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fip cat

Angelica Stranieri, Alessia Giordano, Stefano Bo, Chiara Braghiroli, Saverio Paltrinieri
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the frequency of electrophoretic changes in serum of cats with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) changed in recent years vs past years. METHODS: Agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE) and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) from cats with FIP and healthy cats recorded in the periods 2004-2009 and 2013-2014 were retrospectively analysed. Relative and absolute values of each electrophoretic fraction were recorded and the number of cats showing single or combined electrophoretic changes consistent with FIP (hypoalbuminaemia, inverted albumin to globulin [A:G] ratio, increased total protein, total globulin, alpha (α)2-globulin and gamma (γ)-globulin concentration) were counted...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Delphine Diana Acar, Dominique A J Olyslaegers, Annelike Dedeurwaerder, Inge D M Roukaerts, Wendy Baetens, Sebastiaan Van Bockstael, Gaëtan M A De Gryse, Lowiese M B Desmarets, Hans J Nauwynck
One of the most characteristic pathological changes in cats that have succumbed to feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a multifocal granulomatous phlebitis. Although it is now well established that leukocyte extravasation elicits the inflammation typically associated with FIP lesions, relatively few studies have aimed at elucidating this key pathogenic event. The upregulation of adhesion molecules on the endothelium is a prerequisite for stable leukocyte-endothelial cell (EC) adhesion that necessarily precedes leukocyte diapedesis...
August 19, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Katarina Hazuchova, Susanne Held, Reto Neiger
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the measurement of acute phase proteins (APPs) as a diagnostic tool to differentiate between feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) and other diseases in cats with body cavity effusions. METHODS: Cats with pleural, abdominal or pericardial effusion were prospectively enrolled. Cats were classified as having or not having FIP based on immunohistochemistry (if available) or a sophisticated statistical method using machine learning methodology with concepts from game theory...
July 18, 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Tomoyoshi Doki, Tomomi Takano, Tsutomu Hohdatsu
Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal inflammatory disease caused by FIP virus infection. Feline tumor necrosis factor (fTNF)-alpha is closely involved in the aggravation of FIP pathology. We previously described the preparation of neutralizing mouse anti-fTNF-alpha monoclonal antibody (mAb 2-4) and clarified its role in the clinical condition of cats with FIP using in vitro systems. However, administration of mouse mAb 2-4 to cat may lead to a production of feline anti-mouse antibodies. In the present study, we prepared a mouse-feline chimeric mAb (chimeric mAb 2-4) by fusing the variable region of mouse mAb 2-4 to the constant region of feline antibody...
June 4, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
A S Hora, P O Tonietti, S A Taniwaki, K M Asano, P Maiorka, L J Richtzenhain, P E Brandão
Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) is highly virulent and responsible for the highly fatal disease feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), whereas feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) is widespread among the feline population and typically causes asymptomatic infections. Some candidates for genetic markers capable of differentiating these two pathotypes of a unique virus (feline coronavirus) have been proposed by several studies. In the present survey, in order to search for markers that can differentiate FECV and FIPV, several clones of the 3a-c, E, and M genes were sequenced from samples obtained from cats with or without FIP...
2016: BioMed Research International
Stefanie Gruendl, Kaspar Matiasek, Lara Matiasek, Andrea Fischer, Sandra Felten, Konrad Jurina, Katrin Hartmann
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether an ante-mortem diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is possible via immunocytochemical staining (ICC) of feline coronavirus antigen (FCoV) within macrophages of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). METHODS: Prospectively, CSF samples of 41 cats were investigated, including cats with histopathologically confirmed FIP and neurological signs (n = 10), cats with confirmed FIP without CNS involvement (n = 11), cats with neurological signs but another confirmed CNS disease (n = 17), and cats without neurological signs and a disease other than FIP (n = 3)...
April 19, 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Yunjeong Kim, Hongwei Liu, Anushka C Galasiti Kankanamalage, Sahani Weerasekara, Duy H Hua, William C Groutas, Kyeong-Ok Chang, Niels C Pedersen
Coronaviruses infect animals and humans causing a wide range of diseases. The diversity of coronaviruses in many mammalian species is contributed by relatively high mutation and recombination rates during replication. This dynamic nature of coronaviruses may facilitate cross-species transmission and shifts in tissue or cell tropism in a host, resulting in substantial change in virulence. Feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) causes inapparent or mild enteritis in cats, but a highly fatal disease, called feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), can arise through mutation of FECV to FIP virus (FIPV)...
