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Eric J Fish, Pedro Paulo Vp Diniz, Yen-Chen Juan, Frank Bossong, Ellen W Collisson, Yvonne Drechsler, Bernhard Kaltenboeck
Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of feline coronavirus (FCoV) viremia, and its replication in peripheral blood using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) methodology in a population of 205 healthy shelter cats in Southern California, as well as to assess any possible connection to longitudinal development of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Methods The study was performed on buffy-coat samples from EDTA-anticoagulated whole blood samples of 205 healthy shelter cats. From 50 of these cats, fecal samples were also examined...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Nikoo Safi, Amin Haghani, Shing Wei Ng, Gayathri Thevi Selvarajah, Farina Mustaffa-Kamal, Abdul Rahman Omar
BACKGROUND: There are two biotypes of feline coronavirus (FCoV): the self-limiting feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) and the feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), which causes feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a fatal disease associated with cats living in multi-cat environments. This study provides an insight on the various immune mediators detected in FCoV-positive cats which may be responsible for the development of FIP. RESULTS: In this study, using real-time PCR and multiplex bead-based immunoassay, the expression profiles of several immune mediators were examined in Crandell-Reese feline kidney (CRFK) cells infected with the feline coronavirus (FCoV) strain FIPV 79-1146 and in samples obtained from FCoV-positive cats...
April 7, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
Alfred M Legendre, Tanya Kuritz, Gina Galyon, Vivian M Baylor, Robert Eric Heidel
Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal disease with no clinically effective treatment. This field study evaluated treatment with Polyprenyl Immunostimulant (PI) in cats with the non-effusive form of FIP. Because immune suppression is a major component in the pathology of FIP, we hypothesized that treatment with an immune system stimulant would increase survival times of cats with dry FIP. Sixty cats, diagnosed with dry FIP by primary care and specialist veterinarians and meeting the acceptance criteria, were treated with PI without intentional selection of less severe cases...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Angelica Stranieri, Saverio Paltrinieri, Alessia Giordano
The delta total nucleated cells (ΔTNC) measurement with the Sysmex XT-2000iV (Sysmex Europe, Norderstedt, Germany) has high diagnostic accuracy on effusions in feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) cases, but the test can be performed only on fresh samples. We evaluated whether supernatants from effusions retain the ability to induce cell clumping and assessed the diagnostic accuracy of this modified ΔTNC method. Effusions were collected from FIP cats ( n = 19) and from cats with other diseases ( n = 15). ΔTNC was measured on fresh samples and on frozen-thawed supernatants after the addition of feline blood at 1:10 dilution...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Angelica Stranieri, Stefania Lauzi, Alessia Giordano, Saverio Paltrinieri
The Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is the etiological agent of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a lethal disease of felids. The role of molecular methods is controversial for the diagnosis of FIP, while essential for the identification of the shedders. Thus, a fast and inexpensive method for the detection of FCoV could be beneficial, especially in multicat environments. A reverse transcription loop mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed. RNA extraction and RT-nPCR for FCoV were performed on thirty-two samples (11 faeces, 9 blood, 8 effusions, and 4 lymph nodes) collected from 27 cats...
May 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
Angelica Stranieri, Alessia Giordano, Stefano Bo, Chiara Braghiroli, Saverio Paltrinieri
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the frequency of electrophoretic changes in serum of cats with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) changed in recent years vs past years. METHODS: Agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE) and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) from cats with FIP and healthy cats recorded in the periods 2004-2009 and 2013-2014 were retrospectively analysed. Relative and absolute values of each electrophoretic fraction were recorded and the number of cats showing single or combined electrophoretic changes consistent with FIP (hypoalbuminaemia, inverted albumin to globulin [A:G] ratio, increased total protein, total globulin, alpha (α)2-globulin and gamma (γ)-globulin concentration) were counted...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Delphine D Acar, Dominique A J Olyslaegers, Annelike Dedeurwaerder, Inge D M Roukaerts, Wendy Baetens, Sebastiaan Van Bockstael, Gaëtan M A De Gryse, Lowiese M B Desmarets, Hans J Nauwynck
One of the most characteristic pathological changes in cats that have succumbed to feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a multifocal granulomatous phlebitis. Although it is now well established that leukocyte extravasation elicits the inflammation typically associated with FIP lesions, relatively few studies have aimed at elucidating this key pathogenic event. The upregulation of adhesion molecules on the endothelium is a prerequisite for stable leukocyte-endothelial cell (EC) adhesion that necessarily precedes leukocyte diapedesis...
