin, Benjamin Weiss, Felix Thomas, Markus Gruber
AIMS: Different modalities of strength training cause performance enhancements, which are specific for the trained task. However, the involved mechanisms are still largely unknown. It has been demonstrated that strength training could induce neuroplasticity, which might underlie the performance improvements during the first training sessions. Thus, we hypothesized to find task-specific neuroplasticity after a short-term strength training of two distinct strength tasks. METHODS: Young healthy male subjects were exposed to 4 sessions of either maximal isometric explosive (EXPL group, N = 9) or slow sustained (SUS group, N = 10) knee extensions...
November 16, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137564/muscle-atrophy-and-recovery-of-individual-thigh-muscles-as-measured-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-scan-during-treatment-with-cast-for-ankle-or-foot-fracture
#8
Koun Yamauchi, Akito Yoshiko, Shigetoshi Suzuki, Chisato Kato, Hiroshi Akima, Takayuki Kato, Koji Ishida
PURPOSE: We aimed to longitudinally investigate individual thigh muscle changes using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during treatment with cast of ankle or foot fracture. Moreover, we aimed to demonstrate whether measurements of muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) are sensitive to muscle changes, contributing to simpler methods in clinical application . METHODS: Ten patients undergoing treatment with cast of acute ankle or foot fractures were studied. Axial MRI (1...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132536/effects-of-acute-hyperinsulinemia-on-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-function-reactive-oxygen-species-production-and-metabolism-in-premenopausal-women
#9
Jonathan L Warren, Sule Bulur, Fernando Ovalle, Samuel T Windham, Barbara A Gower, Gordon Fisher
BACKGROUND: Acute metabolic demands that promote excessive and/or prolonged reactive oxygen species production may stimulate changes in mitochondrial oxidative capacity. PURPOSE: To assess changes in skeletal muscle H2O2 production, mitochondrial function, and expression of genes at the mRNA and protein levels regulating energy metabolism and mitochondrial dynamics following a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in a cohort of 11 healthy premenopausal women. METHODS: Skeletal muscle biopsies of the vastus lateralis were taken at baseline and immediately following the conclusion of a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp...
December 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130878/a-novel-technique-utilizing-a-vastus-lateralis-anchor-in-treatment-of-chronic-patellar-dislocation-after-total-knee-arthroplasty
#10
Allison Mayfield, Vamsi Singaraju, Afshin A Anoushiravani, Zain Sayeed, Jamal K Saleh, Khaled J Saleh
Extensor mechanism complications involving the patella frequently result in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) failure. Postoperative patellar dislocation may be caused by soft tissue imbalance, improper sizing, and position of the prosthesis. This report describes a case of revision TKA requiring several rounds of soft tissue releases in an effort to treat the patient's chronic patellar dislocation. In the process, a novel surgical approach was developed for the surgical management of refractory chronic patellar dislocations...
October 2017: Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129636/inflammation-mediated-muscle-metabolic-dysregulation-local-and-remote-to-the-site-of-major-abdominal-surgery
#11
Krishna K Varadhan, Dumitru Constantin-Teodosiu, Despina Constantin, Paul L Greenhaff, Dileep N Lobo
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Postoperative hyperglycaemia is common in patients having major surgery and is associated with adverse outcomes. This study aimed to determine whether bacteraemia contributed to postoperative systemic inflammation, and whether increases in the expression of muscle mRNAs and proteins reflecting increased muscle inflammation, atrophy and impaired carbohydrate oxidation were evident at the time of surgery, and both local and distant to the site of trauma, and could be associated with impaired glucoregulation...
November 2, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128629/influence-of-emotional-stimuli-on-lower-limb-cutaneous-reflexes-during-human-gait
#12
Martin Zaback, Brian C Horslen, Taylor W Cleworth, Laurel Collings, Cécile Langlet, J Timothy Inglis, Mark G Carpenter
Previous research has shown that cutaneous reflexes are modulated when walking with a threat to stability. It is unclear if this reflex modulation is purely related to the context of the imposed threat or if emotional changes associated with the threat exert an independent influence on reflex excitability. This study investigated the influence of emotional stimuli on lower limb cutaneous reflexes during treadmill walking. Twenty-eight healthy young adults walked at a self-selected pace while viewing pictures that manipulated emotional arousal and valence (confirmed with electrodermal and self-report measures)...
November 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119246/skeletal-muscle-and-performance-adaptations-to-high-intensity-training-in-elite-male-soccer-players-speed-endurance-runs-versus-small-sided-game-training
#13
Dan Fransson, Tobias Schmidt Nielsen, Karl Olsson, Tobias Christensson, Paul S Bradley, Ioannis G Fatouros, Peter Krustrup, Nikolai Baastrup Nordsborg, Magni Mohr
PURPOSE: To examine the skeletal muscle and performance responses across two different exercise training modalities which are highly applied in soccer training. METHODS: Using an RCT design, 39 well-trained male soccer players were randomized into either a speed endurance training (SET; n = 21) or a small-sided game group (SSG; n = 18). Over 4 weeks, thrice weekly, SET performed 6-10 × 30-s all-out runs with 3-min recovery, while SSG completed 2 × 7-9-min small-sided games with 2-min recovery...