March 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Niels C Pedersen, Hongwei Liu, Monica Durden, Leslie A Lyons
A previous study demonstrated the existence of a natural resistance to feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) among 36% of randomly bred laboratory cats. A genome wide association study (GWAS) on this population suggested that resistance was polygenic but failed to identify any strong specific associations. In order to enhance the power of GWAS or whole genome sequencing to identify strong genetic associations, a decision was made to positively select for resistance over three generations. The inbreeding experiment began with a genetically related parental (P) population consisting of three toms and four queens identified from among the survivors of the earlier study and belonging to a closely related subgroup (B)...
March 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Sandra Felten, Kaspar Matiasek, Stefanie Gruendl, Laura Sangl, Gerhard Wess, Katrin Hartmann
OBJECTIVES: Feline coronaviruses (FCoV) exist as two biotypes, feline enteric coronavirus and feline infectious peritonitis virus. Although feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a very common disease, the ante-mortem diagnosis of this disease still remains a challenge. Immunofluorescence staining of FCoV in macrophages in effusion has been considered as the reference standard for the diagnosis, but recently this method has been shown to have lower specificity than previously reported...
February 22, 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Tomoyoshi Doki, Tomomi Takano, Kohei Kawagoe, Akihiko Kito, Tsutomu Hohdatsu
Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) replication in macrophages/monocytes induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production, and that the TNF-alpha produced was involved in aggravating the pathology of FIP. We previously reported the preparation of a feline TNF-alpha (fTNF-alpha)-neutralizing mouse monoclonal antibody (anti-fTNF-alpha mAb). This anti-fTNF-alpha mAb 2-4 was confirmed to inhibit the following fTNF-alpha-induced conditions in vitro. In the present study, we investigated whether mAb 2-4 improved the FIP symptoms and survival rate of experimentally FIPV-inoculated SPF cats...
February 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Lowiese M B Desmarets, Ben L Vermeulen, Sebastiaan Theuns, Nádia Conceição-Neto, Mark Zeller, Inge D M Roukaerts, Delphine D Acar, Dominique A J Olyslaegers, Marc Van Ranst, Jelle Matthijnssens, Hans J Nauwynck
Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) results from mutations in the viral genome during a common feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) infection. Since many virological and immunological data on FECV infections are lacking, the present study investigated these missing links during experimental infection of three SPF cats with FECV strain UCD. Two cats showed mild clinical signs, faecal shedding of infectious virus from 4 dpi, a cell-associated viraemia at inconsistent time points from 5 dpi, a highly neutralising antibody response from 9 dpi, and no major abnormalities in leukocyte numbers...
2016: Scientific Reports
Stephanie J Doenges, Karin Weber, Roswitha Dorsch, Robert Fux, Katrin Hartmann
OBJECTIVES: Diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) remains challenging, especially in cats without effusions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detecting feline coronavirus (FCoV) RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and serum in comparison with the same real-time RT-PCR in cell-free body cavity effusion. METHODS: This prospective case-control study included 92 cats...
January 19, 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Friederike Riemer, Kirsten A Kuehner, Susanne Ritz, Carola Sauter-Louis, Katrin Hartmann
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to review signalment, clinical signs and laboratory features in a large number of naturally occurring cases of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), and to evaluate potential changes in diagnostic criteria for FIP and compare findings in cats with and without effusion. METHODS: The medical records of 231 cats with confirmed FIP that presented to the Clinic of Small Animal Medicine of the Ludwig-Maximilian University of Munich, Germany, were reviewed for signalment, history, and clinical and laboratory parameters...