October 2016: Journal of General Virology
Katarina Hazuchova, Susanne Held, Reto Neiger
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the measurement of acute phase proteins (APPs) as a diagnostic tool to differentiate between feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) and other diseases in cats with body cavity effusions. METHODS: Cats with pleural, abdominal or pericardial effusion were prospectively enrolled. Cats were classified as having or not having FIP based on immunohistochemistry (if available) or a sophisticated statistical method using machine learning methodology with concepts from game theory...
July 18, 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Tomoyoshi Doki, Tomomi Takano, Tsutomu Hohdatsu
Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal inflammatory disease caused by FIP virus infection. Feline tumor necrosis factor (fTNF)-alpha is closely involved in the aggravation of FIP pathology. We previously described the preparation of neutralizing mouse anti-fTNF-alpha monoclonal antibody (mAb 2-4) and clarified its role in the clinical condition of cats with FIP using in vitro systems. However, administration of mouse mAb 2-4 to cat may lead to a production of feline anti-mouse antibodies. In the present study, we prepared a mouse-feline chimeric mAb (chimeric mAb 2-4) by fusing the variable region of mouse mAb 2-4 to the constant region of feline antibody...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
A S Hora, P O Tonietti, S A Taniwaki, K M Asano, P Maiorka, L J Richtzenhain, P E Brandão
Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) is highly virulent and responsible for the highly fatal disease feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), whereas feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) is widespread among the feline population and typically causes asymptomatic infections. Some candidates for genetic markers capable of differentiating these two pathotypes of a unique virus (feline coronavirus) have been proposed by several studies. In the present survey, in order to search for markers that can differentiate FECV and FIPV, several clones of the 3a-c, E, and M genes were sequenced from samples obtained from cats with or without FIP...
2016: BioMed Research International
Stefanie Gruendl, Kaspar Matiasek, Lara Matiasek, Andrea Fischer, Sandra Felten, Konrad Jurina, Katrin Hartmann
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether an ante-mortem diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is possible via immunocytochemical staining (ICC) of feline coronavirus antigen (FCoV) within macrophages of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). METHODS: Prospectively, CSF samples of 41 cats were investigated, including cats with histopathologically confirmed FIP and neurological signs (n = 10), cats with confirmed FIP without CNS involvement (n = 11), cats with neurological signs but another confirmed CNS disease (n = 17), and cats without neurological signs and a disease other than FIP (n = 3)...
April 19, 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Yunjeong Kim, Hongwei Liu, Anushka C Galasiti Kankanamalage, Sahani Weerasekara, Duy H Hua, William C Groutas, Kyeong-Ok Chang, Niels C Pedersen
Coronaviruses infect animals and humans causing a wide range of diseases. The diversity of coronaviruses in many mammalian species is contributed by relatively high mutation and recombination rates during replication. This dynamic nature of coronaviruses may facilitate cross-species transmission and shifts in tissue or cell tropism in a host, resulting in substantial change in virulence. Feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) causes inapparent or mild enteritis in cats, but a highly fatal disease, called feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), can arise through mutation of FECV to FIP virus (FIPV)...
March 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Niels C Pedersen, Hongwei Liu, Monica Durden, Leslie A Lyons
A previous study demonstrated the existence of a natural resistance to feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) among 36% of randomly bred laboratory cats. A genome wide association study (GWAS) on this population suggested that resistance was polygenic but failed to identify any strong specific associations. In order to enhance the power of GWAS or whole genome sequencing to identify strong genetic associations, a decision was made to positively select for resistance over three generations. The inbreeding experiment began with a genetically related parental (P) population consisting of three toms and four queens identified from among the survivors of the earlier study and belonging to a closely related subgroup (B)...