November 8, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118698/an-acute-exposure-to-muscle-vibration-decreases-knee-extensors-force-production-and-modulates-associated-central-nervous-system-excitability
#14
Robin Souron, Thibault Besson, Chris J McNeil, Thomas Lapole, Guillaume Y Millet
Local vibration (LV) has been recently validated as an efficient training method to improve muscle strength. Understanding the acute effects may help elucidate the mechanism(s). This study aimed to investigate the effects of a single bout of prolonged LV on knee extensor force production and corticospinal responsiveness of vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles in healthy young and old adults. Across two visits, 23 adult subjects (20-75 years old) performed pre- and post-test measurements, separated by 30-min of either rest (control; CON) or LV...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114939/three-dimensional-endoscopy-for-endoscopic-salvage-nasopharyngectomy-preliminary-report-of-experience
#15
Jimmy Yu Wai Chan, William Ignace Wei
BACKGROUND: Prospective, observational study to assess the efficacy of salvage nasopharyngectomy for recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) via the endoscopic endonasal approach using a three-dimensional (3D) high-definition endoscopic system. METHODS: Between 2016 and 2017, 30 patients with recurrent NPC were recruited. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, and perioperative data were recorded. Instrument ergonomics and perceived advantages were assessed by the operating, assisting, and observing surgeons...
November 8, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108918/donor-site-morbidity-of-the-anterolateral-thigh-flap
#16
Hannes Weise, Andreas Naros, Gunnar Blumenstock, Michael Krimmel, Sebastian Hoefert, Susanne Kluba, Stefan Hofer, Siegmar Reinert
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to investigate donor site morbidity after reconstruction of defects in the head and neck region with an anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap. METHODS: From 07/2006 to 12/2015 the anterolateral thigh flap was used for reconstruction of large intra- or extraoral defects in 138 patients. The donor sites were available to examine for morbidity in 51 patients (36.7%). All patients completed a standardized questionnaire, received a physical examination, and underwent isokinetic muscle exercises of the lower extremity with a Dynamometer...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107958/activation-of-plantar-flexor-muscles-is-constrained-by-multiple-muscle-synergies-rather-than-joint-torques
#17
Takahito Suzuki, Ryuta Kinugasa, Senshi Fukashiro
Behavioral evidence has suggested that a small number of muscle synergies may be responsible for activating a variety of muscles. Nevertheless, such dimensionality reduction may also be explained using the perspective of alternative hypotheses, such as predictions based on linear combinations of joint torques multiplied by corresponding coefficients. To compare the explanatory capacity of these hypotheses for describing muscle activation, we enrolled 12 male volunteers who performed isometric plantar flexor contractions at 10-100% of maximum effort...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101912/effect-of-hip-joint-angle-on-concentric-knee-extension-torque
#18
Ryoichi Ema, Taku Wakahara, Yasuo Kawakami
This study tested the hypothesis that the effect of hip joint angle on concentric knee extension torque depends on knee joint angle during a single knee extension task. Twelve men performed concentric knee extensions in fully extended and 80° flexed hip positions with maximal effort. The angular velocities were set at 30° s(-1) and 180° s(-1). The peak torque and torques attained at 30°, 50°, 70° and 90° (anatomical position = 0°) of the knee joint were compared between the two hip positions...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101910/spatial-electromyography-distribution-pattern-of-the-vastus-lateralis-muscle-during-ramp-up-contractions-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients
#19
Yuichi Nishikawa, Kohei Watanabe, Tetsuya Takahashi, Naoya Orita, Hiroaki Kimura, Masayasu Matsumoto, Hirofumi Maruyama
Parkinson's disease (PD) related decreases in muscle strength may result from both central and peripheral factors. However, the effect of PD on the neuromuscular system, such as motor unit activation properties, remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to compare the spatial distribution pattern of electromyographic activity during sustained contractions in healthy subjects and PD patients. Twenty-five female PD patients and 25 healthy age-matched female control subjects performed ramp submaximal contractions during an isometric knee extension from 20% to 80% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101708/dose-response-effect-of-photobiomodulation-therapy-on-neuromuscular-economy-during-submaximal-running
#20
Rodolfo André Dellagrana, Mateus Rossato, Raphael Luiz Sakugawa, Caetano Decian Lazzari, Bruno Manfredini Baroni, Fernando Diefenthaeler
The purpose of this study was to verify the photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) effects with different doses on neuromuscular economy during submaximal running tests. Eighteen male recreational runners participate in a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial, which each participant was submitted to the same testing protocol in five conditions: control, placebo, and PBMT with doses of 15, 30, and 60 J per site (14 sites in each lower limb). The submaximal running was performed at 8 and 9 km h(-1) during 5 min for each velocity...
November 3, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
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