April 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Dana M Lindemann, David Eshar, Loni L Schumacher, Kelli M Almes, Amy J Rankin
A 15-month-old spayed female ferret (Mustela putorius furo) presented for lethargy and weight loss of 2 weeks duration. Upon physical examination, a 2-mm-diameter focal area of opacity was noted in the left cornea. In addition, the ferret was quiet, in poor body condition, and dehydrated. A complete blood count and plasma biochemistry revealed a severe nonregenerative anemia, azotemia, hyperproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, and mild hyperphosphatemia and hyperchloremia. Urinalysis revealed hyposthenuria. Whole body radiographs showed multifocal thoracic nodular disease, splenomegaly, and renomegaly...
March 2016: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Alessia Giordano, Angelica Stranieri, Gabriele Rossi, Saverio Paltrinieri
BACKGROUND: The ΔWBC (the ratio between DIFF and BASO counts of the Sysmex XT-2000iV), hereafter defined as ΔTNC (total nucleated cells), is high in effusions due to feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), as cells are entrapped in fibrin clots formed in the BASO reagent. Similar clots form in the Rivalta's test, a method with high diagnostic accuracy for FIP. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy for FIP and the optimal cutoff of ΔTNC...
June 2015: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
F Tecles, M Caldín, A Tvarijonaviciute, D Escribano, S Martínez-Subiela, J J Cerón
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the possible presence of oxidative stress in cats naturally affected by feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) by investigating two antioxidant biomarkers in serum: paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). PON1 was measured by spectrophotometric assays using three different substrates: p-nitrophenyl acetate (pNA), phenyl acetate (PA) and 5-thiobutil butyrolactone (TBBL), in order to evaluate possible differences between them. The PA and TBBL assays for PON1 and the assay for TAC were validated, providing acceptable precision and linearity although PA and TAC assays showed limit of detection higher than the values found in some cats with FIP...
June 2015: Research in Veterinary Science
Stephanie J Doenges, Karin Weber, Roswitha Dorsch, Robert Fux, Andrea Fischer, Lara A Matiasek, Kaspar Matiasek, Katrin Hartmann
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) detecting feline coronavirus (FCoV) RNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of cats with and without neurological and/or ocular signs for the diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). METHODS: This prospective case-control study included 34 cats. Nineteen cats had a definitive histopathological diagnosis of FIP (seven of these with neurological and/or ocular signs), and 15 cats had other diseases but similar clinical signs (three of these with neurological and/or ocular signs)...
February 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Parvaneh Mehrbod, Mohammad Syamsul Reza Harun, Ahmad Naqib Shuid, Abdul Rahman Omar
Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a lethal systemic disease caused by FIP virus (FIPV). There are no effective vaccines or treatment available, and the virus virulence determinants and pathogenesis are not fully understood. Here, we describe the sequencing of RNA extracted from Crandell Rees Feline Kidney (CRFK) cells infected with FIPV using the Illumina next-generation sequencing approach. Bioinformatics analysis, based on Felis catus 2X annotated shotgun reference genome, using CLC bio Genome Workbench is used to map both control and infected cells...
2015: Methods in Molecular Biology
Tomomi Takano, Kenta Nakano, Tomoyoshi Doki, Tsutomu Hohdatsu
Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIP virus: FIPV), a feline coronavirus of the family Coronaviridae, causes a fatal disease called FIP in wild and domestic cat species. The genome of coronaviruses encodes a hydrophobic transmembrane protein, the envelope (E) protein. The E protein possesses ion channel activity. Viral proteins with ion channel activity are collectively termed "viroporins". Hexamethylene amiloride (HMA), a viroporin inhibitor, can inhibit the ion channel activity of the E protein and replication of several coronaviruses...
May 2015: Archives of Virology
B K Tekelioglu, E Berriatua, N Turan, C R Helps, M Kocak, H Yilmaz
The presence of antibodies to feline coronavirus (FCoV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), together with feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen was investigated in 169 ill household and stray cats attending a veterinary surgery in Istanbul in 2009-14. The estimated FCoV and FIV seroprevalence (95% confidence intervals) were 37% (30-45%) and 11% (6-16%), respectively and FeLV prevalence was 1% (0-3%). FCoV seroprevalence increased until 2 years of age, was highest in 2014 and among household cats living with other cats and with outdoor access, and was lower in FIV seropositive compared to seronegative cats...
April 1, 2015: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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