March 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Sandra Felten, Kaspar Matiasek, Stefanie Gruendl, Laura Sangl, Gerhard Wess, Katrin Hartmann
OBJECTIVES: Feline coronaviruses (FCoV) exist as two biotypes, feline enteric coronavirus and feline infectious peritonitis virus. Although feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a very common disease, the ante-mortem diagnosis of this disease still remains a challenge. Immunofluorescence staining of FCoV in macrophages in effusion has been considered as the reference standard for the diagnosis, but recently this method has been shown to have lower specificity than previously reported...
February 22, 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Tomoyoshi Doki, Tomomi Takano, Kohei Kawagoe, Akihiko Kito, Tsutomu Hohdatsu
Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) replication in macrophages/monocytes induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production, and that the TNF-alpha produced was involved in aggravating the pathology of FIP. We previously reported the preparation of a feline TNF-alpha (fTNF-alpha)-neutralizing mouse monoclonal antibody (anti-fTNF-alpha mAb). This anti-fTNF-alpha mAb 2-4 was confirmed to inhibit the following fTNF-alpha-induced conditions in vitro. In the present study, we investigated whether mAb 2-4 improved the FIP symptoms and survival rate of experimentally FIPV-inoculated SPF cats...
February 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Lowiese M B Desmarets, Ben L Vermeulen, Sebastiaan Theuns, Nádia Conceição-Neto, Mark Zeller, Inge D M Roukaerts, Delphine D Acar, Dominique A J Olyslaegers, Marc Van Ranst, Jelle Matthijnssens, Hans J Nauwynck
Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) results from mutations in the viral genome during a common feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) infection. Since many virological and immunological data on FECV infections are lacking, the present study investigated these missing links during experimental infection of three SPF cats with FECV strain UCD. Two cats showed mild clinical signs, faecal shedding of infectious virus from 4 dpi, a cell-associated viraemia at inconsistent time points from 5 dpi, a highly neutralising antibody response from 9 dpi, and no major abnormalities in leukocyte numbers...
January 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
Stephanie J Doenges, Karin Weber, Roswitha Dorsch, Robert Fux, Katrin Hartmann
OBJECTIVES: Diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) remains challenging, especially in cats without effusions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detecting feline coronavirus (FCoV) RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and serum in comparison with the same real-time RT-PCR in cell-free body cavity effusion. METHODS: This prospective case-control study included 92 cats...
January 19, 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Friederike Riemer, Kirsten A Kuehner, Susanne Ritz, Carola Sauter-Louis, Katrin Hartmann
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to review signalment, clinical signs and laboratory features in a large number of naturally occurring cases of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), and to evaluate potential changes in diagnostic criteria for FIP and compare findings in cats with and without effusion. METHODS: The medical records of 231 cats with confirmed FIP that presented to the Clinic of Small Animal Medicine of the Ludwig-Maximilian University of Munich, Germany, were reviewed for signalment, history, and clinical and laboratory parameters...
April 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Dana M Lindemann, David Eshar, Loni L Schumacher, Kelli M Almes, Amy J Rankin
A 15-month-old spayed female ferret (Mustela putorius furo) presented for lethargy and weight loss of 2 weeks duration. Upon physical examination, a 2-mm-diameter focal area of opacity was noted in the left cornea. In addition, the ferret was quiet, in poor body condition, and dehydrated. A complete blood count and plasma biochemistry revealed a severe nonregenerative anemia, azotemia, hyperproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, and mild hyperphosphatemia and hyperchloremia. Urinalysis revealed hyposthenuria. Whole body radiographs showed multifocal thoracic nodular disease, splenomegaly, and renomegaly...
March 2016: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Alessia Giordano, Angelica Stranieri, Gabriele Rossi, Saverio Paltrinieri
BACKGROUND: The ΔWBC (the ratio between DIFF and BASO counts of the Sysmex XT-2000iV), hereafter defined as ΔTNC (total nucleated cells), is high in effusions due to feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), as cells are entrapped in fibrin clots formed in the BASO reagent. Similar clots form in the Rivalta's test, a method with high diagnostic accuracy for FIP. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy for FIP and the optimal cutoff of ΔTNC...
June 2015: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
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